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  • 11
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; phospholipases ; Rhodotorula rubra ; virulence factor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Phospholipases are important pathogenicity determinants inCandida albicans. They play a significant role in damaging cell membranes and invading host cells. High phospholipase production is correlated with an increased ability of adherence and a higher mortality rate in animal models. By means of an egg yolk-containing agar and thePz (= phospholipase activity zone) value according to Price, the present study investigated phospholipase production in 170 strains ofC. albicans. At an incubation temperature of 37 °C,Pz values ranged from 0.395 to 1; no clear relationship was found between clinical origin of the isolates and severity of the disease. In addition toC. albicans, a total of 110 strains of 16 other yeast species were investigated for possible phospholipase production. Only yeasts of the speciesRhodotorula rubra showed phospholipase activity, with mean values exceeding those observed inC. albicans. This result was confirmed by an assay using sterile culture filtrates and phosphatidyl-[3H-methyl]-choline-dipalmitoyl as a substrate. SinceRh. rubra has only rarely been demonstrated as a pathogen in humans, we believe that factors such as reduced growth at 37 °C, absence of dimorphism and low ability of adherence lessen the importance of high phospholipase activity inRh.rubra as a pathogenicity determinant. Therefore, potential virulence factors should always be considered in the context of the whole spectrum of pathogenic determinants.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; cyclosporin ; cyclophosphamide ; FK506 (tacrolimus) ; immunosuppressive agents ; infection ; pathology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effects of the immunosuppressive agents FK506 (tacrolimus) and cyclosporin (CyA) on Candida albicans infection in mice were compared with those of cyclophosphamide. FK506 and CyA did not exacerbate C. albicans infection in mice when the effects were determined on the basis of survival ratio and colony forming units (CFU) in the kidney, although cyclophosphamide (CY) impaired the host defence mechanisms of mice against C. albicans infection. The effects of FK506 and CyA on the body weight of mice, histopathological changes of lymphoid tissues and formation of granulomas in kidney were also studied in comparison with those of CY.
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 104 (1988), S. 81-85 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; hepatic trapping ; monosaccharides ; adherence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The initial clearance of Candida albicans in situ by hepatic tissue was investigated using the isolated perfused mouse liver model in combination with various monosaccharides. When 106 yeasts were infused into untreated ICR mouse livers, approximately 61±2% (X + SEM) were recovered from the liver and 13±2% in the effluent for a total recovery of 74±2%. This suggests that 26±2% of the infused yeasts were eliminated within the liver and that a total of 87±1% were trapped (% in the liver + % killed) by the liver. In contrast, when either D-mannose or alpha-methyl-D-mannoside, but not glucose, sucrose, lactose or mannitol, were added to perfusion media (1% w/v) the ability of hepatic tissue to trap C. albicans decreased, in a dose-dependent manner, with increasing concentrations of monosaccharide. Decreased trapping was due to the interaction of these monosaccharides with hepatic tissue and not directly with yeasts. The data suggest that one component of in situ hepatic clearance of C. albicans was the binding of mannose containing structures on the surface of yeasts, most probably by hepatic mannose receptors.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; complement receptor ; immunoelectron microscopy ; vaginal infection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The expression of the Candida albicans complement-binding C3d protein (MP60) was investigated both in vitro and in vivo by immunogold labelling and electron microscopy. In vivo expression was determined in a rat vaginitis model. Reactivity of in vitro-grown cells to an anti-MP60 rabbit serum was associated with both cytoplasmic and cell wall sites. Immunostaining in the cell wall of both yeast and hyphae was most concentrated in the inner, electron-lucid layer. Immunogold stained preparations of C. albicans from vaginal smears of infected animals also showed intense localization of the MP60 in the inner cell wall, plasma membrane. However, immunogold label was also intense at the cell surface in these samples, mostly in the area of close adherence with the keratinocytes of the vaginal epithelia. These observations indicate that MP60 is expressed both in vitro and in vivo, but to a different degree in the different cell wall layers.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; histidine auxotrophic mutant ; petite mutant ; respiratory deficient mutant
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Respiration-deficient (petite) mutations have been induced in various yeasts, which are categorized as petite-positive. Candida albicans was classified among the petite-negative yeasts. Since then, a few reports have appeared, describing the isolation of petite mutants in C. albicans. We report in the present study on the isolation of a petite mutant of C. albicans-SAR1. This mutant was isolated from a histidine auxotroph of C. albicans after mutagenesis with N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, thus our petite mutant carries a double mutation. SAR1 was characterized morphologically, biochemically and ultrastructurally. The results revealed differences from the wild type in respect to morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. Electron microscopy showed that the cells of the petite mutant contain only very few mitochondria that looked ‘thread like’ without any cristae. The significance of the mutation in the virulence of the mutant vs. that of the wild-type is being assessed.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: l-glutamine ; fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase ; Candida albicans ; fungi ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Schizosaccharomyces pombe ; systemic mycoses chemotherapy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The 3' part of the glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase gene from Histoplasma capsulatum was PCR amplified using degenerate primers designed from the known glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase gene sequences, cloned and sequenced. The computer analysis of the 676 bp sequence revealed the presence of two introns. The identities of the deduced amino acid sequence to the corresponding Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans fragment are 65 and 63.8%, respectively.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: reactive oxygen species ; Sporothrix schenkii ; Candida albicans ; polymorphonuclear leukocytes ; chemiluminescence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effect of the supernatants obtained from the liquid culture medium ofSporothrix schenkii andCandida albicans on the generation of superoxide anion (O 2 − and hydroxyl radicals OH., the elements of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and chemilimunescence (CL), a measure of several ROS, by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was examined. In our study, it was shown that the supernatant ofS. schenkii increased all types of ROS generation examined and CL, while that ofC. albicans increased OH. generation and CL. The effect of the supernatants ofS. schenkii on OH. generation and CL and that ofC. albicans on CL were most remarkable when the supernatant obtained 8 weeks after the inoculation was used. The supernatant ofS. schenkii was shown to be a much more potent stimulant than the supernatant ofC. albicans. This ROS-stimulating effect of the supernatant ofS. schenkii was heat stable but not dialyzable. These findings suggest the possible role of ROS produced by infiltrated PMNs in the inflammatory skin lesions induced byS. schenkii.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; Ribosomal fractions ; Immunizations
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Sera of mice immunized with ribosomal fractions of Candida albicans showed the presence of anti-C. albicans antibodies, detected by the gel-immunodiffusion, agglutination and immune adherence tests. Candida infections are among the most prevalent opportunistic yeast infections, attacking debilitated individuals, and against which there is no effective prophylactic treatment currently available (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). In view of the succes reported in experimental immunizations with ribosomal fractions from various bacteria and some fungi, as summarized by Youmans and Tewari (7, 8), a similar approach for immunization in experimental candidiasis appears reasonable. The present work describes preliminary results on circulating antibodies elicited in the course of immunizations with ribosomal fractions of Candida albicans. Ribosomal preparations were obtained from mechanically disrupted cell-pellets of C. albicans by differential centrifugation and purification in a 15% sucrose and 5% ammonium sulfate solution (in sodium-magnesium-Tris buffer), using a modification of the procedure described by Rubin (6). Concentration of ribosomal-RNA was determined by the absorbance at 260 nm; ribosomal-protein concentration by the Lowry reaction; and purity of the ribosomal preparation checked by the ratio of absorbance at 260 nm to 280, and at 260 to 235 nm. Mice (ICR strain) were immunized with these ribosomal preparations in amounts of 50–100 μg ribosomalprotein/mouse, by 2–3 subcutaneous inoculations with Frend's adjuvant, with a 10–21 day interval between the inoculations.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; delayed-type hypersensitivity ; antibody responses
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Candida albicans E-139 produced pure mycelial and yeast cultures in a low sulphate medium at different temperatures. The influence of the morphological phase, dose and viability of the fungi on the kinetic of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and anti-mycelial and anti-yeast antibodies have been studied in mice injected intraperitoneally. The mycelial form elicited higher DTH levels than the yeast phase. This effect seems to be related to its antigenic properties. The effect of dose on the immune response depends on the viability of the fungus. The mycelial cytoplasmic antigens were more effective than the yeast ones in detecting antibodies induced during the experiments, particularly during the later stages of the observation periods, suggesting that such antigens may be useful in the serodiagnosis of Candida infections.
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  • 20
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 96 (1986), S. 109-113 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: siderophores ; Candida albicans
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Candida albicans secretes both hydroxamate and phenolate-type siderophores when grown under iron-restricted conditions. The inhibition of candidal growth by iron limitation was reversed by the addition of supplemental hydroxamate on phenolate siderophores. Both siderophores produced equal stimulation of growth suggesting that C. albicans could utilize both siderophores with equal efficiency. Addition of heterologous siderophores from both bacteria and fungi also supported growth of the yeast in a deferrated medium. These results suggest that C. albicans has an iron-uptake mechanism which enables it to obtain iron by utilizing candidal and non-candidal siderophores.
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