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  • 11
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Aneurysm surgery ; temporary clip ; outcome
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Although the use of a temporary clip in intracranial aneurym surgery has been proposed by several Neurosurgeons in the past, its use today is not generally accepted. Modern surgical techniques have contributed to safer exposure and direct attack on the aneurysm. However, aneurysm surgery continues to be a challenge to the Surgeon and occasionally demands the use of a temporary clip. Eighteen cases operated on with the use of a temporary clip have been analysed. The occlusion time of the feeding vessel and location of the temporary clip have been related to the outcome. There was no relationship between occlusion time of the feeding vessel and outcome in this material, whereas location of the temporary clip seemed to be of importance for the outcome in cases with aneurysms located in the middle cerebral artery.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Severe head injury ; brainstem auditory evoked response ; cold caloric response ; outcome
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) performed in 60 serious head injury patients, over the last two year period at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi have been analysed, to correlate the findings with ultimate outcome. All patients included in this study were unconscious, not following any command at the time of initial evaluation, mostly within 48 hours of injury. Repeat studies were performed in surviving patients. Computerized cranial tomography was performed to establish the nature of the intracranial pathology. The clinical status and cold caloric responses were recorded in all. The patients were followed up for 1 to 24 months. Three patients had extradural haematoma, 2 patients had subdural haematoma and 30 patients had intracerebral contusion/haematoma. Brain oedema was recorded in 14 cases. BAER was normal in 32 patients and 26 of them had good recovery (81%). Three patients with normal BAER died. Abnormal BAER was recorded in 21 patients and only 50% of them had good recovery and 25% of them died. In 7 patients BAER was absent and only 2 (29%) had a good recovery. Thus 48 out of 60 patients (66%) had a good recovery and 11 (18%) died. When compared to cold caloric response, 87% patients with normal caloric response had a good recovery and 5 out of 6 patients with absent caloric response died and remaining 1 left in a vegetative state. Thus the caloric response is at least as good a prognostic factor as BAER.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Small acoustic neuroma ; investigation ; outcome ; hearing preservation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The authors report their experience in the surgical management of small (less than 1.5 cm diameter) acoustic neuromas. Twenty-nine patients were treated. They had suffered symptoms of unilateral eighth nerve dysfunction on average for 37 months. High resolution CT with iv contrast was the primary investigation. In equivocal cases, air meatography was performed. All operations were performed by the senior author (LS). All tumours were totally removed, there were no deaths and all patients had an excellent result. There were 6 complications (CSF leak 3; meningitis 2; deep venous thrombosis 1). The facial nerve was preserved in 26 cases (and functioned adequately in all) and. the cochlear nerve in 62%. In 4 cases with hearing pre-operatively, the decibel loss was the same or less post operatively. In 8 cases speech discrimination remained above 35%.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Brainstem haemorrhage ; CT scan ; outcome
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Thirty-two patients with CT-documented primary brainstem haemorrhage were reviewed retrospectively to obtain a clearer overall clinical picture, especially of the severely disabled survivors. They were divided into 3 groups according to outcome: eleven cases (Group 1) died within 1 month following haemorrhage, 11 cases (Group 2) survived but became bedridden, necessitating full living support, and 10 cases (Group 3) showed minimal neurological deficits and resumed normal activities. Owing to CT and improved critical care, the survival rate was 66% for the whole series. Group 2 comprised 34% of all cases. These patients were mostly alert, quadruplegic, and communicated only with great difficulty. The most common initial symptoms and CT finding in each group were as follows;Group 1: unconsciousness, respiratory disturbance, negative light reflex, tachycardia, and haematoma 〉3.0 cm;Group 2: disturbance of consciousness, respiratory disturbance, positive light reflex, normal heart rate, and 2.0〉 haematoma 〈3.5 cm; andGroup 3: alertness or only slight disturbance of consciousness, normal respiration, positive light reflex, normal heart rate, haematoma 〈2.5 cm. Although there is an overlap among them, these findings will be useful to distinguish the three groups from each other. Patients with disturbance of consciousness, respiratory disturbance, positive light reflex, normal heart rate, and 2.0〉 haematoma 〈3.5 cm, have a chance to survive, but in severely disabled condition, if they were treated with vigorous intensive care in the acute stage.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Head injury ; outcome ; calcium antagonist ; nimodipine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We performed a randomised prospective double blind trial to study the effect of the calcium antagonist nimodipine on the outcome of head injured patients. The subjects were not obeying commands at the time of entry to the study, within 24 hours of injury. One hundred and seventy-five patients received nimodipine IV, 2 mg per hour for up to 7 days and 176 received placebo. The two groups were well matched for important prognostic features. Six months after injury 93 (53%) of the nimodipine group and 86 (49%) of the control group had a favourable outcome (moderate/good recovery). The relative increase in favourable outcomes (8%) was not significant but is compatible (95% C.I.) with an increase in favourable outcomes in treated patients by 33% or a decrease by 12%. Nimodipine was well tolerated and there were few adverse reactions; means of systolic and diastolic blood pressures and the intracranial pressure did not differ between the groups. It is unlikely that nimodipine has a marked effect on outcome (ie an increase in favourable outcome of 〉15%) after head injury of this severity but the study does not exclude a modest but clinically useful benefit.
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  • 16
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    Springer
    Acta neurochirurgica 112 (1991), S. 47-49 
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Optic nerve injury ; unconscious patients ; light emitting diode ; LED ; visual evoked potentials ; VEP ; outcome
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The value of Visual Evoked Potentials (VEP) in the management of indirect optic nerve injury was prospectively studied in 128 patients. In fifty patients who were either unconscious, uncooperative or had massive black eye, preventing the assessment of vision, a light Emitting Diode (LED) was used to record visual evoked potentials. The initial VEPs were normal in 17, abnormal in 49 and absent in 62. All 17 patients with normal VEP showed visual recovery. Amongst the 49 patients with abnormal VEP, 43 (88%) showed improvement. In 62 patients, initial VEPs showed no response but, in 12 subsequent VEP recordings wave formation was demonstrated. Thus in 50 patients repeated VEP recordings failed to demonstrate wave formation, and none of them improved. This study, thus brings out the high predictive value of both positive and negative VEPs, and specially the role of LED.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Cerebral aneurysm ; timing of surgery ; subarachnoid haemorrhage ; early surgery ; outcome
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In a consecutive series of 1150 patients with cerebral aneurysms diagnosed in our department by angiography or autopsy between the years 1977–1990, 1007 patients underwent definitive operative treatment of their aneurysms mainly by early surgery. More than half (55%) were operated on during the first three days after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), and more than three quarters (77%) during the first week. The surgical mortality at 30 days was 9%; at one-yearfollow-up 13% had died. The total management mortality was 22%. The 618 patients presenting in Hunt and Hess Grades I–II had a 4% mortality, and 90% had an independent life at follow-up; 270 Grade III patients hat a 19% mortality and 68% were independent. There were 99 patients operated on in Grades IV–V with a 46% mortality and 30% were independent. Age of the patient and size of the aneurysm were strongly related to outcome; however, many of the giant aneurysms were operated on as an emergency because of large intracerebral haematomas. Best results were obtained in the anterior communicating artery (ACA) area; the lowest rate of useful recoveries was in the vertebro-basilar artery (VBA) area (71%). Early surgery did not prevent delayed ischaemic deficits. During the first 72 hours patients in Grades I–III can be operated on safely with good results. The results in Grades IV–V are poor, and we suggest that only cases with large haematomas or considerable hydrocephalus or those improving should be operated on in the first days after SAH, with limited hopes of functional recovery.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Head injury ; penetrating wound ; craniocerebral injury ; shrapnel fragment ; outcome
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A follow-up study is presented of the initial neurosurgical treatment of 20 patients who sustained penetrating eraniocerebral injuries during “Operation Desert Storm”. Fifteen of these patients had received intracranial debridement through a craniectomy and five patients had received care of scalp wounds only. Following treatment and stabilisation in a frontline hospital, these patients were transferred to the Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital for further evaluation and management. On admission, all the patients received a computerised tomographic scan which revealed shrapnel fragments inside their brain. No attempt had been made to remove the metal fragments. A patient with an infected scalp wound was treated with a course of appropriate antibiotics and the wound dressed. Dexamethasone was not used. Anticonvulsants were used only in one patient who had been treated for a presumed cerebral abscess. The neurological status of the patients improved along with the reduction of oedema and the swelling of the brain as shown in the follow-up CT scans. No patient died or developed a seizure disorder. These results suggest that re-operation for removal of retained fragments is unnecessary. It is concluded that the initial treatment of shrapnel wounds of the brain should be to preserve maximal cerebral tissue and function either by limiting the wound debridement performed through a craniectomy or by care of scalp wounds only.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Chiari malformation ; surgery ; outcome ; motor evoked potentials
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We report a series of 26 patients affected by a Chiari I malformation treated at our department between 1987 and 1993. All patients underwent pre- and postoperative evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Sequential perioperative motor evoked potential (MEP) recordings were performed in 8 patients. The preoperative symptoms can be divided into four subgroups: cephalgias (84.6%), cranial nerve deficits (69.2%), motor deficits (76.9%), sensory deficits (73%). Twenty-five out of 26 patients underwent craniovertebral decompression, 1 a transoral anterior decompression. One patient died 2 months after surgery because of progressive pulmonary failure. We registered following postoperative complications: transient hypoglossal palsy (1 case), vertigo (2 cases), meningitis (1 case), minor CSF leaks (3 cases). Cephalgias subsided in 17 and improved in 4 out of 22 patients. Cranial nerve deficits improved in 8 and were stabilized in 7 out of 18 patients. A limited recovery of trigeminal function was possibly due to nuclear lesions. Five patients whose vestibular disturbances were not relieved by surgery were put on a course of carbazepine. Vertigo resolved in one case and in two others improved. While hypesthesia improved after decompression, the other sensory deficits were stabilized in 5% of the patients. Spasticity improved in 12 out of 18 patients, but weakness only in 7 out of 17 patients. Motor disturbances ewre always detected by MEP-recording. MEP-characteristics were not specific, resembling those of patients with other intra-, extramedullary myelopathies. Functional recovery was not matched by an improvement of the MEP parameters. MEP may be used as a tool for survellance of patients whose clinical findings are not progressive and are not at first surgical candidates.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Dissecting aneurysm ; posterior circulation ; surgical indication ; surgical procedure ; outcome
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We analysed the clinical presentation, treatment and outcome of our own 36 cases of posterior circulation dissecting aneurysms (DA) and discussed the surgical indications and procedures regarding posterior fossa DA. Twenty one cases were male, 15 cases were female. Their mean age was 54±14 years. Clinical manifestations were subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) in 14 cases (39%) and ischaemic attacks in 22 cases (61%). Three of 14 SAH cases had rebleeding in the acute stage. Angiographic findings were aneurysmal dilatation in 16 cases, retention of contrast medium in 12 cases, string sign in 9 cases, double lumen in 4 cases, pearl and string sign in 3 cases, and occlusion of parent artery in 2 cases. Surgical treatment was performed on nineteen cases (53%). The operation was carried out in the acute stage on the SAH group; in the subacute or chronic stage on the ischaemic group. The surgical procedure was the proximal ligation, trapping and removal of DA with or without revascularization of the parent artery. 84% of the surgically managed patients and 71% of the nonsurgical cases had a favourable outcome (good recovery or moderate disability). Poor prognosis was revealed from the rebleeding and primary neurological stage. We recommend surgical treatment in the acute stage on the SAH group. On the ischaemic group surgical treatment in the subacute or chronic stage is recommended, if the DA has the risk of rupture or progression of the dissection.
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