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  • 11
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: cell wall extract ; trichothecene ; mycotoxin ; host-parasite interaction ; Cucumis melo
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Addition of fruit cell wall extracts from two muskmelon cultivars into liquid media affected mycotoxin production by a strain of Myrothecium roridum pathogenic to muskmelon. Cell wall extracts from a susceptible cultivar (‘Iroquois’) significantly increased toxin production while cell wall extracts from a resistant cultivar (‘Hales Best’) significantly inhibited toxin production. Media containing 0.1 or 1.0 mg ml−1 stimulated toxin production more than media containing 10 or 100 mg ml−1 of cell wall extracts. Previous studies in our laboratory suggest that roridin E may be involved in virulence or pathogenicity of M. roridum; the present study indicates that cell wall polysaccharides as well as other materials present in cell wall preparations from susceptible host tissue provide a better substrate for toxin production than cell wall preparation from resistant host tissue.
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  • 12
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 108 (1989), S. 173-178 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; candidiasis ; clotrimazole ; fluconazole ; mycotic infection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen of human mucosal surfaces. Colonization of oral and vaginal mucosa by this yeast is antagonized by the resident normal bacterial population. However, antibacterial therapy can alter the normal flora to allow fungal cells to attach, grow and invade host tissues. We studied the antimicrobic activity of fluconazole against clinical isolates of oral and vaginal bacteria and Candida albicans in vitro and in vivo by scanning and transmission electron microscopy; we also compared the bactericidal activity of fluconazole with clotrimazole in vitro by microbiologie assay. Fluconazole lysed fungi but did not change the ultrastructure of bacteria. Clotrimazole, but not fluconazole, was bactericidal against lactobacillus and streptococcus, the principal species of the oral and vaginal cavities. We conclude that Candida albicans, but not oral and vaginal bacteria, is susceptible to fluconazole. These observations help explain the antimycotic specificity of fluconazole and its efficacy against candidiasis in humans.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Amanita phalloides ; death ; Lepiota fulvella ; mushroom ; poisoning
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In 1986–88, 46 poisonings (4 of which were fatal) caused by amatoxin mushroom were reported. The fatalities were males aged between 7 and 65 years. They all had gastrointestinal symptoms and three of the patients died of acute hepatic insufficiency. The fourth died as a result of an intestinal perforation. The clinical and pathological alterations are compared with the findings of other authors.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Paecilomyces lilacinus ; paecilotoxin ; distribution ; HPLC ; clinical isolates ; entomopathogenic ; nematode-killing fungi
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The production of paecilotoxin from various isolates of Paecilomyces lilacinus was studied using three different media and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Alkaline medium was found to be suitable for the production of the toxins. Among 20 strains tested, 19 including four clinical isolates were found to produce the toxins. Production patterns of paecilotoxins were very similar in each strain and the main toxins were A and B.
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  • 15
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 109 (1990), S. 27-31 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Nine cases of histologically diagnosed Chromoblastomycosis are reported from Malaysia. All the patients were males and ranged in age from 56 to 65 years. The duration of symptoms varied from 5 months to 13 years. All the lesions were noted in the lower limbs. Malignancy was suspected clinically in 5 cases. The diagnosis was established by finding characteristic brown muriform cells in the tissue sections.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Cryptococcus neoformańs ; suppressor cells ; thymus ; thymic index
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The presence of the microorganism, cortical hyperplasia and germinal centers was detected in the thymus of rats infected with 107 viable Cryptococcus neoformans cells and immunized at 7 days afterwards with 2.5 mg (0.1 ml) of human serum albumin (HSA) incorporated to complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) (Group 2). There was no modification of the glandular structure in the thymus of the animals only immunized with HSA-CFA (Group 1). The weight of the thymus of group 2, animals infected and immunized, was increased compared with the weight of the thymus of group 1 animals, this became evident by the increase of the thymic index (TI) (p 〈0.005). This rate was obtained calculating the thymus weight/total body weight ratio × 1000. Thymic cells (107 cells in 1 ml) obtained from both groups of animals were transferred to normal syngeneic rats of the same sex. The recipient rats were immunized with HSA-CFA 24 h later and 14 days after the transference, the response of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) was studied in them. It could be observed that the thymic cells coming from group 2 animals were capable of suppressing significatively the afferent pathway of the DTH response to HSA when compared with the response of the animals that received cells coming from group 1 rats (p〈0.0001).
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Yeast-like hyphomycete ; new species of Trichosporonoides ; microbial spoilage of sweetened drinks
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Trichosporonoides australiense sp. nov.: a basidiomycetous yeast-like fungus is described and illustrated with information on some physiological characteristics based on a single strain isolated from sweetened orange/mango in Australia. The differences between it and already described members of the genus are discussed. The new species may be distinguished principally by its inability to ferment sucrose and maltose. A dichotomous key to all described members of the genus is provided.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; dimorphism ; yeast-mycelium transition ; calcium ; calmodulin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A yeast-mycelium (Y-M) transition of Candida albicans (3153A) was induced by 1.5 mM CaCl2 · 2H2O in defined liquid medium, pH 7, at 25 °C. Germ tube formation was detected after approximately 8 h and peaks of maximum germination occurred at approximately 20 h in all experimental treatments. Non-toxic concentrations of the calmodulin inhibitor R24571 almost completely suppressed germ tube formation whereas trifluoperazine (TFP) and the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 were only about half as effective. Further Ca2+ addition failed to reverse the inhibitory effect of R24571 and induced only about 10% of the cells inhibited by TFP or A23187 to germinate.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Filter-sterile culture filtrates of isolates of Diaporthe phaseolorum var. caulivora, Diaporthe phaseolorum var. sojae (anamorph Phomopsis sojae), and Phomopsis longicolla, causal agents of stem canker, pod and stem blight, and seed decay, respectively, on soybeans (Glycine max), grown on Czapek-Dox broth inhibited germination of soybean seeds (significant at P=0.05). Wilting and necrosis of excised soybean seedlings was significantly greater than the controls when treated with culture filtrates of P. longicolla and P. sojae. Soybean seedling radicle growth inhibited significantly when culture filtrates of P. longicolla were added.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: B lymphocyte ; paracoccidioidomycosis ; polyclonal activation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is often associated with hypergammaglobulinemia and increased serum levels of circulating immune complexes (CIC). In order to investigate whether polyclonal B lymphocyte activation (PBA) is a current process in PCM, we measured the numbers of IgG secreting cells (IgG SC) in the peripheral blood of 16 patients and of 8 healthy controls. The numbers of IgG SC were found to be significantly elevated in PCM patients. We also observed increased serum levels of IgG, IgA and CIC. These data reflect an activation of B lymphocytes in PCM patients.
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