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  • 101
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Density-dependent expression of luminescence in Vibrio harveyl is regulated by the concentration of extracellular signal molecules (autoinducers) in the culture medium. One signal-response system is encoded by the luxL,M,N locus. The luxL and luxM genes are required for the production of an autoinducer (probably β-hydroxybutryl homoserine lactone), and the luxN gene is required for the response to that autoinducer. Analysis of the phenotypes of LuxL,M and N mutants indicated that an additional signal-response system also controls density sensing. We report here the identification, cloning and analysis of luxP and luxQ, which encode functions required for a second density-sensing system. Mutants with defects in luxP and luxQ are defective in response to a second autoinducer substance. LuxQ, like LuxN, is similar to members of the family of two-component, signal transduction proteins and contains both a histidine protein kinase and a response regulator domain. Analysis of signalling mutant phenotypes indicates that there are at least two separate signal-response pathways which converge to regulate expression of luminescence in V. harveyl.
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  • 102
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The mukB gene codes for a 177kDa protein, which might be a candidate for a force-generating enzyme in chromosome positioning in Escherichia coli. The mukB106 mutant produces normal-sized, anucleate cells and shows a temperature-sensitive colony formation. To Identify proteins interacting with the MukB protein, we isolated three multicopy suppressors (msmA, msmB, and msmC) to the temperature-sensitive colony formation of the mukB106 mutation. The msmA gene, which could not suppress the production of anucleate cells, was found to be identical to the dksA gene. The msmB and msmC genes suppressed the production of anucleate cells as well as the temperature-sensitive colony formation. However, none of them couid suppress both phenotypes in a mukB null mutation. DNA sequencing revealed that the msmB gene was identicai to the cspC gene and that the msmC gene had not been described before. A homology search revealed that the amino acid sequences of both MsmB and MsmC possessed high similarity to proteins containing the cold-shock domain, such as CspA of E. coliand the Y-box binding proteins of eukaryotes; this suggests that MsmB and MsmC might be DNA-binding proteins that recognize the CCAAT sequence. Hence, the msmB and msmC genes were renamed cspC and cspE, respectively. Possible mechanisms for suppression of the mukB106 mutation are discussed.
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  • 103
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: RNase protection experiments show that the sizes of the two R100 finP molecules are 74 and 135 nucleotides. In an RNase III mutant, finP transcripts form stable double-stranded hybrids of 108bp and 68 bp with traJ transcripts. RNase protection experiments also show that most R100-1 transcripts originating in traM cross the traM-traJ intergenic region and end inside the untranslated leader region of traJ. Some extend into the traJ open reading frame. These findings mean that the antisense finP RNA, thought to regulate traJ translation, must regulate traJ transcripts from both J and M proMolers.
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  • 104
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 13 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Eleven hitherto unknown Mycoplasma pneumoniae proteins were identified and characterized with respect to their size and subcellular location. This was carried out through the construction of in vitro gene fusions between a modified mouse dehydrofolate reductase (dhfr) gene and selected regions (cosmid clones) of the M. pneumoniae genome and expressing them in Escherichia coli. Positive clones were identified using antibodies against specific fractions of M. pneumoniae. The deduced protein sequences of 11 out of 30 clones did not show significant homologies to known proteins in protein databank searches. Monospecific antibodies against these 11 fusion proteins were used to determine the size and cellular location of the corresponding M. pneumoniae proteins by immunoscreening Western blots of SDS-acrylamide gels from M. pneumoniae cell extracts.
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  • 105
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A respiratory quinol oxidase complex that is encoded by the soxABCD operon has been purified from the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. The enzyme was solubilized with dodecyl maltoside and purified in the presence of this detergent and ethylene glycol. The complex is hydro-dynamically homogeneous and contains at least five different polypeptides. In addition to the major subunits SoxA, SoxB and SoxC, it has two small polypeptides. One of these is the translation product of a short open reading frame (now called the soxD gene) at the end of the operon. The optical and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of the SoxABCD compiex have been characterized. It probably contains four A-type haems which are bound to SoxB and SoxC. The structure of these haems is not identical to haem A. The novel haem Aa has a 2-hydroxyethyl geranylgeranyl in position 2 of the porphyrin ring whereas haem A has the related farnesyl-containing side-chain.
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  • 106
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The tyllBA region of the tylosin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces fradiae contains at least five open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 {tyll) encodes a cytochrome P450 and mutations in this gene affect macrolide ring hydroxylation. The product of 0RF2 (tylB) belongs to a widespread family of proteins whose functions are speculative, although tylB mutants are defective in the biosynthesis or addition of mycaminose during tylosin production. ORFs 3 and 4 (tylA1 and tylA2) encode δTDP-giucose synthase and δTDP-glucose dehydratase, respectively, enzymes responsible for the first two steps common to the biosynthesis of all three deoxyhexose sugars of tylosin via the common intermediate, δTDP-4-keto, 6-deoxygiucose. ORF5 encodes a thioesterase similar to one encoded in the erythromycin gene cluster of Saccharopolyspora erythraea.
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  • 107
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 13 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen which causes Q fever in humans and other animals. Most of the isolates found carry plasmids which share considerable homology. Unfortunately all of these plasmids remain cryptic. Initial attempts to look for secreted or membrane proteins encoded by these plasmids using TnphoA mutagenesis revealed an open reading frame on the EcoRI-fragment C of the plasmid QpH1. Upstream DNA sequencing of the TnphoA insertions revealed a deduced peptide sequence with homology to the SopA protein which is encoded by the F plasmid in Escherichia coli. Maxi-cell analysis showed that fragment C encoded two proteins: one was 43.5 kDa in size and designated QsopA, and a second was 38 kDa in size. These proteins are similar in molecular weight to the SopA and SopB proteins, which are essential components of the partition mechanism of the F plasmid. The region appears to be conserved in plasmids QpRS, QpDV, and QpDG, but is absent in a plasmidless isolate in which plasmid sequences have integrated into the chromosomal DNA. Complementation studies demonstrated that fragment C has a plasmid partitioning function and can restore maintenance stability of the partition-defective mini-F plasmid. These data suggest that fragment C carries the plasmid partition region of the plasmid QpH1.
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  • 108
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A 7.5 kb Kpnl-generated fragment, from within the rfb cluster of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 that encodes abequose synthase (the rfbJ gene) which is necessary for O4 antigen synthesis, and flanking sequences, was inserted into a suicide vector. Using allelic exchange techniques, these rfb sequences of S. typhimurium were integrated into the rfb clusters of wild-type Salmonella typhi Vi-positive strain ISP 1820 (i.e. serotype 09,12; Vi+ H-d), S. typhi Vi-negative strain H400 (i.e. serotype 09,12; Vi−; H-d), and a double aro mutant of S. typhi ISP 1820, strain CVD 906, resulting in the isolation of strains H325, H404 and CVD 906-O4, respectively. Immunoblot analysis of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) purified from H325, H404 and CVD 906-O4 demonstrated that these 8trains express the 04 antigen (an abequose residue) in place of the O9 antigen (a tyvelose residue) in the LPS molecule. Hence, the serotype of H325 is O4,12; Vi+; H-d and the serotype of H404 is O4,12; Vi−; H-d. DNA hybridization analysis of chromosomal DNA from H325, H404 and CVD 906-O4 confirmed that a precise recombination event within sequences flanking rfbSE of S. typhi (which encodes the enzymes necessary for cytidine diphosphate-tyvelose synthesis) resulted in replacement of rfbSE with rfbJ (which encodes abequose synthase and is necessary for O4 synthesis) of S. typhimurium in strains H325, H404 and CVD 906-O4. The resistance of each strain to the bactericidal effects of guinea-pig serum (GPC) was assessed. Whereas ISP 1820, H325 and H404 exhibit similar resistance patterns in GPC, strain H400 is sensitive to the bactericidal effects of GPC. The results suggest that the development of the O-antigen serotype diversity of Salmonella is probably the result of both sequence divergence and recombination
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  • 109
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 13 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The growth yield of microbial cultures can be used to estimate the efficiency of energy generation during a fermentation or respiration, in the past, the assessment of this efficiency in organisms carrying out a respiration has been the subject of many heated debates. This has partly been caused by the complexity of microbial respiratory chains. Strains of Escherichia coli specifically modified in their respiratory chain have been used recently to re-evaluate the energetic efficiency of the bacterial respiration using chemostat cultures. The different strains indeed show different growth efficiencies. The physiological significance of energetically less-efficient branches of the respiratory chain is discussed.
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  • 110
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Streptococcus pyogenes expresses a fibronectin-binding surface protein (Sfb protein) which mediates adherence to human epithelial cells. The nucleotide sequence of the sfb gene was determined and the primary sequence of the Sfb protein was analysed. The protein consists of 638 amino acids and comprises five structurally distinct domains. The protein starts with an N-terminal signal peptide followed by an aromatic domain. The central part of the protein is formed by four proline-rich repeats which are flanked by non-repetitive spacer sequences. A second repeat region, consisting of four repeats that are distinct from the proline repeats and have been shown to form the fibronectin-binding domain, is located in the Cterminal part of the protein. The protein ends with a typical cell wall and membrane anchor region. Comparative sequence analysis of the N-terminal aromatic domain revealed similarities with carbohydrate-binding sites of other proteins. The proline repeat region of the Sfb protein shares characteristic features with proline-rich repeats of functionally distinct surface proteins from pathogenic Gram-positive cocci. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed an even distribution of the fibronectin-binding domain of Sfb protein on the surface of streptococcal cells. Analyses of 38 sfb genes originating from different S. pyogenes isolates revealed primary sequence variability in regions coding for the N-termini of mature Sfb proteins, whereas sequences coding for the central and C-terminal repeats were highly conserved. The repeat sequences are postulated to act as target sites for intragenic recombination events that result in variable numbers of repeats within the different sfb genes. A model of the Sfb protein is presented.
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  • 111
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Expression of the cob operon is repressed by B12 via a post-transcriptional control mechanism which requires sequence elements within the leader region of the mRNA and the first gene of the operon, the cbiA gene. Here we show that B12 repression of cbiA gene expression occurs at the level of translation initiation through sequestration of the ribosomal binding site (rbs) in an RNA hairpin. Analysis of mutations that destabilize or restabilize the secondary structure demonstrates that folding of the hairpin is essential for repression. The existence of the hairpin was confirmed by a secondary structure analysis of RNA from the wild type and three mutants. Deletions that remove the upstream part of the leader confer a drastic reduction in translation efficiency. This low-level translation is caused by the hairpin, as indicated by the finding that suppressor mutations that destabilize the hairpin restore efficient translation. Thus, the native upstream RNA functions as a translation enhancer and acts to relieve the hairpin's inhibitory effect on translation initiation. The inhibitory effect of the hairpin was confirmed by a ribosomal toeprinting analysis. We propose that the translational control of the cbiA gene mediates repression of the entire cob operon.
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  • 112
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In Synechococcus species PCC7942, the production of a subset of proteins is induced when it is grown in a phosphate-limited medium. We previously suggested that a pair of cyanobacterial two-component regulatory proteins, SphS (sensory-kinase) and SphR (response-regulator), may be involved in this particular response to phosphate limitation. Here it was found that a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 33 kDa became particularly abundant when the total cellular proteins from cells grown in a phosphate-limited medium were analysed by SDS-PAGE. A deletion mutant lacking both the sphS and the sphR genes failed to produce this 33 kDa protein in response to phosphate limitation. Thus it was reasonable to assume that this protein is a member of the group of proteins involved in the Synechococcus phosphate regulatory circuit (hence, it was named SphX). The SphX protein was purified to near homogeneity, and the corresponding structural gene was cloned. The determined nucleotide sequence revealed that the sphX gene encodes a novel protein with a calculated molecular mass of 36 374 Da, which was demonstrated to be located in the cytoplasmic membrane. Structural features of the SphX promoter were then clarified by determining its transcription start site, from which transcription was triggered in response to phosphate limitation. Furthermore, the putative response-regulator, SphR, was demonstrated to bind to the upstream region of the SphX promoter by means of in vitro DNase I footprinting. From these results, we conclude that the sphX gene is a member of the Synechococcus phosphate regulatory circuit, in which the two signal-transduction components, SphS and SphR, are crucially involved as transcriptional regulators. The SphX protein may play a role in phosphate assimilation in Synechococcus.
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  • 113
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The region immediately downstream from the miaA tRNA modification gene at 94.8 min contains the hfq gene and the hflA region, which are important in the bacteriophage Qβ and lambda life cycles. The roles of these genes in bacteria remain largely unknown. We report here the characterization of two chromosomal hfq insertion mutations. An omega (ω) cassette insertion near the end of hfq resulted in phenotypes only slightly different from the parent, although transcript mapping demonstrated that the insertion was completely polar on hfq expression. In contrast, an equally polar omega cassette insertion near the beginning of hfq caused pronounced pleiotropic phenotypes, including decreased growth rates and yields, decreased negative supercoiling of piasmids in stationary phase, increased cell size, osmosensitivity, increased oxidation of carbon sources, increased sensitivity to ultraviolet light, and suppression of bgl activation by hns mutations, hfq::ω mutant phenotypes were distinct from those caused by omega insertions early in the miaA tRNA modification gene. On the other hand, both hfq insertions interfered with lambda phage plaque formation, probably by means of polarity at the hflA region. Together, these results show that hfq function plays a fundamental role in Escherichia coli physiology and that hfq and the hflA region are in the amiB-mutL-miaA-hfq-hflX superoperon.
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  • 114
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Rhizobium meliloti DctD is believed to have three functional domains: an N-terminal, two-component receiver domain; and like other σ54-dependent activators, C-terminal and central domains for DNA binding and transcription activation. We have characterized a progressive series of M-terminal deletions of R meliloti DctD. The N-terminal domain was not needed for binding the dctA upstream activation sequence. Only 25% of the C-terminal end of the receiver domain was needed to significantly inhibit the central domain, and proteins lacking up to 60% of the N-terminal end of the receiver domain were‘inducible’in R. meliloti cells. We hypothesize that the W-terminal two-thirds of the DctD receiver domain augments and controls an adjacent subdomain for inhibiting the central domain.
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  • 115
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: An extracellular particle approximately 40 nM in diameter was detected in culture supernatant from the fastidious bacterium Rochalimaea henselae. This particle has at least three associated proteins and contains 14kbp linear DNA segments that are heterogeneous in sequence. The 14kbp DNA was also present in R. henselae cells as an extrachromosomal element for all 14 strains tested. Despite attempts to induce lysis of R henselae, plaque formation was not observed. A similar particle, also containing 14 kbp DNA, was observed in Bartonella bacilliformis, and may be analogous to a bacteriophage that has been described elsewhere for B. bacilliformis.
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  • 116
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Antigenic variation of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae pilus occurs when a variant pilin sequence from a silent locus recombines into the expression locus by predominantly unidirectional, homologous recombination. At the 3’end of all pilin loci lies a conserved ONA sequence, called the Sma/Cla repeat, which has sequence similarity to several recombinase-binding sites, and therefore may be involved in pilin recombination. We have developed a novel reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for direct monitoring of pilin recombination, and both RT-PCR and phase variation were used to examine pilin recombination in a gonococcal strain that had had the pilE Sma/Cla repeat removed. Results from these experiments showed a decrease in pilin recombination when the Sma/Cla sequence was deleted from the expression locus, showing that a specialized site (Sma/Cla) is involved in efficient pilin recombination.
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  • 117
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Hydroxylamine (HA) mutagenesis of an HA-induced splicing-defective bacteriophage T4 td intron mutant with a mutation in the intron P3 RNA pairing region was used to generate pseudorevertants. Because HA can only cause GC to AT transitions, the original mutant (H104A) could not undergo true reversion, yet the compensatory mutation on the opposite side of the P3 helix, which was complementary to the original H104A mutation, could occur. A pseudorevertant was isolated that contained both the original H104A mutation and the compensatory mutation HS9. By phenotypic and molecular genetic criteria, this double mutant (H104A-HS9) was shown to be able to undergo significant RNA splicing, thus confirming the existence and functional importance of the long-range P3 pairing region in this phage intron. The second-site suppressor mutation (HS9) was isolated by phage cross and also exhibited some self-splicing ability. A correlation exists between the strength of P3 helix Watson-Crick base pairing and the apparent level of splicing when wild-type, H104A, HS9, and H104A-HS9 are compared. This suggests that the primary role of the P3 RNA pairing region in the T4 td intron is structural in contributing to the critical RNA secondary structure.
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  • 118
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Staphylococcus aureus has been shown to interact specifically with fibrinogen. Three different extracellular fibrinogen-binding proteins, two of which have coagulase activity, are produced by S. aureus strain Newman. The role of these fibrinogen-binding proteins during staphylococcal colonization and infection has not yet been fully elucidated. Here we describe the cloning, sequencing and expression of a gene for a 19kDa fibrinogen-binding protein. This gene, called fib, encodes a 165-amino-acid polypeptide, including a 29-amino-acid signal sequence. The recombinant protein, which has an estimated molecular mass of 15.9kDa, bound fibrinogen and was recognized by a polyclonal antiserum against the native Fib protein. Homologies between the Fib protein and the fibrinogen-binding domain of coagulase suggest that amino acids within this domain are involved in the binding to fibrinogen.
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  • 119
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 12 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Ribosomal DNA sequences in several species of the genus Entamoeba are highly repeated and display restriction fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP), which has been used to identify species and differentiate strains. However, the continuous variability of the non-transcribed repeat sequences in the ribosomal episome hinders an accurate typification. Looking for more reliable markers, we used DNA probes containing conserved sequences in the ribosomal episome — coding regions for the 16S and 5.8S rRNAs and transcribed spacers flanking the rDNA sequences, and the coding region for the 3 end of the 26S rRNA — to analyse hybridization patterns from five cloned pathogenic strains of Entamoeba histoiytica, two strains of the also pathogenic Entamoeba invadens and the non-pathogenic Laredo strain of Entamoeba moshkovskii. Our results provide reliable bases for the differentation of clones, strains and species of Entamoeba and the reconstruction of E. histolytica episomes. Differences in the number and length of rDNA-containing DNA fragments, previously observed by other investigators and confirmed by us, can be better defined by the present analysis.
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  • 120
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Lactoferrin-binding or -associated proteins were identified in Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum and Treponema denticola by affinity column chromatography using human lactoferrin and detergent-solubilized, radiolabelled spirochaetes. Two discrete polypeptides of T. pallidum with masses of 45 and 40kDa and a broad band from 29-34 kDa exhibited association with human apo- and partially ferrated lactoferrin. T. denticola produced two proteins that associated with a lactoferrin affinity matrix (50 and 35 kDa). T. pallidum and T. denticola did not associate with soluble, human transferrin in parallel experiments. Soluble human lactoferrin competed with all lactoferrin-associated proteins from T. pallidum and T. denticola in competitive-binding assays. However, the T. denticola proteins dissociated from a lacto-ferrin-affinity matrix in the presence of differing concentrations of unlabelled, soluble lactoferrin competitor. Treatment with phospholipase D altered migration of the diffuse 29-34 kDa band of T. pallidum suggesting that the polypeptide was lipid-modified. Each of the lactoferrin-binding proteins from T. pallidum and T. denticola reacted with pooled rabbit syphilitic antisera. The lactoferrin-binding proteins of T. pallidum reacted with human sera from patients at all stages of syphilis. In addition, a monoclonal antibody generated against the 45 kDa polypeptide of T. pallidum crossreacted with the 29–34 kDa protein.
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  • 121
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The LexA repressor controls the expression of several genes, including lexA, recA, and sfiA, which are induced when exponentially growing bacteria are exposed to DNA-damaging agents, Induction of this so-called SOS response takes place while LexA is cleaved in a reaction that requires the RecA protein and damaged DNA. We have shown that large fluctuations in the cellular concentration of the LexA repressor and in the rate of transcription of the sfiA gene also occur spontaneously during bacterial growth in complex medium such as LB. The possibility that changes in external or internal pH may explain these fluctuations has been explored. A consistent pattern was established whereby conditions leading to either increased or decreased pH were associated with altered expression of the LexA and SfiA genes. These data can be explained by a model in which the LexA repressor exists in either of two forms in equilibrium: a form favoured at homeostatic internal pH, which has a low affinity for the operators of LexA-controlled genes; and a form accumulated in response to a transient decrease in internal pH, which has a high affinity for operators.
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  • 122
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 12 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Transcription of the dam gene in Escherichia coli is growth rate regulated by a mechanism distinct from that used for ribosomal RNA gene promoters. Single-copy operon fusions to lacZ indicated that the major promoter, P2, is responsible for most or all of the growth rate dependence. Promoter P2 is a typical σ70 promoter with 18bp spacing between the -10 and -35 hexamers. Primer extension analysis was used to show that there was no inhibition of transcription from promoter P2 in cells induced for the stringent response. Beta-galactosidase specific activity from a single-copy dam::lacZ fusion was unaffected by either excess rrnB RNA or the level of Fis protein. Thus growth rate control of dam gene expression differs from that of the rRNA and tRNA genes by its lack of response to stringent control, ribosomal feedback and enhanced transcription by Fis protein. We devised a procedure for selection of mutant cells in which dam gene expression was unregulated. One such mutant (cde-4), obtained by miniTn 10 insertion, showed the same level of β-galactosidase activity at all growth rates tested, in contrast, growth rate-dependent expression of the rrnB gene was unaffected by cde-4 confirming the different modes of regulation. The cde-4::mint Tn 10 insertion is located close to kilobase 670 on the physical map in or near the lipB gene.
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  • 123
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The gene coding for the major carboxysome shell peptide (csoS1) from Thiobacillus neapolitanus has been isolated and sequenced. Oligonucleotide primers for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the 5’end of the gene were made possible by amino acid sequencing of the N-terminal residues of the shell peptide. A 41 bp PCR product was used as a probe to isolate the gene. The deduced amino acid composition of the 216 bp gene shows a high degree of hydrophobicity. The gene is located within a series of three repeated regions of DNA and appears to have arisen via gene duplication. The transcript of csoS1 is approximately 400 bases in length. The shell peptide shares significant homology with Synechococcus open reading frames implicated in carboxysome structure/assembly. These open reading frames and csoS1 are related and are probably members of a carboxysome gene family.
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  • 124
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A gene, cluA, was cloned from the chromosomally located sex factor of Lactococcus lactis MG1363. Sequence analysis revealed significant homology with previously described aggregation proteins in Enterococcus and Streptococcus species. The possibility that cluA was an equivalent protein involved in cell aggregation between donor and recipient bacteria during lactococcal conjugation was confirmed by its expression under the control of a heterologous promoter in L. lactis. Analysis of the homology between the CluA protein and the related proteins of Enterococcus and Streptococcus allowed a common structure for these proteins to be postulated. This consisted of five domains. Functionally conserved domains I and V act respectively as a secretary leader and C-terminal membrane anchor. Domains II and IV are conserved at the amino acid level and probably have common structural roles whereas domain III is variable and may control binding specificity.
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  • 125
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: micF RNA post-transcriptionally regulates Escherichia coli outer membrane protein F (OmpF), in response to temperature increase and other environmental stress conditions, by binding to ompF mRNA and destabilizing the message. Southern analyses show that the micF gene is present in related Gram-negative bacteria, including Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, Northern analyses Indicate that micF RNA and ompF mRNA levels are thermally regulated in several related species in a manner similar to the thermoregulation in Escherichia coli DNA sequences from Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhimurium, and Klebsiella pneumoniae show greater than 96% homology in the micF gene when compared to the Escherichia coli micF sequence. Upstream of micF, sequences show considerable variation, although several distinct regions are highly conserved. Some of these conserved regions correspond to known binding sites for the transcription factor OmpR and the DNA-binding protein integration host factor. In addition, E. coli micF RNA incubated with protein extracts from other species forms hetero-logous ribonucleoproteins (RNPs). The formation of these heterologous RNPs indicates both the presence of micF RNA-binding protein homologues in other species and a conservation of RNA-protein recognition sites. This work demonstrates that the micF RNA regulatory system is present in other Gram-negative bacterial species and that this system appears to be phylogenetically conserved.
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  • 126
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A method called Muprinting has been developed that uses PCR to generate a detailed picture of the bacteriophage Mu transposition sites in chosen domains of the bacterial chromosome. Muprinting experiments In Escherichia coli show that the frequency of phage integration changes dramatically near two repressor binding sites in the lac operon. When the lac operon was repressed, hotspots for Mu transposition were found near the O1 and O2 operators that are proposed to make a repression loop. When cells were grown in lactose, Mu transposition near these operators was greatly diminished. Striking changes In transposition frequencies were limited to the control region and were not found in a region of the lacZ gene lying beyond the O2 operator. Muprints of the bgl operon showed a different pattern; hotspots for Mu transposition detected in sequences upstream of the bglC promoter when the operon was silenced changed when the operon became activated by mutation. By targeting transposition to the regulatory regions around non-expressed genes, Mu may demonstrate a self-restraint mechanism that allows the virus to move through its host genome without disrupting the functions that contribute to a healthy cell physiology.
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  • 127
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    Molecular microbiology 12 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: DNA-binding proteins can be converted into site-specific nucleases by linking them to the chemical nuclease 1,10-phenanthroline-copper. This can be readily accomplished by converting a minor groove-proximal amino acid to a cysteine residue using site-directed mutagenesis and then chemically modifying the sulphydryl group with 5-iodoacetamido-1,10- phenanthroline-copper. These chimeric scission reagents can be used as rare cutters to analyse chromosomal DNA, to test predictions based on high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray crystal structures, and to locate binding sites of proteins within genomes.
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  • 128
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Evident differentiation of vegetative cells into hetero-cysts in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is prevented by Insertions in genes hetR and hetP. Nostoc ellipsosporum possesses single copies of genes that hybridize with hetR and hetP. In mutant NE2 of N. ellipsosporum, in which hetR is interrupted by an insert, and in a double recombinant of wild-type N. ellipsosporum with a plasmid that bears an interrupted copy of hetR, neither heterocysts nor akinetes are formed. When an intact copy of hetR from Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 was added to NE2 the ability to form both heterocysts and akinetes was restored, in contrast to the hetR mutant, a hetP mutant of N. ellipsosporum could form akinetes, but heterocyst formation was blocked. Use of luxAB, encoding luciferase, as a reporter, and use of luxC, luxD and luxE to generate aldehyde (a substrate for the luciferase reaction), permitted visualization of the expression of hetR at the level of single cells; hetR was expressed in akinetes.
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  • 129
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 12 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Molecular analysis reveals a surprising sharing of short gene segments among a variety of large double-stranded DNA bacteriophages of enteric bacteria. Ancestral genomes from otherwise unrelated phages, including λ Mu, P1, P2 and T4, must have exchanged parts of their tail-fibre genes, Individual genes appear as mosaics with parts derived from a common gene pool. Therefore, horizontal gene transfer emerges as a major factor in the evolution of a specific part of phage genomes. Current concepts of homologous recombination cannot account for the formation of such chimeric genes and the recombinational mechanisms responsible are not known. However, recombination sites for DNA invertases and recombination site-like sequences are present at the boundaries of gene segments conferring the specificity for the host receptor. This, together with the properties of the DNA inversion mechanism, suggests that these site-specific recombination enzymes could be responsible for the exchange of host-range determinants.
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  • 130
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Mammalian alkaline phosphatases are 20-30-fold more active than the corresponding bacterial enzymes even though their amino acid sequences are 25–30% absolutely conserved. In the active-site region there are two noticeable differences between the sequences of the bacterial and mammalian enzymes, in the Escherichia coli enzyme positions 153 and 328 are Asp and Lys, respectively, but in the mammalian enzymes His is observed at both of these positions. Site-specific mutagenesis, genetic and X-ray crystallographic data, which will be summarized here, suggest that the His substitutions at positions 153 and 328 are primarily responsible for the differences in properties between the bacterial and mammalian alkaline phosphatases.
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  • 131
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 12 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Protein splicing involves the removal of an internal protein sequence from a precursor molecule and the ligation of the two flanking sequences to produce a mature protein product, in a post-translational event analogous to the removal of an intron from rRNA. Protein splicing introns, or‘inteins’appear to be a novel type of genetic element capable of mediating gene conversion of an‘intein-less’allele, and hence promoting their own dissemination. The mechanism by which protein splicing is achieved is probably entirety encoded within the internal protein sequence, or intein, and does not require other accessory molecules. Although the concept of protein splicing inteins as selfish genetic elements of no immediate consequence to the host organism has emerged, this interpretation is questioned by recent evidence that in at least one example there appears to have been selection for protein splicing.
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  • 132
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 12 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A number of lines of evidence suggest that the N-terminal sub-domain of the DNA gyrase B protein contains the binding site for the coumarin antibiotics. We have engineered a clone which encodes a 24 kDa protein which represents this domain. Bacteria which overproduce this protein show an elevated level of resistance to coumarins, suggestive of binding of the 24 kDa protein to the drugs In vivo. In vitro we find that the 24 kDa protein does not interact with the gyrase A or B proteins or with DNA, and fails to hydrolyse ATP or show significant binding to ATP, ADP or ADPNP. However, we show that the 24 kDa protein binds coumarin drugs as tightly as the Intact B protein. A number of experiments suggest that the Interaction of the coumarins with the protein is predominantly hydrophobic in nature.
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  • 133
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Changes in expression of ribosomal protein genes during growth and stationary phase of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) in liquid medium were studied. Proteins being synthesized were pulse-labelled with [35 S]-methionine, separated by two-dimensional poly-acrylamide gel electrophoresis, and quantified using the Bioimage computer software. Most of the ribosomal proteins were synthesized throughout the life cycle. Exceptions were two proteins whose synthesis drastically decreased at the approach of stationary phase. These two proteins were identified in purified ribosomes as homologues of Escherichia coli ribosomal proteins L10 and L7/L12, using antibodies raised against fusion proteins between these ribosomal proteins and Escherichia coliβ-galactosldase. The genes (rplJ and rplL) encoding the L10 and L7/L12 proteins were contained in a 1.2 kb BamHl fragment that was cloned and sequenced. The linkage and order of the genes coincide with other L10-L7/L12 operons. However, L11 and L1 genes were not present immediately upstream of the L10 gene, as is the case for E. coli and other bacteria. Instead, two open reading frames of unknown function were found immediately upstream of the L10 gene, in an adjacent 1.9 kb BamHl fragment.
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  • 134
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Many strains of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) isolated from patients with diarrhoeal disease exhibit CS1 pili on their surfaces. These appendages, which are thought to be important for colonization of the upper intestine, are composed largely of multiple Identical protein subunits encoded by cooA. We have sequenced the DNA directly downstream of cooA and identified two open reading frames, cooC and cooD, transcribed in the same direction as cooB and cooA. Following cooD Is DNA homologous to an insertion sequence, so cooB, A, C and D appear to encode all the information needed for E. coli K-12 to synthesize CS1 pili. Complementation analysis of mutants cloned in E. coli K-12 and constructed in an ETEC-derived strain indicates that cooC and cooD are not required for stability of the major CS1 pilin protein or for its transport to the periplasm, but, like cooB, both are needed for assembly of cooA into pili.
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  • 135
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) causes an acute cholera-like diarrhoea in both humans and animals. We describe a new pilus termed longus produced by ETEC, which can extend for over 20 microns from the cell surface. Longus is composed of a repeating subunit of 22 kDa and its NH2-terminal amino acid sequence revealed homology with the toxin-coregulated pilus of Vibrio cholerae, the bundle-forming pilus of enteropathogenic E. coli and type IV pilins of some Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. The longus structural gene (IgA) is encoded in a large plasmid and was cloned in a 5 kb fragment, which proved to be sufficient for pilus production and assembly in E. coli K-12. The presence of IngA was restricted to human ETEC strains. In contrast to other ETEC pili, IngA was widely distributed among ETEC strains independent of their geographical origin, serotype, toxin production, or other pili antigens expressed. Longus is a new member of the type IV pili family, which may represent a highly conserved intestinal colonization factor of ETEC. Common antigenic determinants exist among longus and their pilin subunits, produced by heterologous ETEC. Longus could be significant in the immuno-prophylaxis of diarrhoeal disease caused by ETEC, especially against those strains in which no colonization factors have been identified and that produce heat-stable toxin only.
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  • 136
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Using a set of gene fusions generated with TnphoA, we previously identified the phmA locus, whose expression is modulated as a function of external pH (pHo). The phmA::phoA fusion was cloned and sequenced and the phmA locus was identified with the nmpC gene. This gene lies within the defective lambdoid prophage qsr′ and NmpC is an outer membrane protein which functions as a porin. We demonstrated that nmpC is sensitive to catabotite repression and dependent on the CRP—cAMP complex. However, cAMP is not a signal for the pHo-dependent expression of nmpC. By generating step deletions in the sequence 5′ to the nmpC coding region, we identified a DNA region in position —345 to —127 which is involved in nmpC repression, mainly during growth at acid pHo. Four regions with strong homologies and a very well-conserved organization of the functional sequence were found in the nmpC and ompF promoters. We propose that the negative regulation of nmpC during growth at low pHo might involve DNA looping of the nmpC promoter.
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  • 137
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Transcript mapping and studies with lacZ translational fusions have shown that the pdhR gene (formerly genA) is the proximal gene of the pdhR–aceE–aceF–Ipd operon encoding the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex of Escherichia coli. A pdhR–lpd read-through transcript (7.4 kb) initiating at the pyruvate-inducible pdh promoter, and a smaller lpd transcript (1.7 kb) initiating at the independent lpd promoter, were identified. Evidence showing that the pdhR gene product negatively regulates the synthesis of the PdhR protein and the PDH complex via the pdh promoter was obtained, with pyruvate (or a derivative) serving as the putative inducing coeffector. The partially purified PdhR protein was also found to specifically retard and protect DNA fragments containing the pdh promoter region. The pdh promoter was not strongly controlled by ArcA, FNR or CRP.
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  • 138
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 12 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We constructed an in vitro replication system specific for a Bacillus subtilis oriC plasmid using a soluble fraction derived from cell extracts of B. subtilis. DNA polymerase III and two initiation proteins, DnaA and DnaB, were required for in vitro replication as observed in vivo. Both upstream and downstream DnaA box regions of the dnaA gene were required as cis-elements for in vitro synthesis of the B. subtilis oriC plasmid as well as for in vivo activity. The replication was semi-conservative and only one round of replication occurred within 15min. These results indicate that in vitro replication faithfully reproduced in vivo replication. To elucidate the site of initiation and the direction of replication, we analysed replicative intermediates generated in vitro in the presence of various concentrations of ddGTP by two methods. First, analysis of restriction fragments around the dnaA gene showed a high level of incorporation of the radioactive substrate, indicating that replication began within the vicinity of the dnaA gene. Second, using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, bubble arcs were detected only on fragments containing the DnaA box region downstream of the dnaA gene, indicating that the initiation site resided within this region. The distribution of the bubble arcs suggested that both bidirectional and unidirectional replication occurred in vitro.
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  • 139
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: IS 117 is a 2527 bp transposable element from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) with a circular transposition intermediate. Disruption of 0RF1 of IS 117, presumed to encode a transposase, abolished transposition. Deletion or mutation of 0RF2 and 0RF3, which overlap each other on opposite strands of IS 117, caused a c. 20-fold reduction in integration frequency of the circular form of IS 117 into the Streptomyces lividans chromosome or into the preferred chromosomal target site cloned on a plasmid in transformation experiments. In contrast, inactivation of ORF2/3 did not significantly influence transposition of IS 117 derivatives from an already integrated state in the chromosome to the preferred target site cloned on a plasmid. 0RF2 mutants apparently excised readily from the S. lividans chromosome, whereas excision of integrated wild-type IS 117 derivatives to yield the unoccupied site was not detected; presumably, therefore, the circular transposition intermediate normally arises replicatively. Attempts to promote integration of a plasmid carrying the attachment site of IS 117 by providing the ORF1 product in trans were unsuccessful. Most transformation of S. lividans with circular IS 117 derivatives yielded tandem chromosomal insertions, which arose by co-transformation rather than dimerization of a monomeric insert. Typically, two to three transforming elements gave a transformed strain, suggesting a local concentration of transposase as a limit on integration.
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  • 140
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 11 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Recent footprinting, sedimentation and neutron-scattering results obtained In vivo or on pre-translocation and post-translocation ribosomal complexes are integrated with cross-linking and immunoelectron microscopy information, it is proposed that the 30S subunit pulses during translocation and that its preand post-translocation structures are not necessarily identical. Accordingly, transiocation is characterized by three consecutive conformational states of the 30S and 50S subunits. State 1 (the pre-translocation state) lasts until the elongation factor EF-G·GTP complex binds to the ribosome or adopts the GTPase conformation. State 2 (the translocation state, or the peak or plateau of the pulse) follows and lasts until EF-G adopts a subsequent conformation or is released from the ribosome. State 3 (the post-translocation state) ensues and lasts until A (aminoacyl) site binding of aminoacyl-tRNA. In state 2, 16S RNA hairpins 26 and 33-33A, located in the platform and the head of the 30S subunit, respectively, become kinked or twisted, and residue A1503, near the decoding site, becomes exposed. A platform twist is associated with P (peptide) to E (exit) site tRNA movements and a head twist with pivoting of the peptidyl-tRNA elbow from the A to the P site, around a (retractable?) S19 domain. These twists result in an unlocking of the platform and the head from the 50S subunit. Exposure of A1503 is tentatively associated with movements of mRNA or tRNA anticodon stem-loops. These twisted or otherwise-exposed residues readopt their previous setting upon completion of translocation, i.e. states 1 and 3 of 16S RNA differ more from state 2 than from each other. Yet the ribosome is never fully locked or unlocked at any time during elongation. It is unlocked in one or another respect in the pre- and post-translocation states, and unlocked to the largest extent in state 2.‘Le plus grand Phénomène de la Nature, le plus Merveilleux, est le Mouvement’ (The greatest, the most wonderful Phenomenon in Nature is Motion).Pierre Moreau de Maupertuis
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  • 141
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The activity of Escherichia coli pyruvate oxidase (PoxB) was shown to be growth-phase dependent; the enzyme activity reaches a maximum at early stationary phase. We report that PoxB activity is dependent on a functional rpoS(katF) gene which encodes a σ factor required to transcribe a number of stationary-phase-induced genes. PoxB activity as well as the β-galactosidase encoded by a poxB::lacZ protein fusion was completely abolished in a strain containing a defective rpoS gene. Northern and primer extension analyses showed that poxB expression was regulated at the transcriptional level and was transcribed from a single promoter; the 5′ end of the mRNA being located 27 bp upstream of the translational initiation codon of poxB. The poxB gene was expressed at decreased levels under anaerobiosis; however, the anaerobic regulatory genes arcA, arcB or fnr were not involved in anaerobic poxB gene expression. Expression of the rpoS(katF) gene has been reported to be affected by acetate, the product of PoxB reaction. However, we found that poxB null mutations had no effect on rpoS(katF) expression. Inactivation of two genes involved In acetate metabolism, ackA and pta, had no effect on either poxB or rpoS(katF) expression.
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  • 142
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The formation of cyclopropane fatty acids (CFAs) in Escherichia coli is a post-synthetic modification of the phospholipid bilayer that occurs predominantly as cultures enter the stationary phase of growth. The mechanism of this growth phase-dependent regulation of CFA synthesis was unclear, since log-phase and stationary-phase cultures had been reported to contain similar levels of the enzyme catalysing the reaction (CFA synthase). We report that the timing of CFA synthesis can be explained by two unusual features. First, the gene encoding CFA synthase (cfa) was found to be transcribed from two promoters and the 5′ ends of both transcripts were mapped by primer extension. One of the promoters was active only during the log-to-stationary phase transition and depended on the putative sigma factor encoded by the rpoS(katF) gene whereas the other promoter had a standard σ70 promoter consensus sequence and was expressed throughout the growth curve. Second, CFA synthase activity was shown to be unstable in vivo and a Cfa fusion protein was found to have a half life of 〈5min. The combination of these factors meant that, although CFA synthase was synthesized throughout the growth curve, a large increase in activity occurred during the log-to-stationary phase transition. As stationary phase progressed, the Increased CFA synthase activity rapidly declined to the basal level. This transient increase In CFA synthase activity coupled with the cessation of net phospholipid synthesis in stationary phase provides an explanation for the unusual time course of CFA synthesis.
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  • 143
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Maxicell labelling and two-dimensional gel electro-phoresis (2-D PAGE) have identified the proteins encoded by sspA and sspB (SspA, SspB) as proteins D27.1 and A25.8, respectively, in the Escherichia coli gene-protein database. SspA expression increases with decreasing growth rate and is induced by glucose, nitrogen, phosphate or amino acid starvation. The promoter, Pssp, is similar to gearbox promoters. Inactivation of SspA (sspA::neo) blocks sspB expression. [35S]-methionine-labelled proteins synthesized during growth and during stationary phase are different in δsspA strains compared to sspA strains. This difference is enhanced during extended stationary phase (24–72 h). Long-term (10 d) viability of arginine-starved isogenic strains shows that sspA cultures remain viable significantly longer than δsspA mutants. 2-D PAGE of proteins expressed during exponential growth shows that expression of at least 11 proteins is altered in δsspA strains. A functional relA gene is required for sspA to affect protein synthesis.
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  • 144
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Bacteriophage T7 expresses a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase activity during Infection of Its host, Escherichia coli. The protein kinase (gpO.7 PK), encoded by the T7 early gene 0.7, enhances phage reproduction under sub-optimal growth conditions. It was previously shown that ribosomal protein S1 and translation initiation factors IF1, IF2, and IF3 are phosphoryiated in T7-infected cells, and it was suggested that phosphorylation of these proteins may serve to stimulate translation of the phage late mRNAs. Using high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and specific immunoprecipitation, we show that elongation factor G and ribosomal protein S6 are phosphorylated following T7 infection. The gel electro-phoretic data moreover indicate that elongation factor P is phosphorylated in T7-infected cells. T7 early and late mRNAs are processed by ribonuclease III, whose activity is stimulated through phosphorylation by gp0.7 PK. Specific overexpression and phosphorylation was used to locate the RNase III polypeptide in the standard two-dimensional gel pattern, and to confirm that serine is the phosphate-accepting amino acid. The two-dimensional gels show that the in vivo expression of gp0.7 PK results in the phosphorylation of over 90 proteins, which Is a significantly higher number than previous estimates. The protein kinase activities of the T7-related phages T3 and BA14 produce essentially the same pattern of phosphorylated proteins as that of T7. Finally, several experimental variables are analysed which influence the production and pattern of phosphorylated proteins in both uninfected and T7-rnfected cells.
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  • 145
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Escherichia coli induces the expression of more than 50 proteins in response to starvation for a carbon source. Strains MC7 (csi7::phoA) and MC19 (csi19::phoA) contain fusions of a signal peptide-deficient phoA reporter sequence to a csi (carbon starvation-inducible) gene. PhoA expression increased when these strains were deprived of a carbon source or entered stationary phase but did not when the cells were deprived of a nitrogen source or subjected to osmotic, oxidative or thermal stress. Mapping and sequence analysis of the cloned phoA fusions in strains MC7 and MC19 indicated that they had occurred in different locations within the same previously unidentified gene. The wild-type allele of this gene was cloned and the encoded protein was found to be a new lipoprotein. Therefore we propose to call this locus slp (starvation lipoprotein). The 22 kDa Slp protein is associated with the outer membrane fraction. The slp gene was located at 78.6 centisomes on the E. coli genetic map. The -10 and -35 regions upstream of the mRNA start site were characteristic of a σ70 promoter. The major transcript from this promoter was sufficiently large to contain slp sequences but not the downstream open reading frame. Induction of β-galactosidase activity from a slp::lacZ translational fusion during carbon starvation or stationary phase was independent of cAMP, RpoS (KatF) and DnaK, all of which are known to affect the expression of certain starvation-inducible or stationary phase-inducible proteins.
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  • 146
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A sulphated glycosaminoglycan-dependent mechanism of microbial infection for mammailan cells was characterized for the Chlamydia trachomatis trachoma and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) biovars. We demonstrated that the trachoma and LGV biovars compete for the same receptor(s) on host cells and that their infectivity was inhibited by heparin or heparan sulphate. Using a specific heparan suiphate lyase (heparitinase) to treat organisms, the Infectivity of both biovars was abolished. Furthermore, exogenous heparan sulphate rescued chlamydial infectivity following treatment with heparitinase and the restored infectivity was neutralized by an anti-heparan sulphate monoclonal antibody. These data suggest that heparan sulphate-like-mediated Interactions between C. trachomatis and eukaryotic cells are essential for infectivity.
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  • 147
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The wilt-inducing phytopathogen Pseudomonas solanacearum produces several extracellular virulence factors, both polysaccharides (EPS I) and proteins (EXPs), which are independently regulated by a LysR-type transcriptional regulator, PhcA, and a histidine kinase sensor, VsrB. Here we characterize a third locus, vsrA, which is also required for normal production of EPS I, some EXPs and wilt disease. Analysis of eps::lacZ reporters in vsrA mutants showed that, like vsrB and phcA, vsrA is required for maximal expression (transcription) of eps, which contains some of the genes necessary for production of EPS I. Unlike vsrB and phcA mutants, however, eps transcription (and EPS I production) by vsrA mutants varies from 3 to 17% of wild-type levels, depending on growth conditions. Inactivation of vsrA also causes a dramatic reduction in production of three species of EXPs (28kDa, 48kDa, and 66kDa), and an apparent increase in production of a few other EXPs. Unlike most other EPS-deficient P. solanacearum strains, vsrA mutants caused almost no disease symptoms when 104 cells were stem-inoculated into tomato plants. This correlated with a greater than 10-fold reduction in their ability to grow in plants. vsrA was cloned from a P. solanacearum genomic library by complementation of the vsrA mutant and was further subcloned on a 2.3kb DNA fragment. PhoA fusion analysis and subcellular localization of the vsrA gene product in Escherichia coli maxicells suggest that it is a 53 kDa membrane-associated protein. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of vsrA revealed a 502 residue open reading frame with homology to the histidine kinase domain of sensors in the two-component regulator family. This discovery shows that EPS I production by P. solanacearum is simultaneously controlled by dual two-component sensors.
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  • 148
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects the human gastric mucosa, causes gastritis and contributes to the development of peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. To facilitate molecular genetic analysis of this pathogen, we constructed a ∼20-fold redundant cosmid library and physical/genetic map of strain NCTC11638. Genomic DNA fragments were cloned into the cosmid vector Lorist6, and clones were ordered by hybridization with several types of probes: (i) ends of cloned DNAs; (ii) chromosomal Notl digest fragments; (iii) cosmids containing Notl sites; and (iv) specific genes. Seven hundred and fifty-one cosmids were mapped to one of thrM contigs covering 〉 90% of the chromosome, and are represented by a 68-cosmid miniset. The order of cosmids was confirmed and extents of overlap among them were estimated by restriction analysis.All currently known H. pylori genes were mapped, including those for a cytotoxin (vacA), cytotoxin-associated protein (cagA), urease and regulatory functions (ureAB, ureD and ureH), catalase (katA), major and minor flagellins (flaA and flaB), heat-shock (stress) and chaperone proteins (dnaK, htrA, hspB (groEL)), prokaryotic ferritin (pfr), an adhesin subunit (hpaA), a surface protein (26kDa), and 16S and 23S ribosomal RNAs (two genes each). The orientations of eight genes or clusters were determined, and two repetitive sequences were also found. The gene order and rRNA gene copy number determined here differed from that reported for an unrelated strain, which suggests considerable flexibility in H. pylori genome organization.
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  • 149
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Nucleotide sequence analysis of the fae operon encoding the biosynthesis of K88 fimbriae revealed the presence of two divergently transcribed regulatory genes, faeA and faeB, separated by two inverted iS 1 insertions. The amino acid sequences of the regulatory proteins FaeA and FaeB show similarity to the primary structure of corresponding regulatory proteins involved in the biosynthesis of Pap and S fimbriae. Expression of faeA is positively controlled by the FaeA protein, whereas K88 fimbriae production is negatively controlled by the co-operative activity of FaeA and the leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp). Exchange of FaeA for Papl, a positive regulator of Pap fimbriae expression, also represses K88 production indicating that the combination Papl/Lrp has opposite effects on fae and pap expression. Mutations in faeB had no effect on the biosynthesis of K88 fimbriae. The presence of the two iS 1 insertions is hypothesized to neutralize part of the repression of K88 biosynthesis by FaeA/Lrp. Like pap, the fae operon does not respond to exogenous leucine.
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  • 150
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The synthesis of the small, cytoplasmic protein UspA universal stress protein A) of Escherichia coli is induced as soon as the cell growth rate falls below the maximal growth rate supported by the medium, regardless of the condition inhibiting growth. The increase in UspA synthesis appears to be the result of Induction of the monocistronic uspA gene. Induction of this gene during a heat-shock treatment is demonstrated to be the result of transcriptional activation of σ70-dependent promoter which has previously been shown to be activated also during carbon starvation-induced growth arrest. Mutant cells lacking UspA grow at rates indistinguisible from the isogenic parent at different temperatures and in the presence of different growth inhibitors but are impaired in their ability to survive prolonged periods of complete growth inhibition caused by a variety of diverse stresses, including CdCl2, H2O2, DNP, CCCP exposure, and osmotic shock. Moreover, the uspA mutation results in an increased sensitivity of cells to carbon-source starvation (i.e. glucose, glycerol or succinate depletion). Also, the mutation causes a marked alteration in the timing of starvation protein expression but protein expression during steady-state growth appears to be normal. The results presented have prompted us to postulate that UspA may have a general protective function related to the growth arrest state.
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  • 151
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Secretion to the cell exterior of cellulase EGZ and of at least six pectinases enables the Gram-negative Erwinia chrysanthemi to cause severe plant disease. The C-terminal cellulose-binding domain (CBD) of EGZ was found to contain a disulphide bond which forms, in the periplasm, between residues Cys-325 and Cys-382. Dithiothreitol (DTT)-treatment of native EGZ showed that the disulphide bond was dispensable, both for catalysis and cellulose binding. Adding DTT to E. chrysanthemi cultures led to immediate arrest of secretion of EGZ which accumulated in the periplasm where the CBD was eventually proteolysed. Site-directed mutagenesis that affected Cys residues involved in disulphide bond formation resulted in molecules that were catalytically active and able to bind to cellulose but were no longer secreted, Instead they accumulated in the periplasm. Interestingly, the region around EGZ Cys-325 is conserved in two pectinases secreted by the same pathway as EGZ. We conclude that the conserved Cys, and possibly adjacent residues, bear essential information for EGZ to be secreted and that periplasmic disulphide bond formation is an obligatory step which provides a pre-folded functional form of EGZ with secretion competence.
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  • 152
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Bacteriophage λ repressor binds co-operatively to adjacent pairs of DNA target sites. A novel combination of positive genetic selections, involving two different operon fusions derived from P22 challenge phages, was used to isolate mutant λ repressors that have lost the ability to bind co-operatively to tandem sites yet retain the ability to bind a strong, single site. These cb (co-operative binding) mutations result in 10 different amino acid changes, which define eight residues in the carboxyl-terminus of repressor. Because challenge phage derivatives may be applied to study essentially any specific protein-DNA interaction, analogous combinations of genetic selections may be used to explore the ways that a variety of proteins interact to assemble regulatory complexes.
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  • 153
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain 536 possesses two large, unstable DNA regions on its chromosome, which were termed pathogenicity islands (pais). Deletions of pais, which occur with relatively high frequency in vitro and in vivo, lead to avirulent mutants. The genetic determinants for production of haemolysin (Hly) and P-related fimbriae (Prf) are located in one of these islands. Deletion of this pathogenicity isiand (paill) not only removes the hly- and prf-specific genes, but also represses S fimbriae (Sfa), although the sfa genes of this virulence factor are not located on paill. We have identified two regulatory genes, prfB and prfl, of the prf gene cluster that are homologous to the sfa regulatory genes staB and SfaC, respectively. Mutations in sfaB and sfaC that inhibit transcription of the major fimbrial subunit gene sfaA were complemented by the homologous prf genes, suggesting communication between the two fimbrial gene clusters in the wild-type strain. Chromosomal mutagenesis of the two prf regulators in strain 536 repressed transcription of sfaA, detected by Northern hybridization and a chromosomal sfaA-lacZ fusion. In addition, haemagglutination assays measured a lower level of S fimbriae in these mutants. Expression of the cloned prf regulators in trans reversed the effect of the mutations; furthermore, constitutive expression of prfB or prfl could also overcome the repression of S fimbriae in a strain that had lost the pathogenicity islands. Virulence assays in mice established that the prf mutants were less virulent than the wild-type strain. The results demonstrate that cross-regulation of two unlinked virulence gene clusters together with the co-ordinate loss of large DNA regions significantly influences the virulence of an extraintestinal E. coli wild-type isolate.
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  • 154
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We have isolated a small Escherichia coli protein which stably Interacts with ribosomal RNA P1 promoter DNA. We present evidence showing that the protein is identical to the histone-like E. coli protein, H-NS (H1). Binding of H-NS to the P1 promoter region is dependent on the DNA curvature. Mapping the H-NS-DNA contact sites by nuclease protection and high-resolution footprinting techniques reveal three H-NS-binding domains, and contacts of the protein in the major groove of the bent DNA. The binding region extends from position -18 to -89, relative to the P1 transcription start site, and shows an overlap with the known binding sites for Fis, another E. coli protein, which acts as transcriptional activator of P1. The binding of H-NS does not displace Fis; instead, heterologous complexes are formed. Apparently, H-NS and Fis bind to separated curved DNA segments, with the planes of the curves pointing into different directions, in vitro transcriptional analyses demonstrate that H-NS represses rRNA P1 promoter-directed transcription. Repression is most pronounced in the presence of Fis. Thus, H-NS seems specifically to antagonize Fis-dependent activation. No comparable inactivation is observed for the second rRNA promoter P2.
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  • 155
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The 9.5kb virB operon is the largest of the six major operons in the Ti plasmid vir region. This operon contains eleven genes, the largest of which is virB4. This gene encodes an 84kDa protein whose function has not been identified. Its roles in conferring virulence on Agrobacterium tumefaciens and in the T-DNA transfer process were determined by generating non-polar mutants by using the Tn5pvirB transposon in which the virB promoter is transcribed downstream of its position of insertion. Several independent mutants were isolated and each insertion site in virB4 was confirmed by nucleotide sequence analysis. These mutants were tested for T-DNA transfer ability by agroinfection and for tumorigenicity by inoculation in Brassica and Datura. All mutants were agroinfection- and tumorigenicity-negative. These data strongly suggest that virB4 is essential for both the interkingdom transfer of the T-DNA and virulence. Furthermore, by using anti-VirB4 serum, the protein product of virB4 was localized to the inner-membrane fraction of A. tumefaciens. Purified VirB4 protein hydrolyses ATP and this activity was quenched by the anti-VirB4 serum. The energy generated by VirB4 ATPase therefore may be used to transfer T-DNA or to assemble the T-DNA transfer apparatus on the bacterial membrane. Protein sequence analyses revealed striking similarities between VirB4 protein and the proteins required for conjugative transfer, which include TraC, TrwK, and TrbE of plasmids F, R388, and RP4, repectively. These findings suggest that VirB proteins play a direct role in the assembly of a conjugative transfer apparatus required for the transfer of the T-DNA from A. tumefaciens to plant cells.
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  • 156
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 11 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Modrfication of proteins at C-terminal cysteine residue(s) by the isoprenoids farnesyl (C15) and geranylgeranyl (C20) is essential for the biological function of a number of eukaryotic proteins including fungal mating factors and the small, GTP-binding proteins of the Ras superfamily. Three distinct enzymes, conserved between yeast and mammals, have been identified that prenylate proteins: farnesyl protein transferase, geranylgeranyl protein transferase type I and geranylgeranyl protein transferase type II. Each prenyl protein transferase has its own protein substrate specificity. Much has been learned about the biology, genetics and biochemistry of protein prenylation and prenyl protein transferases through studies of eukaryotic microorganisms, particularly Saccharo-myces cerevisiae. The functional Importance of protein prenylation was first demonstrated with fungal mating factors. The initial genetic analysis of prenyl protein transferases was in S. cerewisiae with the isolation and subsequent characterization of mutations in the RAM1, RAM2, CDC43 and BET2 genes, each of which encodes a prenyl protein transferase subunit. We review here these and other studies on protein prenylation in eukaryotic microbes and how they relate to and have contributed to our knowledge about protein prenylation in all eukaryotic cells.
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  • 157
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The transcription factor sigma-54 (σ54) is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that directs RNA polymer a se to a particular class of promoter. The interaction of σ54 with promoter DNA has been analysed by protein-DNA crosslinking and enzymatic and chemical proteolysis. Direct physical evidence for a DNA-contacting surface within the carboxy-terminal one-third of the protein has been obtained. This region of σ54 is likely to be close to the surface of the protein, and contacts DNA when either o54 or the σ54-holoenzyme bind specifically to promoter DNA. The amino-terminal region of σ54 appears to be highly susceptible to proteolysis, and its integrity influences the accessibility towards proteolysis of a second region of σ54, which includes the DNA-contacting surface. Thus the amino-terminal region of σ54 may have a role in influencing its DNA-binding properties, the major determinants of which appear to reside in the carboxy-terminal one-third of the protein.
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  • 158
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The plasmid-partition regions of the P1 and P7 plasmid prophages in Escherichia coli are homologues which each encode two partition proteins, ParA and ParB. The equivalent PI and P7 proteins are closely related. In each case, the proteins are encoded by an operon that is autoregulated by the ParA and ParB proteins in concert. This regulation is species-specific, as the P1 proteins are unable to repress the P7 par operon and vice versa. The homologous ParA proteins are primarily responsible for repression and bind to regions that overlap the operon promoter in both cases. The DNA-binding domain of the P7 auto-repressor lies in the amino-terminal end of the P7 ParA protein. This region includes a helix-turn-helix motif that has a clear counterpart in the P1 ParA sequence. However, despite the common regulatory mechanism and the similarity of the proteins involved in repression, the promoter-operator sequences of these two operons are very different in sequence and organization. The operator is located downstream of the promoter in P1 and upstream of it in P7, and the two regions show little, if any, homology. How these differences may have arisen from a common ancestral form is discussed.
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  • 159
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Cellulases expressed by Cellulomonas fimi consist of a catalytic domain and a discrete non-catalytic cellulose-binding domain (CBD). To establish whether CBDs are common features of plant cell-wall hydroiases from C. fimi, the molecular architecture of xylanase D (XYLD) from this bacterium was investigated. The gene encoding XYLD, designated xynD, consisted of an open reading frame of 1936 bp encoding a protein of Mr 68000. The deduced primary sequence of XYLD was confirmed by the size (64kDa) and N-terminal sequence of the purified recombinant xylanase. Biochemical analysis of the purified enzyme revealed that XYLD is an endo-acting xylanase which displays no detectable activity against polysaccharides other than xylan. The predicted primary structure of XYLD comprised an /V-terminal signal peptide followed by a 190-residue domain that exhibited significant homology to Family-G xylanases. Truncated derivatives of xynD, encoding the W-terminal 193 amino acids of mature XYLD directed the synthesis of a functional xylanase, confirming that the 190-residue N-terminal sequence constitutes the catalytic domain. The remainder of the enzyme consisted of two approximately 90-residue domains, which exhibited extensive homology with each other, and limited sequence identity with CBDs from other polysaccharide hydrolases. Between the two putative CBDs is a 197-amino-acid sequence that exhibits substantial homology with Rhizobium NodB proteins. The four discrete domains in XYLD were separated by either threonine/prolineor novel glycine-rich linker regions. Although full-length XYLD adsorbed to cellulose, truncated derivatives of the enzyme lacking the C-terminal CBD hydrolysed xylan but did not bind to cellulose. Fusion of the C-terminal domain to glutathione-Stransferase generated hybrid proteins that bound to crystalline cellulose, but not to amorphous cellulose or xylan. The location of CBDs in a C. fimi xylanase indicates that domains of this type are not restricted to cellulases, but are widely distributed between hemicellutases also, and therefore play a pivotal role in the activity of the whole repertoire of plant cell-wall hydrolases. The role of the NodB homologue in XYLD is less certain.
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  • 160
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The complete nucleotide sequence and mechanism of action of the tetracycline-resistance determinant Tet P, from Clostridium perfringens has been determined. Analysis of the 4.4 kb of sequence data revealed the presence of two open reading frames, designated as tetA(P) and tetB(P), The tetA(P) gene appears to encode a 420 amino acid protein (molecular weight 46079) with twelve transmembrane domains. This gene was shown to be responsible for the active efflux of tetracycline from resistant ceils. Although there was some amino acid sequence similarity between the putative TetA(P) protein and other tetracycline efflux proteins, analysis suggested that TetA(P) represented a different type of efflux protein. The tetB(P) gene would encode a putative 652 amino acid protein (molecular weight 72639) with significant sequence similarity to Tet(M)-like cytoplasmic proteins that specify a ribosomal-protection tetracycline-resistance mechanism. In both C. perfringens and Escherichia coli. tetB(P) encoded low-level resistance to tetracycline and minocycline whereas tetA(P) only conferred tetracycline resistance. The tetA(P) and tetB(P) genes appeared to be linked in an operon, which represented a novel genetic arrangement for tetracycline-resistance determinants. It is proposed that tetB(P) evolved from the conjugative transfer into C. perfringens of a fer (M)-like gene from another bacterium.
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  • 161
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 162
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 11 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 163
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    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 11 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 164
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The genetic code, once thought to be rigid, hag been found to be quite fiexible, permitting several different reading alternatives. One of these is translatlonal frameshifting, a process programmed in the mRNA sequence and which enables a +1 or -1 shift from the reading frame of the initiation codon. So far, the Involvement of translatlonal frameahifting in gene expression has been described mainly in viruses (particularly retroviruses), retrotransposons, and bacterial insertion elements, in this MicroReview., we present a survey of the cellular genes, mostly in Escherichia coil, which have been found to be expressed through a transiational frameshifting process, as well as a discussion of the regulatory implications of this process.
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  • 165
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    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 11 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Recent evidence from both biochemical and genetic studies indicates that protein targeting to the pro-karyotic cytoplasmic membrane and the eukaryotic endoplasmic reticulum membrane may have more in common than previously thought. A ribonucleo-protein particle was identified in Escherichia coli that consists of at least one protein (P48 or Ffh) and one RNA molecule (4.5S RNA), both of which exhibit strong sequence similarity with constituents of the mammalian signal recognition particle (SRP). Like the mammalian SRP, the E. coli SRP binds specifically to the signal sequence of presecretory proteins. Depletion of either P48 or 4.5S RNA affects translation and results in the accumulation of precursors of several secreted proteins. This review discusses these recent studies and speculates on the position of the SRP in the complex network of protein interactions involved in translation and membrane targeting in E. coli.
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  • 166
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Early genetic analysis of alternate recombination pathways in Escherichia coli identified the RecE recombination pathway and the required exonuclease VIII encoded by the recE gene. Observations that not ail recombination events promoted by the RecE pathway require recA suggest the existence of an additional homologous pairing protein besides RecA in E. coli. Genetic and biochemical analysis of the recE gene region indicates there are two partially overlapping genes, recE and recT, encoding at least two proteins: exoVIII and the RecT protein. Biochemical analysis has shown that the RecT protein, in combination with exoVIII, promotes homologous pairing and strand exchange in reactions containing linear duplex DNA and homologous, circular, single-stranded DNA as substrates. This reaction occurs in the absence of any high-energy cofactor. These two proteins, RecT and exoVIII, appear to be members of a second class of homologous pairing proteins that are required in genetic recombination and differ from the class of homologous pairing proteins that includes RecA. Members of this second class of proteins appear to include both bacteriophage-encoded proteins and proteins from eukaryotes and their viruses.
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  • 167
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Diphtheria toxin (DT) is a bacterial protein that crosses the membrane of endosomes of target cells In response to the low endosomal pH. In this paper, we have inserted diphtheria toxin in asolectin vesicles at pH 5.0 and treated the reconstituted system with pronase. The peptides that were protected from digestion were separated by gel electrophoresls, transferred to a membrane and their N-terminal sequences were determined. All peptides belong to the B fragment of DT and cover residues 194–223, 266–375 and 429–528. The secondary structures of the peptides inserted in the membrane, determined by Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, were shown to be mostly α-helices and β-sheets (44% and 53%, respectively). On the basis of these data and the recently published X-ray structure of DT, we are proposing a topology for the DTB fragment in the membrane.
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  • 168
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Intercellular spreading of shigellae Is a prerequisite for shigellosis, although the molecular mechanisms underlying the phenomenon are still largely obscure. To elucidate some of these mechanisms, we performed random TniO insertion mutagenesis in Shigella flexneri YSH6000T and found a chromosomal locus in the Notl-J segment responsible for bacterial spreading. The locus affected in the mutant, designated vacJ, was neither involved in the invasion of epithelial cells nor in intracellular movement, but was required for intercellular spread. The vacJ mutant was capable of forming bacterium-containing membranous protrusions within the infected cell, but had diminished ability to move from the protrusions into the cytoplasm of the adjacent epithelial cells. Cloning and sequencing of the vacJ region Indicated that the vacJ gene encoded a 28.0 kDa protein possessing a signal peptide at the N-terminus, which contained the motif characteristic of lipoproteins. The analysis of the vacJ product indicated that VacJ was exposed on the bacterial surface. The vacJ gene was distributed among shigellae and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli, and the constructed vacJ mutants failed to spread intercellularly, indicating that vacJ is a chromosomal gene essential for the pathogenicity of shigeiiae.
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