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  • breast cancer  (1,228)
  • Neurologie
  • Theoretische Physik
  • Messtechnik
  • Strömungsmechanik
  • Springer  (1,262)
  • Oxford University Press  (13)
  • American Institute of Physics (AIP)
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  • 101
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: BRCA1 mutation ; breast cancer ; disease-free survival ; overall survival ; pathology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Reports from different countries have been inconclusive in attempting to relate the BRCA1 mutation status to the survival of breast cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate overall and disease-free survival for German hereditary breast cancer patients. Data on clinical outcome and data on age at diagnosis of breast cancer, histology, tumor size, lymph node status, histological grade, and laterality of 36 breast cancer patients from 12 families with a BRCA1 mutation and from one family with strong evidence for linkage to BRCA1 were compared with those of 49 hereditary breast cancer patients from 23 families that did not harbor a BRCA1 mutation. Overall and disease-free survival was estimated for both groups. BRCA1 mutation carriers had a significantly earlier age of diagnosis than non-carriers (p = 0.0001) and more frequently developed contralateral breast cancer (p = 0.04). Also, BRCA1-associated tumors more frequently were of larger size (p = 0.041) and higher grade of malignancy (p = 0.005) than non-BRCA1-associated tumors. Whereas no difference in overall survival was seen, disease-free survival at 10 years differed significantly with 53.3% for BRCA1 mutation carriers and 76% for non- carriers (p = 0.02). However, after stratification for age and in multivariate analysis for mutation status, age, and bilaterality, it was shown that the worse prognosis for BRCA1 mutation carriers disappeared. Our results suggest that the worse prognosis of BRCA1 mutation carriers in terms of disease-free survival may in large part be due to the age of onset of breast cancer in this population. Thus, BRCA1 mutation status does not appear to be an independent prognostic factor.
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  • 102
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: apoptosis ; breast cancer ; continuous variables statistical analysis ; cytokeratins ; multiple correspondence analysis ; prognosis ; tissue cytosol ; tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Apoptosis is associated with caspase-mediated proteolysis of Type I (K18 and K19) cytokeratins. We previously showed a positive association between the levels of tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA), that recognizes cytokeratins K8, K18, and K19 fragments, and induced apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the interrelationships between TPA, steroid receptors, and p53, and their joint prognostic role in node-negative breast cancer patients not treated with adjuvant therapies. Age and pT were also considered since they are known prognostic factors. Five hundred and ninety-nine cases with N- breast cancer were evaluated (median follow-up: 60 months). TPA was measured by an immunoradiometric assay and p53 by an immuno-chemiluminescent assay in tumor cytosol. Multiple correspondence analysis was used to study the associations among variables. Their prognostic role (univariate analysis) and their joint effect (multivariate analysis) on RFS were investigated with Cox regression models. TPA showed a direct association with ER and PgR. Higher p53 values were weakly associated to low values of ER, PgR, and TPA. Younger age was related to low and intermediate values of ER and PgR and to low p53 values, while older age was related to high values of ER. Multivariate analysis showed a significant prognostic impact for pT, age, ER, and TPA. Among the interactions considered clinically relevant, only that between ER and age was found. RFS estimated values were poorer in cases with lower than in those with higher TPA values, both in patients expected to have a poor (pT2, young age, low ER) and a better prognosis (pT1, older age, high ER). From the findings of the present study we can draw the following conclusions: The relationship of TPA with prognosis gives an additional contribution to pT, age, and steroid receptors in N- breast cancer; TPA may be considered the first marker of apoptosis measured with a fully standardized quantitative method in tumor cytosol and could be evaluated in prognostic indexes including markers related to different biological mechanisms.
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  • 103
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; dose-intensity ; G-CSF ; metastatic ; vinorelbine ; weekly schedule
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Purpose: In this phase II study, we explored tolerability and activity of vinorelbine administered according to a dose-dense weekly schedule with hematopoietic growth factor support in pretreated, advanced breast cancer patients. Patients and Methods: From January 1994 to March 1996, 40 patients with metastatic breast cancer, pretreated with at least one prior anthracycline-containing regimen, were entered into the study. Patient characteristics: median age 53 years (range 32–70); ECOG performance status 0-1: 34 patients, 2: 6 patients; dominant visceral metastatic disease: 15 patients, dominant non-visceral: 25; anthracycline-refractory/resistant: 2 patients, sensitive: 38 patients. Six patients were treated as first-line therapy for metastatic disease and 34 in second- or subsequent lines. All patients received vinorelbine at the dose of 25 mg/m2/week as a short intravenous infusion, together with routine antiemetic medication. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (Lenograstim) at the dose of 150 μg/m2 subcutaneously on day 3 was included in the treatment schedule. Results: The median number of treatment weeks was 23 (range: 4–24), with a delivered dose-intensity (DDI) of 23.8 mg/m2/week (range: 18.7–25, 95.2% of projected dose-intensity). Toxicity was mild, with non-complicated neutropenia being the main toxicity observed (grade 3–4 in 25% of the patients but only 2% of treatment weeks). Overall response rate was 52.5%, with complete responses in 12.5% of patients. Median duration of the response and median time to progression were 10 and 9 months, respectively. Median overall survival was 19 months. Conclusion: Dose-dense weekly vinorelbine is safe and effective with minimal toxicity in pretreated advanced breast cancer patients.
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  • 104
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: reversal ; paclitaxel ; resistance ; P-glycoprotein ; breast cancer ; valspodar ; apoptosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Paclitaxel (Taxol®) kills tumor cells by inducing both cellular necrosis and apoptosis. A major impediment to paclitaxel cytotoxicity is the establishment of multidrug resistance whereby exposure to one chemotherapeutic agent results in cross-resistance to a wide variety of other drugs. For example, selection of MCF-7 breast cancer cells for resistance to doxorubicin (MCF-7ADR cells) results in cross-resistance to paclitaxel. This appears to involve the overexpression of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein which can efflux both drugs from tumor cells. However, MCF-7ADR cells possess a deletion mutation in p53 and have considerably reduced levels of the Fas receptor, Fas ligand, caspase-2, caspase-6, and caspase-8, suggesting that paclitaxel resistance may also stem from a bona fide block in paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in these cells. To address this issue, we examined the ability of the P-glycoprotein inhibitor valspodar to restore paclitaxel accumulation, paclitaxel cytotoxicity, and paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. Compared to drug sensitive MCF-7 cells, MCF-7ADR cells accumulated 〉6-fold less paclitaxel, were approximately 100-fold more resistant to killing by the drug, and were highly resistant to paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. In contrast, MCF-7ADR cells pretreated with valspodar were indistinguishable from drug-sensitive cells in their ability to accumulate paclitaxel, in their chemosensitivity to the drug, and in their ability to undergo paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. Valspodar, by itself, did not affect these parameters. This suggests that the enhancement of paclitaxel toxicity in MCF-7ADR cells involves a restoration of apoptosis and not solely through enhanced drug-induced necrosis. Morever, it appears that changes in the levels/activity of p53, the Fas receptor, Fas ligand, caspase-2, caspase-6, or caspase-8 activity have little effect on paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.
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  • 105
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor ; metastasis ; NK4
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract NK4 is a variant form of HGF/SF, comprising the N-terminal and subsequent four kringle domains of mature HGF/SF. HGF/SF is a multifunctional cytokine that enhances the metastatic behaviour of tumour cells in vitro by stimulation of the c-met receptor tyrosine kinase and has been implicated in the development of tumour metastasis in vivo. The aims of this study were to further investigate the potential antagonistic effects of the recently described variant form of HGF/SF, NK4, on HGF/SF activity in breast cancer cells. All cell lines used expressed both the HGF/SF receptor gene and protein as shown by RT-PCR and Western blotting. NK4 inhibited HGF/SF-induced tumour cell invasion through an artificial basement membrane. Tumour cell motility and scattering induced by HGF/SF were also dramatically reduced by the inclusion of NK4. Immunoprecipitation studies revealed that NK4 inhibited the phosphorylation of the c-met receptor in response to HGF/SF. Treatment of these cells with NK4 alone did not have any significant effects on their metastatic behaviour. From this data we conclude that NK4 demonstrates significant antagonistic properties towards HGF/SF, inhibiting HGF/SF-stimulated breast tumour cell invasion, motility and migration. NK4 may therefore be of potential benefit in the development of anti-metastasis therapies.
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  • 106
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; chemotherapy ; cohort study ; radiotherapy ; second primary cancer
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objectives and methods.The risk of second primary malignancies (SMN) was studied in a cohort of 4,416 one-year survivors of a breast cancer. The role of the menopausal status and of the initial treatment modalities (surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy) was investigated. Results.Excluding second primary breast cancer and non-melanoma skin cancer, a total of 193 (4.4%) patients developed a SMN between 1973 and 1992, compared with 136 expected (Standardised Incidence Ratio, SIR = 1.4, 95% CI (1.2–1.6)). No trend towards either an increase or a decrease was noted in the SIR with time after treatment (p = 0.2). The greatest increase in the relative risk concerned soft tissue cancers (SIR = 13.0, 95% CI: 6.8–22.3), followed by leukaemia (SIR = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.7–5.0), melanoma (SIR  =  2.7, 95% CI: 1.4–4.8), kidney (SIR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.2–4.5), ovary (SIR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.2–3.1) and uterine tumours (SIR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.4–2.5). The SIR was 3.0 (95% CI 1.8–4.7) in women under 40 at the time of the breast cancer, 1.9 (95% CI : 1.4 – 2.4) in those aged 40–49 and 1.2 (95% CI 1.0–1.4) in those aged 50 or more. In the 2,514 women who had received radiotherapy as initial treatment without chemotherapy, the SIR for all SMN was 1.6 (95% CI: 1.1–2.3) fold higher than in those who had not received radiotherapy as initial treatment. Conclusion.In conclusion, this study confirms the increased risk of second malignancies in women treated for a breast cancer, and particularly in those who were younger at the time of treatment for breast cancer. Our results also suggest that radiotherapy may play a role in the onset of these second lesions.
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  • 107
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: androgen receptor ; apoptosis ; Bax ; Bcl-2 ; breast cancer ; estrogen receptor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have established a Noble rat model to explore the mechanisms of hormonal mammary carcinogenesis, in which the role of androgen in promoting mammary carcinogenesis was highlighted. We have also established that stromal-epithelial interactions may be responsible for the promotional effects of testosterone in mammary carcinogenesis. Based on these understandings, in the present study we examined the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in pre-malignant mammary glands from rats treated with different protocols of sex hormones for 7 weeks as well as sex hormone induced mammary tumours. We observed that Bcl-2 was strongly expressed in most of mammary tumour cells, whereas weak or negative in adjacent normal or hyperplastic ductal structures. On the contrary, Bax immunoreactivity was weak in mammary tumour cells while strongly expressed in adjacent normal or hyperplastic ductal structures. More importantly, the results from comparative study of ‘pre-malignant’ glands further showed that when animals were treated with 17β-oestradiol, the mammary epithelial cells expressed high levels of Bcl-2. The results from rats treated with testosterone, either alone or in combination with oestrogen, give rise to high levels of Bax expression in ‘pre-malignant’ mammary glands. These observations indicate that in ‘pre-malignant’ mammary glands, treatment with testosterone, either alone or in combination with 17β-oestradiol, may induce high apoptotic activities. However, in fully developed mammary tumours, the apoptotic activities apparently decrease in tumour cells. TUNEL assay provides further data to support this conclusion. Our study, thus, suggests that androgens may play a promoting role in mammary carcinogenesis by upregulation of Bax expression and induction of high apoptotic activities in ‘pre-malignant’ stage, which would provide a selective pressure favouring the expansion of the initiated cells.
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  • 108
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; ex-smokers ; smoking ; smoking cessation ; tobacco
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract High plasma levels of oestrogens are associated with increased breast cancer risk. If smoking, as has been suggested, have both a tumour initiating mutagenic effect and a protective anti-oestrogenic effect, one would assume that smokers who give up smoking have the highest incidence of breast cancer. This was evaluated in the follow-up of a cohort of 10,902 women of whom 4,359 were premenopausal. Record-linkage with official cancer registries yielded 416 incident cases during an average follow-up of 13.6 years. The adjusted relative risk in all ex-smokers was 1.31 (1.02–1.69), as compared to never smokers, and in premenopausal ex-smokers it was 1.57 (1.07–2.30). Breast cancer incidence in premenopausal ex-smokers was inversely related to time since cessation, (p for trend = 0.01), and was highest among the women who had given-up smoking less than 12 months before screening: 2.76 (1.55–4.91). There was no significant association between current smoking and breast cancer risk. We conclude that incidence of breast cancer in premenopausal women who have given up smoking is higher than it is in smokers and never smokers. To what extent this may be related to endocrine effects associated with smoking cessation remains to be evaluated.
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  • 109
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: androgen receptor ; breast cancer ; mutation ; polymorphism ; prognosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) expression by breast epithelial cells is associated with favorable breast cancer prognosis. In preliminary studies, we found that a nucleotide variation (G → A) at position −158 in the androgen response element (ARE-1) of the PSA promoter was present in four out of 9 breast tumors examined and in a breast carcinoma cell line. We have now determined the nucleotide composition at position −158 of DNA extracted from 148 well-characterized breast tumors and compared tumor genotype with that of controls without cancer, with tumor PSA concentration and with clinicopathological variables, overall survival and disease free survival. The G → A base change at position −158 is a polymorphism. Allelotypes were similarly distributed in breast cancer patients and controls. The Mann–Whitney U Test showed a significantly higher tumor PSA concentration in tumors that presented a homozygous G as opposed to homozygous A genotype. Genotype at position −158 was not associated with clinicopathological variables in contingency table analysis. Univariate Cox regression models showed a 28% reduction in risk for death in patients with homozygous G genotype compared to those with homozygous A genotype (P=0.03). However, ARE-I genotype did not significantly add to the prognostic power in the multivariate model of overall survival. In summary, the base change at position −158 is a polymorphism that may affect breast cancer prognosis, but further studies are required to confirm this possibility and to investigate the relevance of this polymorphism in terms of breast cancer susceptibility.
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  • 110
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; breast conserving surgery ; hospital practices ; mastectomy ; physician behavior
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We studied whether a hospital intervention utilizing medical opinion leaders and performance feedback reduced the proportion of women who reported that surgeons did not discuss options prior to surgery for early stage breast cancer. Opinion leaders provided clinical education to their peers using a variety of strategies and were selected for their ability to influence their peers. Performance feedback involved distributing performance reports that contained data on the outcomes of interest as well as on other treatment patterns. Twenty-eight hospitals in Minnesota were randomized to the intervention or to a control group that received performance feedback only. The proportion of patients at intervention hospitals who said that their surgeon did not discuss options decreased significantly (p〈0.001) from 33% to 17%, but a similar decrease was observed among control hospitals. Using medical opinion leaders to intervene in hospitals appeared as effective as performance feedback.
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  • 111
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; mutation ; nipple aspirate fluid ; p53
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Nipple Aspirate Fluid (NAF) from patients with breast cancer is a potential source of exfoliated tumour material amenable to molecular biological study, but few such data have been reported. In this study we demonstrate that polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of p53 gene DNA is achievable in a proportion of NAF samples from breast cancer patients. Subsequently four NAF samples from patients whose primary tumours were identified as having a defined p53 mutation were studied by single stranded conformational polymorphism analysis (SSCP). Two samples yielded PCR product indistinguishable from wild type and two yielded no product. Whilst no cancer-related genetic mutations were demonstrated in NAF samples, further study is warranted.
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  • 112
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; p73 gene ; LOH ; high-grade malignancy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract p73, a new member of the p53 family, has been mapped to chromosome 1p 36, a region where loss of heterozygosity (LOH) is frequently observed in primary human tumors. Allelic loss studies involving the 1p arm in breast carcinomas offer rates ranging from 13% to 75%, depending on the genetic interval being studied. We investigated LOH in an intragenic microsatellite marker, and those centromerically flanking the p73 gene, at 1p 36, and their correlations with patient age and 10 pathologic parameters in a series of 193 breast carcinomas. The LOH analysis was performed by amplifying DNA by PCR, using five markers of the 1p 36 region (p73P1, D1S2694, D1S214, D1S2666 and D1S450). LOH was found in at least one of these markers in 27% of tumors. When we established the comparison between tumors with and without LOH and the distribution of the 10 pathologic parameters considered, we observed statistically significant differences in association with higher histologic grade (p = 0.02), more advanced pathological stage (p = 0.02), peritumoral vessel involvement (p = 0.04) and poorly differentiated carcinomas (p = 0.01), as well as in tumors that concomitantly exhibited lymph node metastases, peritumoral vessel involvement and absence of steroid receptors (p = 0.02). These data suggest that LOH in the p73 region could be pathogenically related to breast cancer and possibly to a poor tumor prognosis.
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  • 113
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: bone marrow fibroblasts ; breast cancer ; migration ; matrix metalloproteinases ; MMP-1 ; MMP-2
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Two invasive breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and BT-549) were found to be more adherent and have greater migratory capacity on bone marrow fibroblasts than three non-invasive cell lines (MCF-7, T47D and BT-483). Antibodies to the adhesion molecules CD44, E-cadherin, ICAM-1, and integrin chains α2, α3, α4, α5, α6, αv, α1, α3 and α7 failed to inhibit breast cancer cell migration through bone marrow fibroblasts. Inhibitors of matrix metalloproteases, 1, 10-phenanthroline, Ro-9790, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were able to attenuate the migration of MDA-MB-231 cells through bone marrow fibroblast monolayers suggesting a role for these enzymes in the migration of breast cancer cells through bone marrow adherent layers. Co-culture of MDA-MB-231 cells and bone marrow fibroblasts resulted in augmentation of the levels of the matrix metalloproteases MMP-1 and MMP-2 in culture supernatants. Soluble factors produced by bone marrow fibroblasts were responsible for the increase in MMP-1 levels. However, maximal MMP-2 production was dependent on direct contract between the breast cancer cells and the bone marrow fibroblasts. Modulation of MMP production by cell–cell contact or soluble factors suggests a mechanism by which breast cancer cells can enhance their ability to invade the bone marrow microenvironment.
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  • 114
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: Indole-3-carbinol ; breast cancer ; invasion ; migration ; PTEN ; E-cadherin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is a promising phytochemical agent in chemoprevention of breast cancer. Our present study is the first description of I3C that significantly inhibits the cell adhesion, spreading and invasion associated with an up-regulation of PTEN (a tumor suppressor gene) and E-cadherin (a regulator of cell–cell adhesion) expression in T47-D human breast cancer cells. Therefore, I3C exhibits anti-cancer activities by suppressing breast tumor cell growth and metastatic spread. Metastatic breast cancer is a devastating problem, clinical application of I3C as a potent chemopreventive agent may be helpful in limiting breast cancer invasion and metastasis.
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  • 115
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; erythrocytes ; polyamines ; prognosis ; urine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Polyamines are involved in the development of breast cancer. We assayed polyamines in erythrocytes, urines, and breast tissues (tumor tissue and histologically normal breast tissue close to the tumor) of patients with invasive breast cancer (n=174) and benign breast disease (n=71, used as controls). Polyamine levels in red blood cells and urine were similar to the polyamine concentrations found in healthy subjects, and thus cannot be used as diagnostic markers of breast cancer. In cancer tissue, polyamines were significantly increased in comparison with the polyamine concentrations in controls, and were correlated to the tumor aggressiveness as evaluated by histological grade and Ki-67 proliferative index. On the other hand, correlation was found between polyamine levels in the tumor and the status of the hormone receptors. In the mammary tissue close to the cancer, polyamines dramatically decreased in comparison with the polyamine levels of tissue samples removed around the histologically proven benign tumors. The changes of the polyamine concentrations in the histologically normal breast tissue in the vicinity of the cancer could play a role in the cancer development and need further studies, especially if polyamines are considered as a potential therapeutic target in breastcancer.
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  • 116
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; microsatellite instability ; microsatellite markers ; review ; survey
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Microsatellite markers may provide evidence of faulty DNA mismatch repair (MMR) via the detection of microsatellite instability (MSI). The choice of microsatellite markers may impact on the MSI detection rate. In hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (HNPCC), several informative microsatellite markers have been recommended. Two of these, BAT 25 and BAT 26, are quasi-homozygous, enabling analysis of tumour DNA in the absence of paired normal DNA. Sixty-six breast cancer patients under 45 years of age at diagnosis were examined for MSI at BAT 25 and BAT 26. Tumour DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue. No MSI was detected at the BAT 25 or BAT 26 loci. An additional five microsatellite markers, known to be informative for HNPCC, were examined for MSI in these patients. Apparently-normal profiles were achieved. A tabulated survey of 306 microsatellite markers used to detect MSI in breast cancer revealed that only 35.5% of markers detected MSI at an average rate of 2.9%. The MSI detection rate at the specific HNPCC markers varied from 0% to 10% in breast cancer, with D175250 and TP53 being the HNPCC markers most suitable for analysis of breast cancer. The size of the microsatellite marker's repeat unit did not impact on MSI detection rates. Compiled data from large studies (n〉100) revealed D115988 as the marker with the highest MSI detection rate. Genomic instability pathways of carcinogenesis, characterised by MMR defects and MSI, appear to play a role in the genesis of some breast cancer types.
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  • 117
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: active processed cathepsin D ; breast cancer ; prognostic indicator ; survival analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The relative amounts of the precursor (52 kDa) and processed (31,27 kDa) forms of cathepsin D have been analyzed by Western blotting in biopsied breast tissue cytosols from 134 lesions from invasive breast cancer patients, 24 lesions from patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), 227 lesions from benign breast disease patients, and 28 lesions from normal control subjects. The mean relative percentage amount of the 31 kDa form was significantly increased (p〈0.001) in the invasive breast cancer group compared to the other three groups. In addition, the mean relative percentage amount of the 31 kDa form was significantly increased (p〈0.05) in node-positive compared to node-negative breast cancer patients. In the benign breast disease group, patients with proliferative-type disease had a significantly increased (p=0.02) mean relative percentage amount of the 31 kDa form of cathepsin D compared to patients with nonproliferative-type disease. Invasive breast cancer patients were followed for up to 75 months to determine if the relative percentage amount of the 31 kDa form of cathepsin D was predictive of disease-free and overall survival. Although the amount of the 31 kDa form was not predictive of disease-free survival, patients in the ‘high’ 31 kDa group (〉18) were significantly (p〈0.05) more likely to die than patients in the ‘low’ 31 kDa group (≤18%). The 12 patients who died were all node-positive and in the high 31 kDa group. It thus appears that the relative amount of the processed, active 31 kDa form of cathepsin D is a useful prognostic indicator, at least in node-positive breast cancer patients.
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  • 118
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: aromatase inhibitor ; breast cancer ; liarozole ; retinoic acid
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Liarozole is an imidazole compound that inhibits enzymes involved in steroid hormone aromatisation and retinoid metabolism. The IDBBC branch of the EORTC has performed a series of phase II studies of the agent in four groups of postmenopausal women with metastatic breast cancer. This paper reports the results of the first two groups: ‘Chemotherapy Resistant’ (unrestricted ER status, 1 or 2 prior chemotherapy regimens, 0–2 prior hormonal therapies) and ‘Potentially Hormone Sensitive’ (ER positive or unknown, 1 or 2 prior hormonal therapies with a substantial disease free interval or progression free survival, and no history of chemotherapy for metastatic disease). Liarozole was administered at 150–300 mg orally bid. The objective response rate was 12% in the ‘Chemotherapy Resistant’ group (n=34), and 22% in the ‘Potentially Hormone Sensitive’ group (n=37), with median response durations of 9 and 14 months, respectively. Median time to treatment failure was only 2 months in both groups, due largely to the significant percentage (24%) of patients who ceased treatment following excessive mucocutaneous and gastrointestinal toxicity. This adverse event profile will limit its use in breast cancer. Results of the ‘ER negative’ and ‘Tamoxifen Refractory’ groups will be reported in a future paper.
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  • 119
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: TSG101 ; breast cancer ; tumor suppressor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Functional inactivation of the tsg101 gene in mouse fibroblasts results in cell transformation and the ability to form metastatic tumors in nude mice. The human tsg101 gene was mapped to chromosome 11q15.1-2 and found to mutate in some cancer patients. To test the expression pattern of the tsg101 gene in Chinese breast cancer patients, we analyzed the mRNA by RT-PCR in 51 breast cancer patients. The full-length tsg101 and 7 truncated transcripts were detected in both normal and matched tumor tissues. A short transcript with a deletion of nucleotides 154–1054 is frequently presented in late-stage breast cancers. TSG101 protein expression was also detected by Western blot analysis in 30 breast cancer patients. A predicted full-length 46 kDa and three proteins with smaller molecular weight were detected. The full-length 46 kDa protein was less expressed in tumor specimens. Immunohistochemical stains from 10 patients of each stage 0–4 revealed that TSG101 protein was predominantly present in the cytoplasm. Cell nuclei were occasionally immunopositive and the chromosomes were deeply stained during cell division. The intracellular location and the expression of TSG101 protein were both not stage-dependent in primary breast cancers. In addition, normal mammary glands were more homogenously immunopositive than invasive ductal carcinoma. These results support the notion that the aberrant expression of TSG101 in breast cancer is associated with altered cell growth.
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  • 120
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; growth rates ; histological grade ; primary medical treatment ; radiotherapy fractionation ; ‘split-course’ radiotherapy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract ‘Timing’ of treatment in breast cancer may refer to intervals within a single management or between different managements. Rates of shrinkage of breast cancers in response to treatment are related to histological grade and may be used as surrogates for growth rates. Histological grade should predict appropriate timing of treatment. Four cases of locally advanced breast cancer that illustrate a number of different types of interval are presented. Two tumours of differing histological grade (II and III) had been managed by historical ‘split-course’ radiotherapy and two similar grade III tumours were managed by primary medical treatment, followed at different intervals by radiotherapy. In the grade III tumours different radiotherapy fractionation régimes and effects of varying intervals between mangements are compared. The theoretical advantage of shrinkage (leading to reoxygenation) during the gap in ‘split-course’ radiotherapy is realized only in relatively slowly growing and shrinking tumours. Grade III tumours grow rapidly. They have the potential to shrink rapidly in response to appropriate treatment, namely intensive chemotherapy or radiotherapy but not hormones. Inadequate treatment leads to growth in intervals between individual doses, whether of drugs or radiation, and to failure of local control. The advantage of surgery or primary medical treatment will be lost if the interval between managements is too long in relation to the volume doubling time. Histological grade is a good guide of this parameter; the grade III tumours are particularly vulnerable to gaps in treatment.
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  • 121
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; 5-fluorouracil ; methotrexate ; pharmacodynamics ; pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A novel approach is described to simulate effect site pharmacodynamics of anticancer drugs. This approach is based on (i) the in vivo measurement of unbound, interstitial drug pharmacokinetics (PK) in solid tumor lesions in patients and (ii) a subsequent pharmacodynamic (PD) simulation of the time versus drug concentration profile in an in vitro setting. For this purpose, breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were exposed in vitro to the time versus interstitial tumor concentration profiles of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and methotrexate (MTX) from primary breast cancer lesions in patients. This led to a maximal reduction in the viable cell count of 69 on day 4, and of 71 on day 7 for 5-FU and MTX, respectively. This effect was dependent on the initial cell count and was characterized by a high interindividual variability. For 5-FU there was a significant correlation between the maximum antitumor effect and the intratumoral AUC (r = 0.82, p = 0.0005), whereas no correlation could be shown for MTX (r = 0.05, p = 0.88). We conclude, that the in-vivo-PK / in-vitro-PD model presented in this study may provide a rational approach for describing and predicting pharmacodynamics of cytotoxic drugs at the target site. Data derived from this approach support the concept that tumor penetration of 5-FU may be a response-limiting event, while the response to MTX may be determined by events beyond interstitial fluid kinetics.
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  • 122
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; cyclin D1 ; MPA ; proliferation ; T47D cell line
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract While progesterone is a known differentiation-inducing factor in the human endometrium, for the breast epithelium both proliferation-inducing and -inhibiting effects have been described. Cyclin D1, which is required for cell cycle progression in G1 and has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer has been implicated as a possible mediator of such effects. In the present study we thus investigated the effects of the progestin agonist MPA (medroxy-progesterone acetate) on proliferation of T47D breast cancer cells. In parallel experiments, the regulation of the human cyclin D1 promoter as well as cyclin D1 protein levels under the influence of MPA were studied. Our results show an increase of proliferative activity in T47D cells after 24 and 48 h of MPA treatment follwed by inhibition of proliferation after 72 h. In Western blot analysis an increased expression level of cyclin D1 protein can be observed after 24 h of MPA stimulation, while at 72 h the protein levels are barely detectable. Transient transfection experiments with a luciferase reporter plasmid containing the human cyclin D1 promoter showed an induction of the promoter after 24 and 36 h of MPA treatment followed by a reduction in promoter activity. In conclusion, our results confirm the existence of a biphasic response of T47D cell proliferation in response to MPA treatment, consisting of stimulation of proliferation followed by inhibition, and further implicate cyclin D1 as a mediator of these effects, since the cyclin D1 promoter shows a similar biphasic response in this context.
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  • 123
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: adjuvant treatment ; breast cancer ; chemotherapy ; immunotherapy ; radiotherapy ; randomized trial
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract With a median follow-up of 14 years, the combination of polyadenylic–polyuridylic acid plus locoregional radiotherapy (257 patients) has significantly improved disease-free survival (p = 0.03) and significantly reduced the incidence of metastases (p = 0.04) when compared to CMF alone (260 patients), in women with operable breast cancer. The trial does not, however, permit an appreciation of the respective role of radiotherapy and PolyAU in these results.
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  • 124
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: affinity chromatography ; breast cancer ; immunoglobulin G subclasses ; sensitivity ; specificity ; tumor marker, %IgG1
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The diagnostic value of the decrease in percentage of immunoglobulin G1 (%IgG1) in breast cancer was analyzed with special emphasis on early tumor stages. IgG1 and total IgG were preoperatively measured in the sera of a total of 801 individuals using a modified quantitative affinity chromatography. Group A consisted of 174 healthy individuals of both sexes, group B of 324 female patients with benign breast disease, and group C of 303 patients with invasive and non-invasive breast cancer. Within group C, 13 patients presented with intraductal carcinoma, and 22 patients with a pT1a-tumour (diameter less than 0.5 cm). The %IgG1 values were compared among groups A, B and C. In addition, correlations were sought between %IgG1 values of group C and tumor size, stage (UICC), histopathological grade and oestrogen (ER) and progesteron receptor (PR) expression. The mean value of %IgG1 in group A was 63.3 ± 0.5 s.e.m., in group B 57.75 ± 0.4 s.e.m. and in group C 52.37 ± 0.5 s.e.m. The differences of mean values were highly significant between all three groups. Sensitivity and specificity of %IgG1 to discriminate between group A and C were 75% and 87%, and between group B and C 62% and 63%, respectively. The significant decrease of %IgG1 in total serum IgG is able to distinguish patients with breast cancer of more than 5 mm in diameter from healthy controls and patients with benign breast diseases. Finally, calculated posterior probabilities revealed that within certain concentration limits %IgG1 may provide predictive information with high xprobabilities.
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  • 125
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: alcohol ; breast cancer ; cohort ; women
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Available epidemiological evidence indicates that alcohol intake is associated with a higher risk of developing breast cancer. Plausible biological pathways include its effect on levels of estrogens, cell membrane integrity and cell-to-cell communication, inhibition of DNA repair, and congener effect. The present study evaluated the impact of alcohol on mortality from breast cancer, an area with relatively few studies in the literature. The subjects were participants in a Canadian prospective cohort study, the National Breast Screening Study (NBSS). Women were enrolled in the cohort from 1980 to 1985 to evaluate the efficacy of mammographic screening. Information on usual diet and alcohol intake at enrolment and other epidemiological variables was collected by means of a mailed, self-administered questionnaire. Mortality from breast cancer during follow- up to 31 December, 1993 was ascertained by record linkage to the Canadian Mortality Data Base maintained by Statistics Canada. During the follow-up period of 1980–1993 (average 10.3 years), 223 deaths from breast cancer were identified for this analysis. The hazard ratios for the risk of death from breast cancer increased with intakes of total alcohol of 10–20 g/day (1.039, 1.009–1.071) and 〉 20 g/day (1.063, 1.029–1.098). This increase was contributed largely by the intake of wine, a 15% increase in risk at intakes higher than 10 g/day of alcohol from wine. Alcohol from spirits was associated with a small decrease in risk of death (hazard ratio at 10 g/day, 0.945, 0.915–0.976). The effect of alcohol from beer was not significant in the two categories studied. Although our results were statistically significant, the magnitude of the change in risk was small.
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  • 126
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: apoptosis ; breast cancer ; caspases ; NF-κB ; TRAIL
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Most breast cancer cell lines are resistant to TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) induced apoptosis. In sensitive breast cancer cell lines TRAIL rapidly induces the cleavage and activation of caspases leading to the subsequent cleavage of downstream caspase substrates. In contrast, there is no caspase activation in the resistant cell lines. The transcription factor NF-κB can inhibit apoptosis induced by a variety of stimuli including activation of death receptors. We investigated whether NF-κB contributes to the resistance of breast cancer cells to TRAIL induced apoptosis. All of the resistant breast cancer cell lines expressed NF-κB and had detectable NF-κB activity in nuclear extracts prior to treatment with TRAIL. Upon TRAIL treatment, a significant increase in NF-κB activity was seen in most of the cell lines. To directly test if NF-κB activity contributes to the resistance of these cell lines to TRAIL, we transiently transfected the resistant cell lines with an inhibitor of NF-κB (IκBΔN) and measured TRAIL induced apoptosis in control and transfected cells. All of the resistant cell lines tested showed an increase in TRAIL induced apoptosis when transfected with the IκBΔN. These results demonstrate that TRAIL resistant breast cancer cells fail to rapidly activate the apoptotic machinery but they do activate NF-κB. Inhibition of NF-κB activity increases the sensitivity to TRAIL mediated apoptosis in resistant cells. These results suggest that agents which inhibit NF-κB should increase the clinical efficacy of TRAIL in breast cancer cells.
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  • 127
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; EGF receptor ; erbB2 ; estrogen receptor ; LAR ; 13762NF tumor ; tyrosine phosphatase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Several prognostic indices in breast cancer, including c-erbB2, epithelial growth factor receptors (EGFR), estrogen and progesterone receptors are signal transduction molecules. Recently, expression of another signal transduction molecule, the protein tyrosine phosphatase LAR, has been suggested to be increased in breast cancer. The objective of the current investigation was to examine the relationship between LAR expression and prognostic parameters in breast cancer. LAR expression was associated with metastatic potential in the well-characterized 13762NF rat mammary adenocarcinoma clones. The metastatic MTLn3 and MTLn2 clones expressed sizable amounts of LAR. The essentially non-metastatic MTC clone had little LAR expression. C-erbB2 had highest expression in the highly metastatic MTLn3 clone, but c-erbB2 levels were sizeable in the weakly metastatic MTLn2 and non-metastatic MTC clone. EGFR expression had the strongest association with a clone's metastatic potential, being very high in MTLn3, weak in MTLn2, and undetectable in MTC. In human breast cancer specimens, LAR expression was strongly positive in 50% of metastatic cases but in only 21% of ‘non-metastatic’ cases. As with the 13762NF-derived clones, c-erbB2 expression was strongly positive independent of metastatic phenotype. However, 46% (6/13) of cases that were strongly positive for c-erbB2 were strongly positive for LAR. Only 17% (2/11) of negative or weakly c-erbB2 positive samples were strongly positive for LAR. All ER+ positive tumors (n = 15) were positive for LAR and 53% of these tumors were strongly positive for LAR. In ER− negative cases, only 1 of 11 was strongly positive for LAR. While the current data indicate a strong association between ER and LAR expression in breast cancer tissue (p = 0.003), additional studies are warranted to further explore the relationship between LAR and prognostic indices of breast cancer progression.
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  • 128
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; bilateral ; loss of heterozygosity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Women who develop bilateral breast cancer at an early age are likely to harbour germline mutations in breast cancer susceptibility genes. The aim of this study was to test for concordant genetic changes in left and right breast cancer of young women (age 〈50) with bilateral breast cancer that may suggest an inherited breast cancer predisposition. Microsatellite markers were used to test for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in left and right tumours for 31 women with premenopausal bilateral breast cancer. Markers adjacent to or within candidate genes on 17p (p53), 17q (BRCA1), 13q (BRCA2), 11q (Ataxia Telangiectasia-ATM) and 3p (FHIT) were chosen. Mutational testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 was performed for cases where blood was available. Concordant LOH in both left and right tumours was demonstrated for at least one of the markers tested in 16/31(54%) cases. Where allelic loss was demonstrated for both left and right breast cancer, the same allele was lost on each occasion. This may suggest a common mutational event. Four cases showed concordant loss of alleles in both left and right breast cancer at D17S791 (BRCA1). BRCA1 mutations were identified in two of these cases where blood was available. Four cases showed concordant LOH at D13S155 (BRCA2). Concordant LOH was further demonstrated in seven cases for D11S1778 (ATM) and four cases for D3S1300 (which maps to the FHIT gene), suggesting a possible role for these tumour suppressor genes in this subgroup of breast cancer patients. No concordant allelic loss was demonstrated for D17S786 suggesting that germline mutations in p53 are unlikely in such cases of bilateral breast cancer.
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  • 129
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; psychosocial ; supportive care ; utilization
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This paper reports on the results of a survey of utilization of professional supportive care services by women with breast cancer, and on patterns of differential service utilization by sub-groups of patients. Study participants were women with invasive breast cancer diagnosed 23–36 months prior to contact about the study, and randomly selected from the Ontario Cancer Registry. From among 1,119 eligible women sent survey questionnaires, 731 returned completed questionnaires (65%). A total of 31% of respondents reported accessing one or more of the following professionals: social worker, psychologist, psychiatrist, dietitian, physiotherapist. Among those who responded to a question about whether they would have liked specific services, 34% reported that there was at least one professional supportive care service they would have liked to use, but were unable to access. Factors shown to be related to greater utilization of services included: younger age, higher household income, employed or student status, private health insurance coverage, and having received chemotherapy. Overall, there was a surprisingly low utilization of professional specialized supportive care services among women with breast cancer. Policy implications include finding strategies to better inform cancer patients about existing services, and ensuring that a core set of services are available to all patients.
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  • 130
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; c-neu transgenic mice ; melatonin ; linolenic acid ; flaxseed oil ; IGF-1 concentrations
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers and is a leading cause of mortality in women. The TG.NK transgenic mouse line expresses the c-neu breast cancer oncogene under the control of a MMTV promoter and appears to be a useful animal model for evaluation of intervention strategies to delay/prevent breast cancer. Fiber-rich nonpurified diet (NTP-2000) and some retinoid analogues have been shown to significantly delay the development of mammary cancer in the TG.NK model. Four-week-old hemizygous TG.NK female mice with MMTV/c-neu oncogene fed NTP-2000 diet were gavaged with 0.05–0.2 ml of flaxseed oil as the source of ω-3 rich PUFA, or melatonin at 50–200 mg/kg or a combination of 0.10 ml flaxseed oil and 50 mg/kg melatonin in a gavage volume of 0.2 ml per mouse with corn oil as the vehicle for 30 weeks. The time course of the mammary tumor incidence pattern was advanced by flaxseed oil compared to the control. At the high dose (0.2 ml) of flaxseed oil, when the ω-6: ω-3 PUFA ratio was closer to 1, there was some delay in the growth of mammary tumors. Melatonin delayed the appearance of palpable tumors and the growth of the tumors with a dose-related statistically significant negative trend for the incidence of tumors. The combination of flaxseed oil and melatonin caused a significant decrease in the number of tumors and tumor weight per mouse compared to the control and to flaxseed oil but not to melatonin alone. Flaxseed oil may delay the growth of mammary tumors if the ω-6:ω-3 PUFA ratio of fat consumed is closer to 1. Melatonin has the potential to markedly delay the appearance of palpable mammary tumors. Studies are in progress with the TG.NK mouse model to understand the histological and molecular changes associated with the dose-response pattern of mammary tumor incidence and growth after treatment with a broad range of doses of melatonin.
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  • 131
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: breast cancer ; cohort ; hydatidiform
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objectives: The etiology of breast cancer is only partially understood. Based on the findings that pregnancies reduce breast cancer risk, a possible inverse association between exposure to the placental hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and the risk of breast cancer has been suggested. Hydatidiform mole, a gestational trophoblastic disease, is associated with a high expression of hCG. We performed a population-based cohort study in which women with a history of hydatidiform mole were followed up for future cancer outcomes. Methods: All 3371 women with a notification of hydatidiform mole in the Swedish Cancer Registry between 1958 and 1993 were followed up for future cancer outcomes by record linkages within the registry. Results: In a total of 57,075 person-years of follow-up, 59 women had a diagnosis of breast cancer during follow-up, yielding an overall standardized incidence ratio of 1.3 (95% CI 1.0–1.7). Conclusion: This finding is not consistent with the hypothesis of a protective effect of hCG exposure on breast cancer risk, but rather suggests an adverse association.
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  • 132
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: breast cancer ; body weight ; case–control study ; postmenopausal ; weight gain ; weight loss
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective: Although many studies have shown that higher weight increases the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, some aspects of this association are unclear. In order to examine the risk associated with different patterns of weight change, we analyzed data from a large case–control study of postmenopausal breast cancer. Methods: Participants included women aged 50–79 years (n = 5031) who are newly diagnosed with invasive breast cancer in Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Wisconsin. Similarly-aged population controls (n = 5255) were selected at random from driver's license files and Medicare beneficiary lists. Height, weight, and information on other breast cancer risk factors were ascertained by structured telephone interviews from 1992 to 1995, and logistic regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Women in the top quintile groups for height at age 20, recent weight, and recent body mass index had significantly increased risks of breast cancer. Among women who reached their highest adult weight at younger ages (≤45 years), increasing weight loss since that age was associated with a reduced risk of postmenopausal breast cancer (OR 0.90, CI 0.84–0.98, per 5 kg). However, weight loss among women whose highest weight occurred after age 45 was not associated with risk (OR 1.00, CI 0.95–1.05, per 5 kg). Weight gain since the lowest adult weight increased risk by 8% for each 5 kg of gain (OR 1.08, CI 1.06–1.11). Temporary weight cycling (weight loss followed by weight gain) was not associated with increased risk. Conclusions: Weight gain clearly increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. These data lend further support to efforts aimed at helping women avoid weight gain as they age.
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  • 133
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: breast cancer ; database ; register
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective: Clinical databases have been invented to monitor treatment outcomes, therapies or diseases, often in great detail. The traditional population-based cancer registry has been invented to collect a minimum of information about all incident cancers. Do clinical databases render population-based cancer registers obsolete as sources of cancer cases for epidemiological study? Methods: We compared the study base of first incident breast cancer cases in Denmark in 1978–1994 known from the national cancer register and from the national clinical database on breast cancer patients. The clinical database is used for monitoring protocoled treatment. Results: Combining the two data sources we found 48,522 first primary breast cancers in Denmark 1978–1994. Of these, 37,640 were included in both data sources, 2151 were included only in the clinical database, and 8731 were included only in the cancer register. A major part of the difference between the two data sources was due to treatment-focused data collection in the clinical database, and a minor part due to differences in the registration of second primaries, date of diagnosis and invasiveness. Conclusions: Cancer incidence data are sensitive to registration procedures and definitions. Clinical cancer databases cannot generally replace the traditional cancer register as a reliable data source for incident cancer cases in a national population.
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  • 134
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: breast cancer ; breast density ; mammographic density ; risk factors
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective: Mammographically defined percent breast density is an important risk factor for breast cancer, but the epidemiology of this trait is poorly understood. Although several studies have investigated the associations between reproductive factors and density, few data are available on the associations of breast density and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), physical activity, education, alcohol and smoking. Methods: We investigated the associations of known and suspected breast cancer risk factors with breast density in a large breast cancer family study. Information was collected on members of 426 families through telephone interviews, mailed questionnaires and mammography. Mammographic films on 1900 women were digitized and breast density was estimated in discrete five-unit increments by one radiologist. Analysis of covariance techniques were used and all analyses were performed stratified by menopausal status. Results: Similar to other reports, nulliparity, late age at first birth, younger age and lower body mass index were associated with increased percent density in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women, and hormone replacement therapy among postmenopausal women. Higher levels of alcohol consumption and low WHR were associated with increased percent density among both premenopausal and postmenopausal women (differences of 3–11% between high and low categories). However, smoking and education were inversely associated with percent density among premenopausal (p = 0.004 and p = 0.003, respectively) but not postmenopausal women (p = 0.52 and p = 0.90). Physical activity was not associated with percent density in either stratum (p values 〉 0.25). Combined, these factors explained approximately 37% of the variability in the percent density measure in premenopausal women and 19% in postmenopausal women. Conclusions: Many of these factors may potentially affect breast cancer risk through their effect on percent breast density.
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  • 135
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: breast cancer ; breast implants ; incidence ; mortality ; prognosis ; silicone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective:Although clinical reports have raised concern that breast implants may either increase the risk of breast cancer or delay its diagnosis, epidemiologic studies have generally shown implant recipients to be at a reduced risk of subsequent breast cancer. A large retrospective cohort study was undertaken to clarify effects of cosmetic breast implantation. Methods:Medical records of 13,488 women receiving cosmetic implants at 18 plastic surgery practices and a group of 3936 patients who received other types of plastic surgery at the same practices were reviewed and information abstracted. Questionnaires were sent to all subjects located as alive, with 71% being completed. Attempts were made to obtain medical verification for all reported cancers and to obtain death certificates for deceased subjects. Results:A total of 136 breast cancers were observed among the breast implant patients. External analyses, using general population rates from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program, resulted in 152.2 cases expected and a standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of 0.9 (95% CI 0.8–1.1). A comparable SIR was found for the other plastic surgery patients (SIR = 1.0, 95% CI 0.7–1.2). Internal analyses, directly comparing the implant patients with the other plastic surgery patients, showed a RR of 0.8 (95% CI 0.6–1.1). In neither the external nor internal analyses was there any systematic variation in risk by age or calendar year of initial implant. Risk also did not vary by years of follow-up or by type of implant. Risk was not affected by exclusion of patients who received their implants following surgery for benign breast disease. Although breast tumors tended to be detected at a somewhat later stage among the breast implant than the comparison patients, the difference was not statistically significant, nor was there any significant difference in breast cancer mortality between the two groups. Conclusions:Breast implants do not appear to alter the risk of subsequent breast cancer.
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  • 136
    ISSN: 1573-7039
    Keywords: Mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor ; tumor suppressor gene ; breast cancer ; loss of heterozygosity ; somatic mutation ; microsatellite instability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (M6P/IGF2R)3 is considereda “candidate” tumor suppressor gene. This hypothesis has been provoked by the identificationof loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the M6P/IGF2R locus on chromosome 6q26 in breast andliver cancer, accompanied by point mutations in the remaining allele. Somatic mutations incoding region microsatellites have also been described in replication error positive (RER+)tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, endometrium and brain. These genetic data are compelling,but a tumor suppressor gene candidate has to meet functional as well as genetic criteria. Thisreview weighs the evidence and discusses the observations that are necessary to promoteM6P/IGF2R from candidate to bona fide tumor suppressor gene.
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  • 137
    ISSN: 1573-7039
    Keywords: Premalignancy ; risk ; breast cancer
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Premalignant breast disease in humans is a concept that admits to a broad range of elements and possible determinants predicting the likelihood of developing breast cancer. Most of these elements are relative, such as the risk of breast cancer for women that is 130 times that of men and peaks at a younger age by about 10 years. Breast cancer is clearly a stochastic, multifactorial process that evolves over many years in which we must make predictions by likelihood. This review will present the most specially defined and reliably proven of these elements, highlighting anatomic and molecular factors.
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  • 138
    ISSN: 1573-3599
    Keywords: BRCA1 ; motivation ; satisfaction ; coping, genetic counseling ; breast cancer
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Abstract Women with a strong family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer can now have genetic testing, that may identify mutations associated with increased cancer predisposition. Within the context of a clinical trial evaluating printed educational materials, we examined motivation, satisfaction, coping, and perceptions of genetic counseling and testing among 159 women who underwent pretest counseling and made a testing decision. Ninety-six percent of the participants elected to have BRCA1/2 testing. When making a decision about genetic testing, study participants were concerned less about the potential negative effects that could result from testing than the potential benefits. After counseling, participants said that they felt better able to make decisions that were right for them and that their questions and concerns were adequately addressed during the session. Ninety-five percent of the women were satisfied with their test decision. Participants used a range of strategies to cope with thoughts and feelings about cancer and/or genetic testing immediately following test decision. Results suggest that the genetic counseling session helped women make decisions about testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2, even in the setting of a trial in which all women also received detailed educational materials. Further, the results indicate that future research focusing on perceptions of risks and benefits of testing and of coping strategies immediately following test decision may be warranted.
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  • 139
    ISSN: 1573-3343
    Keywords: adolescent ; mother ; breast cancer
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract While the literature supports the view that a parent's illness will have an impact on a child, less specific attention has been given to the impact of a mother's breast cancer on her adolescent daughter. In this paper, clinical vignettes derived from interviews with adolescent daughters (ages 12–19) living with mothers who have breast cancer are presented to illustrate some of the concerns daughters have about themselves and their mother's illness. The daughters express anxiety about changes in family roles, but seem more concerned about the potential loss of the mother/daughter relationship. They describe their fears of recurrence of the disease as well as getting the disease themselves. The girls also demonstrate great strength; resilience and hope in the face of the challenges presented by the changes in their lives. Girls who had mothers die of the disease are not included in this article. Implications for treatment are discussed.
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  • 140
    ISSN: 1436-2813
    Keywords: Key Words: genetic changes ; prognostic factor ; breast cancer ; amplification ; loss of heterozygosity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: ERBB2 , INT2, and MYC genes, in 131 patients with breast carcinoma, 49 of whom had lymph node involvement, but none of whom had distant metastases. Among the several chromosome arms tested, LOH at 17q was correlated with lymph node metastasis. Amplification of the ERBB2, MYC, and INT2 genes was found more frequently in tumors from patients with lymph node metastases than in tumors from those without lymph node metastases. Univariate analysis demonstrated that LOH at 17q and INT2 amplification were factors influencing disease-free survival (DFS). A multivariate analysis was performed on 89 tumors that were able to be evaluated for both LOH at 17q and INT2 amplification, and the results showed that patients who had tumors with these genetic changes were more likely to have a poor prognosis. The findings of this study suggest that investigating genetic changes, in addition to conventional clinicopathologic factors, may contribute to defining groups of breast cancer patients with differences in prognosis.
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  • 141
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Der Anaesthesist 48 (1999), S. 630-638 
    ISSN: 1432-055X
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Intrakranielle Druckmessung ; Messgenauigkeit ; Intrakranielle Drucksonden ; Messtechnik ; Compliance ; Key words ICP monitoring ; Measurement accuracy ; ICP probes ; Compliance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract Goal: Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring has a key role within the neuromonitoring, although ICP does not monitor processes of the central neuron directly and only with delay. One of the important factors in ICP monitoring is measurement accuracy. For a better understanding of ICP probes and their differences, the function and principles of intracranial pressure transducers should be evaluated from a technical point of view. Method: The principles of ICP measurement were analyzed and compared. Practical applications of these principles were examined and examples of different ICP probes were discussed regarding their mode of pressure transformation. The technical advances of ICP monitoring were analyzed. Results: Since LUNDBERG, a variety of different types of transducers has been developed. Ventricular ICP monitoring has been supplemented by extradural and intraparenchymatous probes. An increasing miniaturization of the transducers has emerged. Additionally, fiberoptic systems have been developed. Latest developments include multifunctional ICP probes. So far, the main problem of most types of transducers consists in the inability to assess measurement accuracy of a probe during the period of patient monitoring. Conclusion: ICP probes should be tested better for correct function by the manufacturer prior to sale. External controls of the measurement accuracy should be performed more frequently to ensure constant quality. Future ICP transducers have still to be more cost- effective.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Fragestellung: Die Messung des intrakraniellen Drucks hat eine Schlüsselstellung innerhalb des Neuromonitorings erhalten, obwohl durch den Hirndruck die eigentlichen metabolischen Prozesse am zentralen Neuron nicht direkt und auch nur zeitlich verzögert registriert werden können. Voraussetzung für eine zuverlässige Hirndruckmessung sind spezifische Eigenschaften von Hirndrucksonden, die im folgenden untersucht werden sollen. Diese sollen dabei aus messtechnischer Sicht analysiert und kategorisiert werden, um ein besseres Verständnis für deren unterschiedliche Funktionsweise und Messeigenschaften zu erhalten. Methodik: Es werden die verschiedenen Messprinzipien, die bislang zur Anwendung kamen, dargelegt. Es wird aufgezeigt, wie diese Prinzipien praktisch genutzt werden. Probleme der Messgenauigkeit werden aus messtechnischer und klinischer Sicht erörtert. Ergebnisse: Es wurden seit Lundberg eine Vielzahl verschiedener Transducertypen entwickelt. Die ventrikuläre Hirndruckmessung wurde ergänzt durch epidurale und intraparenchymatöse Sonden. Eine zunehmende Miniaturisierung der Transducer und eine Verbesserung der Messtechnik hat eingesetzt. Zusätzlich wurden fiberoptische Systeme entwickelt. Neueste Entwicklungen zielen auf Multifunktionssonden ab, die zusätzlich zum intrakraniellen Druck auch die Hirntemperatur und weitere Parameter gleichzeitig messen können. Hauptproblem vieler der bisherigen Sonden ist das Fehlen einer direkten Kontrolle des Messverhaltens während des klinischen Einsatzes. Schlussfolgerungen: Sonden sollten vor Gebrauch vom Hersteller noch besser auf Funktionsfähigkeit überprüft und entsprechend ausgewiesen werden. Externe Kontrollen zur Überprüfung des Messverhaltens von intrakraniellen Drucksonden sollten zusätzlich verstärkt durchgeführt werden, um die Qualitätssicherung zu verbessern. Zukünftige intrakranielle Drucksonden müssen noch kostengünstiger werden.
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  • 142
    ISSN: 1573-7209
    Keywords: angiogenesis ; breast cancer ; collagen IV ; heparan sulphate proteoglycan ; laminin ; vascular basement membrane
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract There is a well established correlation between increased breast tumour microvessel density (MVD) and reduced prognosis. The aims of this study were to investigate (1) if MVD is elevated in regions other than `hotspots' of node positive versus node negative breast tumours, and (2) to quantitate the percentage of vessels without vascular basement membrane (VBM) components in high vascular density (HVD) and average vascular density (AVD) regions of node positive and node negative breast tumours. Serial sections were immunostained for CD31 and double-stained for CD31 and collagen IV (CollIV), laminin (LAM) or heparan sulphate proteoglycan (HSPG). Microvessel counts were obtained from HVD and AVD regions and the number of VBM positive vessels were expressed as a percentage of total CD31 positive vessels. MVD was significantly higher in both the HVD and AVD regions of node positive compared with node negative breast tumours (t-test; P 〈 0.03). The average percent vessels positive for CollIV, LAM or HSPG ranged from 18%–45% and did not differ between node positive and negative breast tumours (t-test; P 〉 0.05). No differences were observed in VBM immunostaining between regions of HVD and AVD (t-test; P 〉 0.05). These results demonstrate that vascular density is elevated throughout node positive breast tumours, rather than just in `hotspots', and show that there is no apparent difference in the percentage of VBM-naked vessels in node positive versus node negative breast tumours.
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  • 143
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: age of diagnosis ; ascertainment ; breast cancer ; genetic anticipation ; prospective cohort family study
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Genetic anticipation is characterized by an earlier age of disease onset, increased severity, and a greater proportion of affected individuals in succeeding generations. The discovery of trinucleotide repeat expansion (TRE) mutations as the molecular correlate of anticipation in a number of rare Mendelian neurodegenerative disorders has led to a resurgence of interest in this phenomenon. Because of the difficulties presented to traditional genetics by complex diseases, the testing for genetic anticipation coupled with TRE detection has been proposed as a strategy for expediting the identification of susceptibility genes for complex disorders. In the case of breast cancer, a number of previous studies found evidence consistent with genetic anticipation. It is known that a proportion of such families are linked to either BRCA1 or BRCA2, but no TRE mutations have been identified. It has been shown that the typical ascertainment employed in studies purporting to demonstrate genetic anticipation combined with unadjusted statistical analysis can dramatically elevate the type I error. We re‐examine the evidence for anticipation in breast cancer by applying a new statistical approach that appears to have validity in the analysis of anticipation to data ascertained from a recent follow‐up of a large prospective cohort family study of breast cancer. Using this approach, we find no statistically significant evidence for genetic anticipation in familial breast cancer. We discuss the limitations of our analysis, including the problem of adequate sample size for this new statistical test.
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  • 144
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; cell interactions ; 1,25‐dihydroxyvitamin D3 ; fibroblast ; normal epithelial cell
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Mesenchymal‐epithelial interactions are of paramount importance during normal and tumoral breast developments. We have investigated the paracrine growth regulation of normal and tumoral breast epithelial cells by fibroblasts derived from normal or pathological breast tissues. In some cases, breast cancer MCF‐7 cells or normal epithelial cells in primary culture were cocultured with fibroblasts in a Transwell system allowing diffusible factor exchanges. Alternatively, conditioned medium produced by fibroblast cultures was added to epithelial cell cultures. Fibroblasts were shown to stimulate the proliferation of normal and carcinoma cells through paracrine mechanisms. However, the paracrine exchanges appeared to be different in normal versus tumoral breast epithelial cell growth regulation. Moreover, vitamin D‐related compounds that have been proposed as anti‐tumoral drugs were studied for their ability to affect normal and tumoral mammary epithelial cell proliferation and to interfere with the growth‐regulatory activity of fibroblasts. Whereas vitamin D compounds inhibited MCF‐7 cell growth, they led to a marked stimulation of the proliferation of normal mammary epithelial cells. Moreover, it was shown that the vitamin D analog EB 1089 can block the mitogenic effect of fibroblast‐conditioned medium on tumoral but not normal breast epithelial cells. The differential effects of vitamin D compounds on cell proliferation provide further data in favor of the different behaviours of normal and tumoral mammary epithelial cells. The potential therapeutic use of vitamin D derivatives in the treatment of breast cancer is supported by these results but their growth‐stimulatory properties on normal epithelial cells cannot be overlooked.
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  • 145
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: α2‐adrenergic agonists ; α2‐adrenergic antagonists ; α2‐adrenoceptor ; breast cancer ; catecholamines ; human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract (-)Epinephrine (Epi) and –Norepinephrine (NEpi) significantly stimulated tritiated Thymidine incorporation in MCF‐7 cells at concentrations 10–30 pM to 10 nM, with an EC50 of 10 pM for Epi and 14.2 pM for NEpi. To characterize this action, cells were incubated in the presence of NEpi or Epi and different antagonists. The β‐adrenergic antagonist Propanolol showed no effect on the agonist's stimulation, whereas the α‐adrenergic antagonist Phentolamine, reverted it completely at high concentrations (100 μM). The α1‐adrenergic antagonist Prazosin (Pra) acted only at high concentrations, while the α2‐adrenergic antagonist Yohimbine (Yo) reverted the stimulation at an EC50 of 0.11μM. Likewise, when the cells were incubated in the presence of the specific α2‐adrenergic agonist Clonidine (Clo), Thymidine incorporation was significantly stimulated at an EC50 of 0.298 pM. Again, the incubation of the cells in the presence of the α1‐adrenergic antagonist Pra exerted its action at high concentrations, whereas the α2‐adrenergic antagonist Yo showed a clear reversal of the agonist's enhancement at an EC50 of 0.136 μM. Moreover, Clo caused a clear and significant inhibition of stimulated cAMP levels both in the intracellular and the extracellular fractions. Yo showed a complete reversion of cAMP levels to control values in the presence of Clo, while Pra had the opposite effect. These data suggest that the stimulation provoked in Thymidine incorporation by the agonists Epi, NEpi, and Clo is, at least in part, due to an α2‐adrenergic mechanism directly on tumoral cells, and that the effect is coupled with inhibition of cAMP levels, as described for this kind of receptors.
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  • 146
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: HPV 16 ; breast cancer ; CIN III ; PCR ; southern blot ; in situ hybridization
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Women with both a history of high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN III) and breast carcinoma as second primary cancer were selected for studying the presence of HPV in breast carcinomas. Paraffin embedded material from 38 patients with 41 breast carcinoma cases after CIN III were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in situ hybridization. By PCR we detected HPV 16 DNA in 19 out of 41 cases (46%) of the breast carcinomas. One case proved to be HPV 16 positive also by in situ hybridization. HPV 16 was also detected in 32 out of the 38 patients with CIN III (84%). All HPV 16 positive breast carcinomas were HPV 16 positive in their corresponding CIN III lesions. Eight patients with diagnosed breast cancer before the CIN III lesions were used as controls. None of these had HPV positive breast carcinomas. No cases were positive for HPV 11, 18, or 33. HPV 16 was detected in the primary tumours, in local metastases from HPV 16 positive tumours, in a distant HPV 16 positive breast carcinoma metastasis to the colon, and in other primary cancers in patients with HPV 16 positive breast carcinomas and HPV 16 positive CIN III. Estrogen and progesterone receptors were quantified in the HPV positive and HPV negative breast carcinomas, and there was no significant difference in the fraction positive in the two groups. Oncogenic HPV DNA might be transported from an original site of infection to other organs by blood or lymph, and possibly be a factor in the development of cancer in different organs.
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  • 147
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: axillary dissection ; breast cancer ; sentinel lymphadenectomy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Sentinel lymphadenectomy is a useful way of assessing axillary status and obviating axillary dissection in patients with node-negative breast cancer. However, controversies remain concerning the optimal method to identify the sentinel lymph node (SLN) and detect micrometastases in this lymph node. We reviewed the literature concerning sentinel lymphadenectomy in breast cancer and reached the following conclusions: (a) A combination of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy with intraoperative dye-guided and gamma probe-guided methods achieves a higher rate of identification of SLN than any of these techniques alone. (b) Immediate and reliable intraoperative assessment of sentinel node status is vital to the technique's success. However, the reliability of sentinel node diagnosis using frozen sections is questionable, because micrometastatic foci cannot always be identified. (c) Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and/or immunohistochemistry on permanent sections are useful for the detection of micrometastases in the sentinel node. Although a reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) method is more sensitive than H&E staining and immunohistochemistry, it would not distinguish benign from malignant epithelial cells in the SLN. Therefore, further study is required before sentinel lymphadenectomy gains general acceptance for patients with primary breast cancer.
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  • 148
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: cell cycle ; cyclins ; p16 ; p27 ; retinoblastoma protein ; breast cancer ; survival
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cell cycle deregulation is frequently observed in tumors and has moreover been proposed to be a requirement for tumor development. By analyzing the expression of p27 by immunohistochemistry in 100 primary breast tumors and combining the analyses with our earlier characterization of cyclin E, D1, p16, and the retinoblastoma protein (pRB), we have been able to cover the majority of potential G1–S transition defects and observed that 90% of the tumors had alterations in one or several cell cycle regulatory proteins. Considerable variations in protein levels were found among tumors, with low p16 expression as the most common alteration followed by cyclin E or cyclin D1 overexpression, low p27 expression or pRB inactivation in decreasing prevalence. Tumors were grouped according to observed combinations of defects and the proliferative capacity was determined for each group by analyzing Ki–67 labeling index. Low proliferation was observed in tumors with: low p16; high cyclin Dl with normal or high p16 expression; and in tumors without cell cycle defects. Tumors with high cyclin E/low p27 or pRB defects showed higher proliferation. The survival differed noticeably for patients with various combinations of cell cycle defects, and four distinctive clusters were identified showing significantly different breast cancer specific survival (p 〈 0.0001) for both node-positive (p=0.0006) and node-negative patients (p 〈 0.0001). In summary, we have shown that G1-S transition defects are nearly obligatory in breast tumors and that the specific type of cell cycle defect influences the clinical behavior of the tumor.
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  • 149
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; EGFR mRNA ; epidermal growth factor receptor ; immunohistochemistry ; in situ hybridization ; oestrogen receptor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mRNA and protein has been determined in a group of breast carcinomas and compared to oestrogen and progesterone receptor (ER, PgR) status, as well as pathological features. In situ hybridization using a digoxigenin-labelled oligonucleotide probe was applied to formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections, and immunohistochemistry was used to determine EGFR protein. EGFR mRNA was detected in 66% of carcinomas with a third having labelling similar to normal breast tissue, 22% heterogeneous weak to strong labelling, and 11% strong labelling. EGFR protein was detected in 36% and these tumours had a strong correlation to lack of ER and high histological grade. The presence of EGFR protein was strongly correlated with more intense labelling for EGFR mRNA (p 〈 0.0001). This contrasted with normal breast in which both EGFR protein and mRNA were present with varying degrees in both tumours and a normal breast control. The ER-/PgR- carcinomas showed the full range of EGFR mRNA labelling. It is postulated that oestrogen or oestrogen regulated proteins are involved in regulation of EGFR mRNA and protein. In a proportion of tumours lacking steroid receptors regulation is lost, leading to EGFR overexpression.
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  • 150
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; cryosurgery ; cellular freezing injury ; freezing damage ; surgical oncology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract There is a growing interest in the use of cryosurgery to treat breast cancer, following recent breakthroughs in non-invasive imaging and in cryotechnology, as well as the recent success of cryosurgery in treating various types of cancer. However, since haphazard freezing does not guarantee tissue destruction, in order to apply this technique effectively it is essential to determine the thermal parameters that produce complete destruction of malignant tissue. This study seeks to quantitatively identify the relationship between thermal variables and the degree of freezing damage to human breast cancer cells. In order to do this, human breast cancer and normal cells were frozen with controlled thermal parameters using a directional solidification apparatus. Cell viability was determined after thawing using trypan blue, and correlated to the thermal variables used during freezing. Cellular damage is observed to increase with increasing cooling rates, due to the higher probability of intracellular ice formation. A double freeze thaw cycle significantly increases the extent of cell damage, and is sufficient to ensure complete cell destruction at final freezing temperatures of −40°c for a 25°c/min cooling rate, and −20°C for a 50°C/min cooling rate. The correlations between cell death and thermal parameters are qualitatively identical for all the cell types in this study, although there is some variation from one cell type to another in the overall susceptibility to freezing damage. The correlations established in this study can be used to design systematic and optimal breast cryosurgery protocols.
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  • 151
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; BNX nude mouse ; paclitaxel ; Vitamin D3 analogs
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Vitamin D3 analogs and paclitaxel (Taxol) are able to inhibit the in vitro growth of a variety of malignant cells including breast cancer cells. These two compounds decrease growth by different mechanisms and they have non-overlapping toxicities. We examined the abilities of three vitamin D3 compounds to inhibit growth of a human mammary cancer (MCF-7) in BNX triple immunodeficient mice either alone or with Taxol. Vitamin D3 analogs were 1,25(OH)2D3 (code name, Compound C), 1,25(OH)2-16-ene-23-yne-19-n or-26,27-F6-D3 (Compound LH), and 24a,26a,27a,-trihomo-22,24-diene-1,25(OH)2D3 (EB1089). At the doses chosen, the antitumor effect of vitamin D3 analogs alone was greater than that of Taxol alone, and an additive effect was observed when a vitamin D3 analog and Taxol were administered together. EB1089 was the most potent compound, and the EB1089 plus Taxol was the most active combination, decreasing the tumor mass nearly 4-fold compared to controls. Weight-gain in each of the experimental cohorts at the end of the study was less than the control group, but the gain was significantly less in only two experimental groups (those receiving either EB1089 or Compound C plus Taxol). None of the animals became hypercalcemic, and their complete blood counts, serum electrolyte analyses, and liver and renal functions were all fairly similar and within the normal range. In summary, this combination of a vitamin D3 analog and Taxol has the potential to be a therapy for breast cancer.
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  • 152
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: adjuvant chemotherapy ; breast cancer ; cure ; early recurrences ; late recurrences ; recurrence risk pattern
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Purpose: To comparatively analyse the risk of recurrence at given times after surgery for breast cancer patients receiving or not receiving adjuvant CMF. Patients and methods: A total of 1452 node positive patients, who entered controlled clinical trials carried out at the Milan Cancer Institute and underwent radical or modified radical mastectomy for operable breast cancer, were examined. In 575 cases no further treatment was performed, whereas 877 pts were given 6 or 12 courses of adjuvant Cyclophosphamide, Methotrexate, Fluorouracil (CMF). The recurrence risk was estimated by the event-specific hazard rate for first failure and distant metastases, and, following Efron, hazard rates were fitted by logistic regression models. Results: The hazard rate for first failure and distant metastases showed a double peaked pattern for both treated patients and controls, with a first major peak at about 18–24 months from surgery (early metastases), a second minor peak at the 5th–6th year, and a tapered plateau-like tail extending over 10 years from surgery (late metastases). As expected, the recurrence risk of CMF treated patients was lower than the corresponding risk of patients undergoing surgery only. However, the difference was highly evident for early recurrences, while it declined and disappeared afterwards. Conclusion: Our findings confirm previous reports on patients not receiving adjuvant chemotherapy, suggesting that the recurrence risk for operable breast cancer has a multipeak pattern. As far as CMF treated patients are concerned, the unchanged peak timing together with the early recurrence risk reduction in comparison to controls are much more consistent with the real nonappearance of some early recurrences (putatively ‘cured’ patients) than with the delay in their manifestation. As late relapsing patients seem to have at most marginal benefits from adjuvant CMF, ways to recognize patients doomed to have late recurrence and new ways for treating micrometastases resulting in late recurrences are required.
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  • 153
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: apoptosis ; breast cancer ; neo-adjuvant chemotherapy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The use of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (often referred to as pre-operative or primary chemotherapy) represents a major change in the management of breast cancer as a systemic disease. Laboratory studies have shown that many anti-cancer agents with differing modes of action achieve cytotoxic effects by inducing apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the induction of apoptosis by neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in human breast cancer. The aim was to determine whether a correlation existed between post chemotherapy apoptotic index (AI) and clinical response and patients' survival. Our results indicate that apoptosis is induced by neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and that the response is variable. Our data show that post chemotherapy AI correlated with clinical response and increased patient survival, including both relapse (disease) free survival and overall survival. Post-neo-adjuvant chemotherapy AI levels in primary breast cancer may possibly predict an individual patient's overall response.
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  • 154
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; diet ; recurrence ; survival
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Dietary factors may influence the risk for breast cancer and also the prognosis following diagnosis and treatment. The aim of this study was to assess whether self-reported prediagnosis diet or other patient factors associated with breast cancer incidence were predictive of recurrence and survival. Patients (n=149) diagnosed with primary breast cancer between 1989 and 1991 were followed for five or more years. Total energy (hazard ratio (HR)=1.58, 95%, confidence interval (CI)= 1.05, 2.38) as well as total (HR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.05, 2.01), saturated (HR = 1.79,95% CI = 1.05, 3.04), and monounsaturated (HR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.09,2.49) fat intakes were associated with increased risk, and energy-adjusted bread and cereal consumption (HR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.33, 0.93) with decreased risk of recurrence. Both total energy (HR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.03, 2.43) and polyunsaturated fat (HR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.09, 3.13) intakes were associated with an increased risk of death. All associations between dietary fat and recurrence and survival attenuated following energy adjustment. Oral contraceptive use (HR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.60), lymph node positive status (HR = 2.36, 95% CI = 1.01, 5.49), and tumor stage (HR = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.02, 4.81) were associated with increased risk of recurrence. Tumor stage (HR = 4.96, 95% CI = 1.86, 13.23), lymph node positive status (HR = 3.31, 95% CI = 1.38, 7.95, and estrogen receptor negative status (HR = 2.46, 95% CI = 1.02, 5.94) were associated with increased risk, and arm muscle circumference (HR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.09, 0.86) and mammographic utilization (HR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.61, 0.98) with decreased risk of death. Higher levels of energy, fat intakes, and selected patient characteristics (particularly disease stage and anthropometric indicators of adiposity) appear to increase risk of recurrence and/or shortened survival following the diagnosis of breast cancer.
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  • 155
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; ICI 182 ; 780 ; IGFBPs ; tamoxifen resistance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Earlier studies in our laboratory demonstrated that the steroidal antiestrogen ICI 182,780 is very effective in abolishing the tamoxifen‐resistant proliferation of MCF 7/5‐23 cells [1]. In addition, preliminary binding studies showed that ICI 182,780 increased the binding of insulin‐like growth factor (IGF)‐I to the MCF 7/5‐23 cells, although this finding was not the result of an increase in the expression of the insulin‐like growth factor‐I receptor (IGF‐IR). Hence, we reasoned that the inhibition of tamoxifen‐resistant cell growth by ICI 182,780 might have been due to increased expression of insulin‐like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs). We observed the up‐regulation of non‐insulin‐suppressible IGF‐I binding in both the tamoxifen‐sensitive MCF 7/5‐21 cell line (1.5‐fold) and the tamoxifen‐resistant MCF 7/5‐23 cell line (2.5‐fold) after 5 days of treatment with ICI 182,780 (10−7 M) in serum‐free medium, suggesting a role for cell‐associated IGFBPs. Affinity cross‐linking experiments confirmed the presence of an IGF‐I:IGFBP complex of approximately 38‐kDa in tamoxifen or ICI 182,780‐treated cells. Western ligand blots showed higher levels of a soluble 30‐kDa IGFBP in media conditioned by either of the subclones that had been treated with ICI 182,780, an effect consistently opposed by estrogen (E2:10−9 M). RT‐PCR showed higher levels of IGFBP‐5 mRNA than any of the other known IGFBPs, suggesting that this was the major IGFBP subtype. The protein was subsequently identified by Western immunoblotting as IGFBP‐5. In conclusion, we postulate that this may be a mechanism contributing to the greater potency of ICI 182,780 in the growth inhibition of the MCF 7/5‐23, tamoxifen‐resistant cell line.
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  • 156
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; cost effectiveness ; dense breasts ; mammographic parenchymal patterns ; Sestamibi scintimammography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The potential impact of Sestamibi scintimammography (SSMM) on the cost effective management of women with dense breasts is not known. This study addresses this issue quantitatively by examining the impact of SSMM based screening strategies on the ∼3,000,000 women over 40 with very dense breasts (DY patterns) without palpable masses and who have had one or more prior mammograms, who undergo routine screening each year. Quantitative decision tree sensitivity analysis was used to compare the conventional mammography (MM) strategy (strategy A), which does not subject patients with negative mammograms to any further examination until their next screening, with two decision strategies for screening with SSMM SSMM after a negative mammogram (strategy B) or SSMM as the only screening test for women already identified as having dense breasts by a previous mammogram (strategy C). Cost effectiveness was measured by calculating the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of strategies B and C, which is the cost of achieving an additional year of life in the screening population by choosing a SSMM based decision strategy rather than the conventional strategy. Strategies B and C reduced the number of false negative diagnoses by 62% and 8%, respectively. The ICER was $632,000 and $3.18M per life year for strategy B and C, respectively. To be cost effective, the pre‐test probability of cancer in the study population must be greater than 3% for strategy B or the cost of SSMM must be less than $50 for strategy C. These results show the ICER of an SSMM based breast cancer screening strategy in the management of patients with dense breasts is not currently within the range (∼$50,000 per year life saved) of other commonly performed medical interventions that are considered cost effective.
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