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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 1 (1955), S. 215-219 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Total, static, and operating holdups have been measured for 1-in porcelain and carbon Raschig rings and 1-in. porcelain Berl saddles, employing aqueous solutions of calcium chloride, sorbitol, and a wetting agent as well as pure methanol and benzene. The range of variables covered by this investigation includes liquid rate, 1,000 to 10,000 1b./(hr.) (sq. ft.); viscosity, 0.6 to 185 cp.; surface tension, 23 to 86 dynes/cm.; specific gravity, 0.8 to 1.32.Equations and charts are presented for estimating holdups for all liquids. The application of holdups for estimating mass transfer coefficients, kG, and effective interfacial areas, a, is discussed.The total holdups for water, methanol, and benzene can be used to explain why mass transfer coefficients obtained by vaporization of pure liquids in packings seem to depend on gas diffusivity raised to the 0.15 power instead of the 0.67 power, as found in other mass transfer studies. The larger total holdups of nonaqueous liquids result in larger effective interfacial areas in the packing, which mask the effect of the change in gas diffusivity.
    Additional Material: 16 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 1 (1955), S. 271-271 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 2 (1956), S. 42-45 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Because of the large scale of the motion responsible for mixing in turbulent fields, turbulent transport processes differ from molecular transport processes in that the mixing depends on the previous history of the diffusing material and turbulent fields are generally nonhomogeneous.The effect of the time dependency of the diffusion process is examined for the case of heat transfer from a hot wall to a cold wall through a turbulently flowing fluid. The fluid is assumed to have a uniform velocity and the turbulence is assumed to be homogeneous and isotropic. The calculations are carried out by assuming a distribution of heat sources along the hot wall and of heat sinks along the cold wall. G. I. Taylor's theory of turbulent diffusion for a homogeneous isotropic field is used to describe the properties of these sources and sinks. These calculations are compared with temperature profiles obtained as a solution to Fick's Law using a constant diffusion coefficient. A marked difference between the two sets of curves is obtained in the vicinity of the wall and in the beginning of the heat exchange section.A calculated profile on the basis of an idealized model of heat transfer in channel flow is compared with actual measurements made by Page, Corcoran, Schlinger, and Sage (7) at a distance far enough downstream so that the temperature profile had reached a steady condition.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 2 (1956), S. 62-64 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The wide applicability of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood classical kinetics to surfaces which are known to depart strongly from ideal Langmuir behavior is a well-known paradox of surface catalysis. The applicability and limitations of the classical method are illustrated by means of a simple reaction. The generality of the method is demonstrated by its applicability to ammonia synthesis with and without water vapor. The limitations are often more than compensated for by the added insight into reaction mechanism which it can provide without unded complexity. A three-step approach to surface kinetics is suggested and discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 2 (1956), S. 55-58 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The physical processes are discussed by which a fluid is displaced from a porous medium during steady state viscous flow by another fluid of the same density and viscosity under conditions of complete miscibility of the two fluids. The displacement occurs on a microscopic scale as a result of combined convective and diffusional mixing. The length of the zone of mixing which comprises the displacement front is predicted to be dependent upon the rate of flow, the diffusion coefficient for the two-fluid system, the characteristics of the pore geometry, and the distance the front has traversed at the time of its observation.Experimental data are presented for the displacement of benzene by ethyl n-butyrate at several rates of flow from packed sand columns. These data show that the length of the frontal mixing zone after a prescribed distance of flow is greater at the higher rates of flow. The postulated dependence of the length of the front upon the diffusion coefficient and the pore geometry has not yet been investigated.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Data correlations are presented for equilibrium adsorption of pure hydrocarbon vapors and their mixtures. The systems represented are C1 to C4 hydrocarbons (olefins and paraffins) on gas-adsorbent grades of activated charcoal. The mixture data are limited to binary and ternary gas systems. The adsorption conditions represented among the correlated data cover ranges of 77° to 175°F. temperature and 0 to 100 lb./sq. in. gauge. With the use of empirical adsorption constants, a common correlation of specific adsorption capacity for the various hydrocarbons is presented; it applies for either pure components or their mixtures. A correlation is given also for adsorption relative volatilities. Approximate adsorption heats, a limited amount of high-temperature steam adsorption data, and sample calculations on applications of the correlations are included. The prediction methods are recommended for adsorption conditions up to 250°F. and 250 lb/sq. in. gauge for the particular systems studied.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 2 (1956), S. 71-74 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An equation for correlating regeneration process variables in fluid-catalytic cracking has been developed from pilot plant data. This equation takes into account not only the chemical-reaction rate for burning coke deposited on the catalyst but also the diffusional resistance to oxygen transfer. The resistance presumably occurs between the bubbles within the fluidized bed and the void spaces in the relatively denser mass of particles. The coefficient of mass transfer was found to be inversely proportional to the 1.5 power of the average particle diameter and directly proportional to the square of the gas mass velocity. The specific reaction-verlocity constant was found to be a function to temperature and catalyst activity as well as the nature of the feed from which the coke was deposited. Comparison of pilot plant data with commercial data suggests that nonuniform gas distribution in larger beds makes some of the catalyst ineffective.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 1 (1955), S. 441-451 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A study was made of factors affecting the vapor-handling capacity of perforated-plate liquid-vapor contacting columns. Vapor-phase pressure drop across plates, liquid entrainment upward from plate to plate, and plate stability were investigated as functions of operational and geometric column parameters.Gas-phase pressure drop across dry perforated plates was observed to follow functional relationships predicted from available information for single perforations. The presence of liquid on a plate increased the total pressure drop by the equivalent clear-liquid head plus a small residue which is nearly constant for a given liquid.Entrainment was observed to be a function of column gas velocity, independent of gas velocity in the perforations. Weight rate of entrainment was also found to be proportional to the gas density, independent of liquid density, and inversely proportional to the liquid-surface tension. For a given system, entrainment was observed to be proportional to approximately the third power of the group, gas velocity divided by the distance between the liquid surface and the plate above.The stability of perforated plates was observed to be adequate for many industrial and experimental applications, as also reported in recently published studies, but contrary to qualitative statements found in the earlier literature. Stability was found to increase with decreasing perforation diameter and decreasing total perforation area relative to column cross-sectional area; to increase with greater gas density, liquid surface tension, and liquid wetting power; and to be virtually independent of liquid density and viscosity.Operating limits of vapor and liquid throughput are shown for a typical application of perforated plates in liquid-vapor contacting columns.
    Additional Material: 19 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 1 (1955), S. 456-463 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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