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  • 1
    Keywords: Germany ; human ; COHORT ; cohort studies ; cohort study ; SAMPLE ; SAMPLES ; METABOLISM ; RATS ; CONTRAST ; ACID ; ACIDS ; NO ; DESIGN ; WOMEN ; BIOSYNTHESIS ; lipids ; nutrition ; ARACHIDONIC-ACID ; HIGH-RESOLUTION ; USA ; LINOLEIC-ACID ; correlation ; arachidonic acid ; DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID ; CAPILLARIES ; Mothers ; - ; HUMAN-MILK ; linoleic acid ; polyunsaturated fatty acid ; INFANT ; milk ; birth cohort study ; essential fatty acids ; long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids ; MATURE HUMAN-MILK ; N-3 FATTY-ACIDS ; trans fatty acids
    Abstract: Background: Several observational studies indicate that trans isomeric fatty acids may interfere with the metabolism of essential fatty acids in the human organism. Objective: The objective was to investigate the relation between trans fatty acids and long-chain polyunsaturates in mature human milk. Design: Human milk samples (n = 769) were obtained at the 6th week of lactation from mothers participating in a birth cohort study in Germany. The fatty acid composition of the milk samples was measured by high-resolution capillary gas-liquid chromatography. Results: trans Octadecenoic and trans octadecadienoic acids were inversely correlated with linoleic acid (r = -0.32 and -0.33, P 〈 0.0001 for both), alpha-linolenic acid (r = -0.35 and -0.27, P 〈 0.0001), arachidonic acid (r = - 0.60 and - 0.47, P 〈 0.0001), and docosahexaenoic acid (r = -0.51 and -0.33, P 〈 0.0001). In contrast, no inverse correlations were observed between trans hexadecenoic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Conclusions: The data obtained in the present study suggest that the availability of 18-carbon trans isomeric fatty acids may be inversely related to the availability of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in mature human milk
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17490969
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; PROSTATE ; COHORT ; DISEASE ; RISK ; CELL-LINES ; ASSOCIATION ; ALPHA ; NO ; STAGE ; TRIAL ; prevention ; DESIGN ; DIFFERENCE ; PLASMA ; MEN ; smoking ; prostate cancer ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; cancer risk ; MULTIVARIATE ; case-control studies ; PREDICTORS ; EPIC ; nutrition ; NESTED CASE-CONTROL ; RELATIVE RISK ; VITAMIN-E ; case-control study ; GRADE ; SUPPLEMENTATION ; USA ; prospective ; CANCER-RISK ; ENGLAND ; SUBSEQUENT RISK ; DIETARY SELENIUM ; European Prospective Investigation into Cancer ; SERUM SELENIUM
    Abstract: Background: Some evidence indicates that a low selenium intake may be associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of plasma selenium concentration with subsequent prostate cancer risk and to examine this association by stage and grade of disease and other factors. Design: A nested case-control study was performed among men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The association between plasma selenium concentration and prostate cancer risk was assessed in 959 men with incident prostate cancer and 1059 matched controls. Results: Overall, plasma selenium concentration was not associated with prostate cancer risk; the multivariate relative risk for men in the highest fifth of selenium concentration compared with the lowest fifth was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.70, 1.31; P for trend = 0.25). There were no significant differences in the association of plasma selenium with risk when analyzed by stage or grade of disease. Similarly, the association of selenium with risk did not differ by smoking status or by plasma alpha- or gamma-tocopherol concentration. Conclusion: Plasma selenium concentration was not associated with prostate cancer risk in this large cohort of European men. Am J Clin Nutr 2008; 88:1567-75
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19064517
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; DISEASE ; POPULATION ; validation ; COMPLEX ; ASSOCIATION ; BREAST-CANCER ; ACID ; PLASMA ; MEN ; CENTERS ; EPIC ; nutrition ; FOOD-INTAKE ; nutrient intake ; SERUM PHOSPHOLIPIDS ; EPIC CALIBRATION ; 24-HOUR DIET RECALL ; prospective ; biological markers ; INVESTIGATE ; PROCESSED FOODS
    Abstract: Background: Plasma phospholipid fatty acids have been correlated with food intakes in populations with homogeneous dietary patterns. However, few data are available on populations with heterogeneous dietary patterns. Objective: The objective was to investigate whether plasma phospholipid fatty acids are suitable biomarkers of dietary intakes across populations involved in a large European multicenter study. Design: A cross-sectional study design nested to the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) was conducted to determine plasma fatty acid profiles in 〉 3000 subjects from 16 centers, who had also completed 24-h dietary recalls and dietary questionnaires. Plasma fatty acids were assessed by capillary gas chromatography. Ecological and individual correlations were calculated between fatty acids and select food groups. Results: The most important determinant of plasma fatty acids was region, which suggests that the variations across regions are largely due to different food intakes. Strong ecological correlations were observed between fish intake and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (r = 0.78, P 〈 0.01), olive oil and oleic acid (r = 0.73, P 〈 0.01), and margarine and elaidic acid (r = 0.76, P 〈 0.01). Individual correlations varied across the regions, particularly between olive oil and oleic acid and between alcohol and the saturation index, as an indicator of stearoyl CoA desaturase activity. Conclusions: These findings indicate that specific plasma phospholipid fatty acids are suitable biomarkers of some food intakes in the EPIC Study. Moreover, these findings suggest complex interactions between alcohol intake and fatty acid metabolism, which warrants further attention in epidemiologic studies relating dietary fatty acids to alcohol-related cancers and other chronic diseases. Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 89: 331-46
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19056549
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  • 4
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CANCER ; tumor ; BLOOD ; Germany ; COHORT ; cohort studies ; cohort study ; EXPOSURE ; RISK ; TUMORS ; ASSOCIATION ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; DESIGN ; WOMEN ; CLINICAL-TRIALS ; PROSPECTIVE COHORT ; REDUCED RISK ; DIET ; nutrition ; ER ; ESTROGEN-RECEPTOR ; HETEROGENEITY ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; case-control study ; ASSOCIATIONS ; PHYTO-ESTROGENS ; SERUM ENTEROLACTONE CONCENTRATION ; ESTROGEN ; estrogen receptor ; prospective ; CANCER-RISK ; SUBGROUPS ; PLASMA ENTEROLACTONE ; DIETARY PHYTOESTROGEN INTAKE ; breast cancer risk ; CYP17 GENOTYPE ; ESTROGEN-RECEPTOR STATUS ; FLAVONOID INTAKE ; MAMMALIAN LIGNANS
    Abstract: Background: Epidemiologic studies that examined whether lignans, the most important class of phytoestrogens in the Western diet, protect against breast cancer have yielded inconsistent results. Objective: In this study, we conducted meta-analyses on the association between lignans and breast cancer risk. Design: We performed a systematic MEDLINE search to identify epidemiologic studies published between 1997 and August 2009. We calculated pooled risk estimates (REs) for total lignan exposure, dietary lignan intake, enterolignan exposure, and blood or urine concentrations of enterolactone and according to menopausal and estrogen receptor (ER) status of tumors. Results: We included 21 studies (11 prospective cohort studies and 10 case-control studies) in the meta-analyses. Lignan exposure was not associated with an overall breast cancer risk (RE: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.02; P for heterogeneity = 0.004). However, in postmenopausal women, high lignan intake was associated with a significant reduced risk of breast cancer (13 studies; RE: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.78, 0.94; P for heterogeneity = 0.32). Breast cancer risk was also inversely associated with enterolignan exposure (4 studies; RE: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.97) but not with blood or urine enterolactone concentrations. The associations were not significantly different between ER-status subgroups (6 studies). Conclusions: High lignan exposure may be associated with a reduced breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. Additional work is warranted to clarify the association between lignan exposure and breast cancer risk. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 92: 141-53
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20463043
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  • 5
    Keywords: CANCER ; MODEL ; MODELS ; FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; POPULATION ; INTERVENTION ; ASSOCIATION ; PATTERNS ; DESIGN ; ENERGY ; AGE ; WOMEN ; MEN ; OBESITY ; smoking ; COUNTRIES ; DIET ; FAT ; BLOOD-PRESSURE ; ALCOHOL ; PROJECT ; CONSUMPTION ; nutrition ; SMOKERS ; CALIBRATION ; MANAGEMENT ; physical activity ; ASSOCIATIONS ; PATTERN ; WEIGHT ; ENERGY-INTAKE ; LOW-CARBOHYDRATE ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; dietary patterns ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; prospective ; EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ; WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE ; WEIGHT CHANGE ; RANDOMIZED CLINICAL-TRIAL ; Lead ; Follow up ; weight gain ; OBESE ADULTS ; PLASMA LEPTIN ; PROTEIN DIET
    Abstract: Background: Meat intake may be related to weight gain because of its high energy and fat content. Some observational studies have shown that meat consumption is positively associated with weight gain, but intervention studies have shown mixed results. Objective: Our objective was to assess the association between consumption of total meat, red meat, poultry, and processed meat and weight gain after 5 y of follow-up, on average, in the large European population who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Physical Activity, Nutrition, Alcohol, Cessation of Smoking, Eating Out of Home and Obesity (EPIC-PANACEA) project. Design: A total of 103,455 men and 270,348 women aged 25-70 y were recruited between 1992 and 2000 in 10 European countries. Diet was assessed at baseline with the use of country-specific validated questionnaires. A dietary calibration study was conducted in a representative subsample of the cohort. Weight and height were measured at baseline and self-reported at follow-up in most centers. Associations between energy from meat (kcal/d) and annual weight change (g/y) were assessed with the use of linear mixed models, controlled for age, sex, total energy intake, physical activity, dietary patterns, and other potential confounders. Results: Total meat consumption was positively associated with weight gain in men and women, in normal-weight and overweight subjects, and in smokers and nonsmokers. With adjustment for estimated energy intake, an increase in meat intake of 250 g/d (eg, one steak at approximate to 450 kcal) would lead to a 2-kg higher weight gain after 5 y (95% CI: 1.5, 2.7 kg). Positive associations were observed for red meat, poultry, and processed meat. Conclusion: Our results suggest that a decrease in meat consumption may improve weight management. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 92: 398-407
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20592131
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; RISK ; BODY-WEIGHT ; WOMEN ; nutrition ; LIFE-STYLE ; MIDDLE-AGED WOMEN ; ENERGY-INTAKE ; dietary patterns ; metabolic syndrome ; GAIN ; EPIC-OXFORD ; INTERVENTION TRIAL
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Fruit and vegetable consumption might prevent weight gain through their low energy density and high dietary fiber content. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the association between the baseline consumption of fruit and vegetables and weight change in participants from 10 European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. DESIGN: Diet was assessed at baseline in 373,803 participants by using country-specific validated questionnaires. Weight was measured at baseline and self-reported at follow-up in most centers. Associations between baseline fruit and vegetable intakes (per 100 g/d) and weight change (g/y) after a mean follow-up of 5 y were assessed by using linear mixed-models, with age, sex, total energy intake, and other potential confounders controlled for. RESULTS: After exclusion of subjects with chronic diseases at baseline and subjects who were likely to misreport energy intakes, baseline fruit and vegetable intakes were not associated with weight change overall. However, baseline fruit and vegetable intakes were inversely associated with weight change in men and women who quit smoking during follow-up. We observed weak positive associations between vegetable intake and weight change in women who were overweight, were former smokers, or had high prudent dietary pattern scores and weak inverse associations between fruit intake and weight change in women who were 〉50 y of age, were of normal weight, were never smokers, or had low prudent dietary pattern scores. CONCLUSIONS: In this large study, higher baseline fruit and vegetable intakes, while maintaining total energy intakes constant, did not substantially influence midterm weight change overall but could help to reduce risk of weight gain in persons who stop smoking. The interactions observed in women deserve additional attention.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22170373
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  • 7
    Keywords: FOLLOW-UP ; PROSPECTIVE COHORT ; MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION ; EPIC-GERMANY ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE ; TYPE-2 DIABETES-MELLITUS ; COMPETING RISKS ; PLASMA TOTAL HOMOCYSTEINE ; TEA CONSUMPTION
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Early studies suggested that coffee consumption may increase the risk of chronic disease. OBJECTIVE: We investigated prospectively the association between coffee consumption and the risk of chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D), myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and cancer. DESIGN: We used data from 42,659 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Germany study. Coffee consumption was assessed by self-administered food-frequency questionnaire at baseline, and data on medically verified incident chronic diseases were collected by active and passive follow-up procedures. HRs and 95% CIs were calculated with multivariate Cox regression models and compared by competing risk analysis. RESULTS: During 8.9 y of follow-up, we observed 1432 cases of T2D, 394 of MI, 310 of stroke, and 1801 of cancer as first qualifying events. Caffeinated (HR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.84, 1.05) or decaffeinated (HR: 1.05; 95% CI: 0.84, 1.31) coffee consumption (〉/=4 cups/d compared with 〈1 cup/d; 1 cup was defined as 150 mL) was not associated with the overall risk of chronic disease. A lower risk of T2D was associated with caffeinated (HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.94; P-trend 0.009) and decaffeinated (HR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.46, 1.06; P-trend: 0.043) coffee consumption (〉/=4 cups/d compared with 〈1 cup/d), but cardiovascular disease and cancer risk were not. The competing risk analysis showed no significant differences between the risk associations of individual diseases. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that coffee consumption does not increase the risk of chronic disease, but it may be linked to a lower risk of T2D.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22338038
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  • 8
    Keywords: BLOOD ; MORTALITY ; POPULATION ; BREAST-CANCER ; SERUM PHOSPHOLIPIDS ; ADIPOSE-TISSUE ; biomarker ; dietary patterns ; fish consumption ; VIETNAM-WAR
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Fatty acids in blood may be related to the risk of prostate cancer, but epidemiologic evidence is inconsistent. Blood fatty acids are correlated through shared food sources and common endogenous desaturation and elongation pathways. Studies of individual fatty acids cannot take this into account, but pattern analysis can. Treelet transform (TT) is a novel method that uses data correlation structures to derive sparse factors that explain variation. Objective: The objective was to gain further insight in the association between plasma fatty acids and risk of prostate cancer by applying TT to take data correlations into account. DESIGN: We reanalyzed previously published data from a case-control study of prostate cancer nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. TT was used to derive factors explaining the variation in 26 plasma phospholipid fatty acids of 962 incident prostate cancer cases matched to 1061 controls. Multiple imputation was used to deal with missing data in covariates. ORs of prostate cancer according to factor scores were determined by using multivariable conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Four simple factors explained 38% of the variation in plasma fatty acids. A high score on a factor reflecting a long-chain n-3 PUFA pattern was associated with greater risk of prostate cancer (OR for highest compared with lowest quintile: 1.36; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.86; P-trend = 0.041). CONCLUSION: Pattern analyses using TT groupings of correlated fatty acids indicate that intake or metabolism of long-chain n-3 PUFAs may be relevant to prostate cancer etiology.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23134890
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  • 9
    Keywords: RISK ; HEALTH ; OBESITY ; COUNTRIES ; VALIDITY ; QUESTIONNAIRE ; CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE ; PARTICIPANTS ; LIFE EXPECTANCY ; COLLEGE
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: The higher risk of death resulting from excess adiposity may be attenuated by physical activity (PA). However, the theoretical number of deaths reduced by eliminating physical inactivity compared with overall and abdominal obesity remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether overall and abdominal adiposity modified the association between PA and all-cause mortality and estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) and the years of life gained for these exposures. DESIGN: This was a cohort study in 334,161 European men and women. The mean follow-up time was 12.4 y, corresponding to 4,154,915 person-years. Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured in the clinic. PA was assessed with a validated self-report instrument. The combined associations between PA, BMI, and WC with mortality were examined with Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by center and age group, and adjusted for sex, education, smoking, and alcohol intake. Center-specific PAF associated with inactivity, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) (〉30), and WC (〉/=102 cm for men, 〉/=88 cm for women) were calculated and combined in random-effects meta-analysis. Life-tables analyses were used to estimate gains in life expectancy for the exposures. RESULTS: Significant interactions (PA x BMI and PA x WC) were observed, so HRs were estimated within BMI and WC strata. The hazards of all-cause mortality were reduced by 16-30% in moderately inactive individuals compared with those categorized as inactive in different strata of BMI and WC. Avoiding all inactivity would theoretically reduce all-cause mortality by 7.35% (95% CI: 5.88%, 8.83%). Corresponding estimates for avoiding obesity (BMI 〉30) were 3.66% (95% CI: 2.30%, 5.01%). The estimates for avoiding high WC were similar to those for physical inactivity. CONCLUSION: The greatest reductions in mortality risk were observed between the 2 lowest activity groups across levels of general and abdominal adiposity, which suggests that efforts to encourage even small increases in activity in inactive individuals may be beneficial to public health.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25733647
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  • 10
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPOSURE ; IDENTIFICATION ; MEASUREMENT ERROR ; CALIBRATION ; CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE ; 24-HOUR DIET RECALL ; FALSE DISCOVERY RATE ; COFFEE CONSUMPTION ; NUTRITIONAL BIOMARKERS
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: An improved understanding of the contribution of the diet to health and disease risks requires accurate assessments of dietary exposure in nutritional epidemiologic studies. The use of dietary biomarkers may improve the accuracy of estimates. OBJECTIVE: We applied a metabolomic approach in a large cohort study to identify novel biomarkers of intake for a selection of polyphenol-containing foods. The large chemical diversity of polyphenols and their wide distribution over many foods make them ideal biomarker candidates for such foods. DESIGN: Metabolic profiles were measured with the use of high-resolution mass spectrometry in 24-h urine samples from 481 subjects from the large European Prospective Investigation on Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Peak intensities were correlated to acute and habitual dietary intakes of 6 polyphenol-rich foods (coffee, tea, red wine, citrus fruit, apples and pears, and chocolate products) measured with the use of 24-h dietary recalls and food-frequency questionnaires, respectively. RESULTS: Correlation (r 〉 0.3, P 〈 0.01 after correction for multiple testing) and discriminant [pcorr (1) 〉 0.3, VIP 〉 1.5] analyses showed that 〉2000 mass spectral features from urine metabolic profiles were significantly associated with the consumption of the 6 selected foods. More than 80 polyphenol metabolites associated with the consumption of the selected foods could be identified, and large differences in their concentrations reflecting individual food intakes were observed within and between 4 European countries. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that 5 polyphenol metabolites, which are characteristic of 5 of the 6 selected foods, had a high predicting ability of food intake. CONCLUSION: Highly diverse food-derived metabolites (the so-called food metabolome) can be characterized in human biospecimens through this powerful metabolomic approach and screened to identify novel biomarkers for dietary exposures, which are ultimately essential to better understand the role of the diet in the cause of chronic diseases.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26269369
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