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  • 1
    Keywords: CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; tumor ; TUMOR-CELLS ; Germany ; SYSTEM ; GENE ; PROTEIN ; transcription ; PATIENT ; MECHANISM ; recombination ; cytokines ; MATURATION ; DELETION ; NERVOUS-SYSTEM ; immunohistochemistry ; LYMPHOMA ; MUTATION ; DELETIONS ; REGION ; Jun ; CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM ; SERIES ; SOMATIC HYPERMUTATION ; TRANSCRIPTS ; ABSENCE ; immunoglobulin ; FRACTION ; PHASE ; AID ; LYMPHOMAS ; transcript ; SWITCH ; REARRANGEMENTS ; HYPERMUTATION ; CENTER B-CELLS ; GERMINAL-CENTER ; INDUCED CYTIDINE DEAMINASE
    Abstract: Primary lymphomas of the central nervous system (PCNSLs) were investigated for their capacity to perform further maturation steps. We studied a series of 11 PCNSLs derived from immunocompetent patients for immunoglobulin (1g) class switch recombination (CSR) by performing reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for transcripts of Ig constant region gene segments (IGHC). This analysis revealed exclusive transcription of IgM and IgD MRNA in the absence of IgG, IgA, or IgE transcription. This finding was corroborated at the protein level by the immunohistochemical demonstration of IgM on the surface of the tumor cells. The unexpected lack of CSR may be due to internal switch p region deletions, which were detected in 7 of 11 cases. We also found that expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which is required for CSR and somatic hypermutation, was detectable by RT-PCR in 4 of 10 cases and by immunohistochemistry in one of three cases analyzed. This may indicate that ongoing somatic mutation, which is often observed in PCNSL, could be due to sustained AID expression in a fraction of cases and that intraclonal V gene diversity may occur in other cases at an earlier phase of tumor clone expansion, when AID may have been expressed
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15920162
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  • 2
    Keywords: ANGIOGENESIS ; CANCER ; CELLS ; ENDOTHELIAL-CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; IN-VITRO ; proliferation ; tumor ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; PROSTATE ; GENES ; TISSUE ; MARKER ; TISSUES ; ANTIGEN ; fibroblasts ; TARGET ; PROGRESSION ; METASTASIS ; MIGRATION ; STEM-CELLS ; ADIPOSE-TISSUE ; RE ; fibroblast ; stem cells ; analysis ; USA ; CANDIDATE ; STEM ; PERICYTES ; STROMAL FIBROBLASTS
    Abstract: Endosialin (Tem1) has been identified by two independent experimental approaches as an antigen of tumor-associated endothelial cells, and it has been claimed to be the most abundantly expressed tumor endothelial antigen, making it a prime candidate for vascular targeting purposes. Recent experiments have challenged the endothelial expression of endosialin and suggested an expression by activated fibroblasts and pericytes. Thus, clarification of the controversial cellular expression of endosialin is critically important for an understanding of its role during tumor progression and its validation as a potential therapeutic target. We have therefore performed extensive expression profiling analyses of endosialin. The experiments unambiguously demonstrate that endosialin is expressed by tumor-associated myofibroblasts and mural cells and not by endothelial cells. Endosialin expression is barely detectable in normal human tissues with moderate expression only detectable in the stroma of the colon and the prostate. Corresponding cellular experiments confirmed endosialin expression by mesenchymal cells and indicated that it may in fact be a marker of mesenchymal stem cells. Silencing endosialin expression in fibroblasts strongly inhibited migration and proliferation. Collectively, the experiments validate endosialin as a marker of tumor-associated myofibroblasts and tumor vessel-associated mural cells. The data warrant further functional analysis of endosialin during tumor progression and its exploitation as marker of tumor vessel-associated mural cells, expression of which may reflect the non-normalized phenotype of the tumor vasculature
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18187565
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  • 3
    Keywords: DISEASE, fibrosis, VEGF
    Abstract: The role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in renal fibrosis, tubular cyst formation, and glomerular diseases is incompletely understood. We studied a new conditional transgenic mouse system [Pax8-rtTA/(tetO)(7)VEGF], which allows increased tubular VEGF production in adult mice. The following pathology was observed. The interstitial changes consisted of a ubiquitous proliferation of peritubular capillaries and fibroblasts, followed by deposition of matrix leading to a unique kind of fibrosis, ie, healthy tubules amid a capillary-rich dense fibrotic tissue. In tubular segments with high expression of VEGF, cysts developed that were surrounded by a dense network of peritubular capillaries. The glomerular effects consisted of a proliferative enlargement of glomerular capillaries, followed by mesangial proliferation. This resulted in enlarged glomeruli with loss of the characteristic lobular structure. Capillaries became randomly embedded into mesangial nodules, losing their filtration surface. Serum VEGF levels were increased, whereas endogenous VEGF production by podocytes was down-regulated. Taken together, this study shows that systemic VEGF interferes with the intraglomerular cross-talk between podocytes and the endocapillary compartment. It suppresses VEGF secretion by podocytes but cannot compensate for the deficit. VEGF from podocytes induces a directional effect, attracting the capillaries to the lobular surface, a relevant mechanism to optimize filtration surface. Systemic VEGF lacks this effect, leading to severe deterioration in glomerular architecture, similar to that seen in diabetic nephropathy.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19834063
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  • 4
    Abstract: The signal regulatory protein-beta1 (SIRPbeta1) is a DAP12-associated transmembrane receptor expressed in a subset of hematopoietic cells. Recently, it was shown that peritoneal macrophages express SIRPbeta1, which positively regulated phagocytosis. Here, we found that SIRPbeta1 was up-regulated and acted as a phagocytic receptor on microglia in amyloid precursor protein J20 (APP/J20) transgenic mice and in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Interferon (IFN)-gamma and IFN-beta stimulated gene transcription of SIRPbeta1 in cultured microglia. Activation of SIRPbeta1 on cultured microglia by cross-linking antibodies induced reorganization of the cytoskeleton protein beta-actin and suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced gene transcription of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and nitric oxide synthase-2. Furthermore, activation of SIRPbeta1 increased phagocytosis of microsphere beads, neural debris, and fibrillary amyloid-beta (Abeta). Phagocytosis of neural cell debris and Abeta was impaired after lentiviral knockdown of SIRPbeta1 in primary microglial cells. Thus, SIRPbeta1 is a novel IFN-induced microglial receptor that supports clearance of neural debris and Abeta aggregates by stimulating phagocytosis.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19893026
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  • 5
  • 6
    Keywords: ANGIOGENESIS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; GROWTH-FACTOR ; IN-VITRO ; tumor ; carcinoma ; Germany ; IN-VIVO ; MICROVESSEL DENSITY ; THERAPY ; VIVO ; TISSUE ; TUMORS ; INDUCTION ; KERATINOCYTES ; MAGNETIC-RESONANCE ; magnetic resonance imaging ; TRANSGENIC MICE ; MALIGNANCIES ; HUMAN KERATINOCYTES ; CARCINOMAS ; PROGNOSTIC-SIGNIFICANCE ; pathology ; HA-RAS ; signaling ; IMATINIB MESYLATE ; PDGF-B ; PLUS ; FACTOR EXPRESSION ; THERAPEUTIC TARGET ; EPITHELIAL TUMOR PHENOTYPE ; PERICYTE RECRUITMENT
    Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is a key regulator of angiogenesis, often induces formation of immature vessels with increased permeability and reduced vessel functionality. Here, we demonstrate that de novo expression of murine (m)VEGF-164 induces malignant and invasive tumor growth of HaCaT keratinocytes. However, the mVEGF-164-induced tumors are ulcerated with a disorganized epithelium that is interrupted by lacunae with limited basement membrane and endothelial cell coverage. Vessel maturation is strongly impaired. Tumor and vessel micromorphology are markedly improved by the combined expression of human platelet-derived growth factor (hPDGF)-B and mVEGF-164. Although tumor size and malignancy are comparable with either mVEGF-164 alone or combined human PDGF-B and mVEGF-164 expression, combined hPDGF-B and mVEGF-164 expression leads to a more solid and compact tumor tissue with a mature functional tumor vasculature and a higher microvessel density, as demonstrated histologically and by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment of the hPDGF-B- and mVEGF-164-expressing tumors with imatinib mesylate to block PDGF-B signaling reverses this effect. In addition, tumor cell invasion of mVEGF-164 transfectants and mVEGF-164 plus hPDGF-B transfectants in vivo is associated with a marked induction of tumor-derived matrix metalloproteinase-1 and stromal matrix metalloproteinase-9 and -13, as was confirmed in three-dimensional organotypic co-cultures with fibroblasts in vitro. These data clearly demonstrate the need for a concerted action of different growth factors in the establishment of solid tumors with functional vasculature and emphasize the need for a multifactorial therapy. (Am J Pathol 2010, 176:981-994; DOI: 10.2353/ajpath.2010.080998)
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20042679
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  • 7
    Abstract: The plakophilins, members of the armadillo-repeat family, consist of three different proteins (PKP1-3) that are specifically recruited to desmosomal plaques in a highly cell type-specific manner. Using immunofluorescence, immunoelectron microscopy, and immunoblot, we found that all three plakophilins occurred in luminal and basal cells of the pseudostratified prostate epithelium. The analysis of 135 cases of prostatic adenocarcinomas grouped into tumors with low (Gleason score 〈 or = 6), intermediate (Gleason score 7), and high Gleason score (8 〈 or = Gleason score 〈 or = 10) showed that the expression of PKP1 was reduced or lost in adenocarcinomas with high Gleason scores. The expression of PKP2 was unchanged in all prostatic adenocarcinomas analyzed. In contrast, PKP3 expression was increased in carcinomas with high Gleason scores in comparison with carcinomas with low Gleason scores. In DU 145 cell lines with either overexpression or knockdown of PKP3, both imbalances resulted in fewer desmosomal cell contacts. In addition, overexpression of PKP3 in DU 145 cells led to an augmentation in proliferation rate. Our data imply that both loss of PKP1 and up-regulation of PKP3 expression are biologically important events in prostate cancer and are associated with a more aggressive phenotype.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20348237
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  • 8
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; TUMOR-CELLS ; IN-VIVO ; COMPLEX ; MOLECULE ; IMMUNOTHERAPY ; YOUNG-ADULTS ; childhood tumors ; KILLER-CELLS ; SIGNALING RECEPTOR
    Abstract: Cellular immunotherapy may provide a strategy to overcome the poor prognosis of metastatic and recurrent rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) under the current regimen of polychemotherapy. Because little is known about resistance mechanisms of RMS to cytotoxic T cells, we investigated RMS cell lines and biopsy specimens for expression and function of immune costimulatory receptors and anti-apoptotic molecules by RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, IHC, and cytotoxicity assays using siRNA or transfection-modified RMS cell lines, together with engineered RMS-directed cytotoxic T cells specific for the fetal acetylcholine receptor. We found that costimulatory CD80 and CD86 were consistently absent from all RMSs tested, whereas inducible T-cell co-stimulator ligand (ICOS-L; alias B7H2) was expressed by a subset of RMSs and was inducible by tumor necrosis factor alpha in two of five RMS cell lines. Anti-apoptotic survivin, along with other inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family members (cIAP1, cIAP2, and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein), was overexpressed by RMS cell lines and biopsy specimens. Down-regulation of survivin by siRNA or pharmacologically in RMS cells increased their susceptibility toward a T-cell attack, whereas induction of ICOS-L did not. Treatment of RMS-bearing Rag(-/-) mice with fetal acetylcholine receptor-specific chimeric T cells delayed xenograft growth; however, this happened without definitive tumor eradication. Combined blockade of survivin and application of chimeric T cells in vivo suppressed tumor proliferation during survivin inhibition. In conclusion, survivin blockade provides a strategy to sensitize RMS cells for T-cell-based therapy.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23562272
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  • 9
    Keywords: proliferation ; DISEASE ; ACTIVATION ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; RECEPTORS ; HOMEOSTASIS ; PANETH CELLS ; INTESTINAL EPITHELIAL-CELLS ; MICROBIOTA ; NONCANONICAL WNT
    Abstract: Regional expression of Wingless/Int (Wnt) genes plays a central role in regulating intestinal development and homeostasis. However, our knowledge of such regional Wnt proteins in the colon remains limited. To understand further the effect of Wnt signaling components in controlling intestinal epithelial homeostasis, we investigated whether the physiological heterogeneity of the proximal and distal colon can be explained by differential Wnt signaling. With the use of a Wnt signaling-specific PCR array, expression of 84 Wnt-mediated signal transduction genes was analyzed, and a differential signature of Wnt-related genes in the proximal versus distal murine colon was identified. Several Wnt agonists (Wnt5a, Wnt8b, and Wnt11), the Wnt receptor frizzled family receptor 3, and the Wnt inhibitory factor 1 were differentially expressed along the colon length. These Wnt signatures were associated with differential epithelial cell proliferation and migration in the proximal versus distal colon. Furthermore, reduced Wnt/beta-catenin activity and decreased Wnt5a and Wnt11 expression were observed in mice lacking commensal bacteria, an effect that was reversed by conventionalization of germ-free mice. Interestingly, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 knockout mice showed decreased Wnt5a levels, indicating a role for Toll-like receptor signaling in regulating Wnt5a expression. Our results suggest that the morphological and physiological heterogeneity within the colon is in part facilitated by the differential expression of Wnt signaling components and influenced by colonization with bacteria.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24418259
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  • 10
    Keywords: CANCER ; PATHWAY ; DNA ; microsatellite instability ; cell lines ; MISMATCH-REPAIR ; VESTIBULAR SCHWANNOMAS ; SPORADIC SCHWANNOMATOSIS ; MUTS HOMOLOGS HMSH4 ; NF2 MUTATIONS
    Abstract: Exome DNA sequencing of blood samples from a Li-Fraumeni family with a TP53 germline mutation (codon 236 deletion) and multiple nervous system tumors revealed additional germline mutations. Missense mutations in the MSH4 DNA repair gene (c.2480T〉A; p.I827N) were detected in three patients with gliomas (two anaplastic astrocytomas, two glioblastomas). Two family members without a TP53 germline mutation who developed peripheral schwannomas also carried the MSH4 germline mutation, and in addition, a germline mutation of the LATS1 gene (c.286C〉T; p.R96W). LATS1 is a downstream mediator of the NF2, but has not previously been found to be related to schwannomas. We therefore screened the entire coding sequence of the LATS1 gene in 65 sporadic schwannomas, 12 neurofibroma/schwannoma hybrid tumors, and 4 cases of schwannomatosis. We only found a single base deletion at codon 827 (exon 5) in a spinal schwannoma, leading to a stop at codon 835 (c.2480delG; p.*R827Kfs*8). Mutational loss of LATS1 function may thus play a role in some inherited schwannomas, but only exceptionally in sporadic schwannomas. This is the first study reporting a germline MSH4 mutation. Since it was present in all patients, it may have contributed to the subsequent acquisition of TP53 and LATS1 germline mutations.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25041856
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