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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; MODEL ; MODELS ; neoplasms ; INFORMATION ; screening ; COHORT ; POPULATION ; RISK ; DESIGN ; AGE ; WOMEN ; colorectal cancer ; MEN ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; PREVALENCE ; REGRESSION ; PROGRAM ; aging ; colonoscopy ; METAANALYSIS ; BIRTH ; CANCER INCIDENCE ; colorectal neoplasms ; PARTICIPATION ; POLYPS ; COHORTS ; STRATIFICATION
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Prevalence of advanced colorectal neoplasms increases with age and is higher among men than women. Cross-sectional analyses estimated that men reach an equivalent prevalence at a much younger age than women. However, cross-sectional estimates may be confounded by birth cohort effects. OBJECTIVE: To estimate age and cohort effects in advanced colorectal neoplasms and to adjust risk-advancement periods for men compared with women for birth cohort effects. DESIGN: Age-cohort analyses. SETTING: German screening colonoscopy program, 2003 to 2007. PARTICIPANTS: 2 185 153 participants aged 55 to 75 years. MEASUREMENTS: Sex- and age-specific prevalence of colorectal cancer (CRC) and advanced neoplasms (CRC or advanced adenoma) were plotted with and without stratification by birth cohort. Risk-advancement periods with 95% CI for men compared with women were estimated from log-binomial regression models with and without cross-sectional analysis adjustment for birth cohort effects. RESULTS: Overall, 17 196 participants (0.8%) had CRC and 152 429 (7.0%) had any advanced neoplasm. Age-specific prevalence was higher in men than in women and in later birth cohorts. The apparent modest increase in prevalence by age in cross-sectional analysis was much steeper after birth cohort effects were controlled for. In cross-sectional analysis, risk-advancement periods (95% CI) for men compared with women were 8.4 years (CI, 7.7 to 9.0 years) and 16.1 years (CI, 15.8 to 16.5 years) for CRC and any advanced neoplasm, respectively, and 3.4 years (CI, 2.6 to 4.3 years) and 6.9 years (CI, 6.4 to 7.4 years) after controlling for birth cohort effects. LIMITATION: Information on covariates that could explain cohort effects was lacking. CONCLUSION: In this population, strong cohort effects reduced age gradients in advanced colorectal neoplasms and inflated risk-advancement periods for men compared with women, but major risk advancement persisted, even after birth cohort effects were controlled for. Primary Funding Source: None.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20513827
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  • 2
    Keywords: RISK ; COLORECTAL-CANCER
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; GROWTH ; GROWTH-FACTOR ; BLOOD ; PROSTATE ; DIAGNOSIS ; INFORMATION ; DISEASE ; RISK ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; SAMPLE ; SAMPLES ; TIME ; PATIENT ; SERA ; INDEX ; ANTIGEN ; BINDING ; ASSOCIATION ; NO ; STAGE ; AGE ; MEN ; smoking ; prostate cancer ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; cancer risk ; RECRUITMENT ; BINDING-PROTEINS ; SELECTION ; ALCOHOL ; PREDICTORS ; body mass index ; HETEROGENEITY ; BINDING PROTEIN ; SERUM ; BODIES ; IGF-I ; GRADE ; EXTRACTION ; prospective studies ; METAANALYSIS ; GROWTH-FACTOR-I ; I IGF-I ; LEVEL ; analysis ; methods ; POWER ; MASS ; PARTICIPANTS ; FACTOR (IGF)-I ; USA ; HORMONES ; prospective ; prospective study ; NOR ; HIGH-GRADE ; CANCER-RISK ; ENGLAND ; SET ; Insulin-Like Growth Factor I ; steroids ; BINDING PROTEINS ; MEDICINE ; FACTOR AXIS ; LOW-GRADE ; androgens ; body mass ; SUBSEQUENT RISK ; synthesis ; RATIO ; BLOOD-LEVELS ; INVESTIGATORS ; COLLECTION ; growth factor ; PSA ERA
    Abstract: Background: Some, but not all, published results have shown an association between circulating blood levels of some insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (IGFBPs) and the subsequent risk for prostate cancer. Purpose: To assess the association between levels of IGFs and IGFBPs and the subsequent risk for prostate cancer. Data Sources: Studies identified in PubMed, Web of Science, and CancerLit. Study Selection: The principal investigators of all studies that published data on circulating concentrations of sex steroids, IGFs, or IGFBPs and prostate cancer risk using prospectively collected blood samples were invited to collaborate. Data Extraction: Investigators provided individual participant data on circulating concentrations of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-II, and IGFBP-III and participant characteristics to a central data set in Oxford, United Kingdom. Data Synthesis: The study included data on 3700 men with prostate cancer and 5200 control participants. On average, case patients were 61.5 years of age at blood collection and received a diagnosis of prostate cancer 5 years after blood collection. The greater the serum IGF-I concentration, the greater the subsequent risk for prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR] in the highest vs. lowest quintile, 1.38 [95% CI, 1.19 to 1.60]; P 〈 0.001 for trend). Neither IGF-II nor IGFBP-II concentrations were associated with prostate cancer risk, but statistical power was limited. Insulin-like growth factor I and IGFBP-III were correlated (r = 0.58), and although IGFBP-III concentration seemed to be associated with prostate cancer risk, this was secondary to its association with IGF-I levels. Insulin-like growth factor I concentrations seemed to be more positively associated with low-grade than high-grade disease; otherwise, the association between IGFs and IGFBPs and prostate cancer risk had no statistically significant heterogeneity related to stage or grade of disease, time between blood collection and diagnosis, age and year of diagnosis, prostate-specific antigen level at recruitment, body mass index, smoking, or alcohol intake. Limitations: Insulin-like growth factor concentrations were measured in only 1 sample for each participant, and the laboratory methods to measure IGFs differed in each study. Not all patients had disease stage or grade information, and the diagnosis of prostate cancer may differ among the studies. Conclusion: High circulating IGF-I concentrations are associated with a moderately increased risk for prostate cancer
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18838726
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  • 4
    Keywords: PROTECTION ; neoplasms ; FOLLOW-UP ; HISTORY ; RISK-FACTORS ; RECURRENCE ; PREDICTORS ; ADENOMA CHARACTERISTICS ; SCREENING COLONOSCOPY ; SURVEILLANCE COLONOSCOPY
    Abstract: Background: Studies have identified characteristics of adenomas detected on colonoscopy to be predictive of adenoma recurrence. Objective: To assess the role of both colonoscopy-related factors and polyp characteristics on the risk for colorectal cancer after colonoscopic polyp detection. Design: Population-based case-control study (3148 case participants and 3274 control participants). Setting: Rhine-Neckar region of Germany. Patients: Case and control participants with physician-validated detection of polyps (other than hyperplastic polyps) at a previous colonoscopy in the past 10 years. Measurements: Detailed history and results of previous colonoscopies were obtained through interviews and medical records. Case and control participants were compared according to colonoscopy-related factors (incompleteness, poor bowel preparation, incomplete removal of all polyps, and no surveillance colonoscopy within 5 years) and polyp characteristics (〉= 1 cm, villous components or high-grade dysplasia, 〉= 3 polyps, and 〉= 1 proximal polyp). Odds ratios (ORs) and attributable fractions were derived by using multiple logistic regression and the Levin formula. Results: 155 case participants and 260 control participants with physician-validated polyp detection in the past 10 years were identified. The following characteristics were significantly more common among case participants than among control participants: not all polyps completely removed (29.0% vs. 9.6%; OR, 3.73 [95% CI, 2.11 to 6.60]), no surveillance colonoscopy within 5 years (26.5% vs. 11.5%; OR, 2.96 [CI, 1.70 to 5.16]), and detection of 3 or more polyps (14.2% vs. 7.3%; OR, 2.21 [CI, 1.07 to 4.54]). Odds ratios ranged from 1.12 to 1.42 and CIs included 1.00 for all other variables. Overall, 41.1% and 21.7% of cancer cases were statistically attributable to colonoscopy-related factors and polyp characteristics, respectively. Limitation: This was an observational study with potential for residual confounding and selection bias. Conclusion: Colonoscopy-related factors are more important than polyp characteristics for stratification of colorectal cancer risk after colonoscopic polyp detection in the community setting.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22910933
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  • 5
    Keywords: CANCER ; BALKAN ENDEMIC NEPHROPATHY ; CHINESE HERBS NEPHROPATHY ; DNA-ADDUCTS ; RISK-FACTOR ; INTERSTITIAL RENAL FIBROSIS ; CHRONIC KIDNEY-DISEASE ; TRACT UROTHELIAL CARCINOMA ; 15-YEAR FOLLOW-UP ; FANCONI-SYNDROME
    Abstract: It has been 20 years since the first description of a rapidly progressive renal disease that is associated with the consumption of Chinese herbs containing aristolochic acid (AA) and is now termed aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN). Recent data have shown that AA is also the primary causative agent in Balkan endemic nephropathy and associated urothelial cancer. Aristolochic acid nephropathy is associated with a high long-term risk for renal failure and urothelial cancer, and the potential worldwide population exposure is enormous. This evidence-based review of the diagnostic approach to and management of AAN draws on the authors' experience with the largest and longest-studied combined cohort of patients with this condition. It is hoped that a better understanding of the importance of this underrecognized and severe condition will improve epidemiologic, preventive, and therapeutic strategies to reduce the global burden of this disease.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23552405
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  • 6
    Abstract: Background: The relationship between coffee consumption and mortality in diverse European populations with variable coffee preparation methods is unclear. Objective: To examine whether coffee consumption is associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: 10 European countries. Participants: 521 330 persons enrolled in EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition). Measurements: Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. The association of coffee consumption with serum biomarkers of liver function, inflammation, and metabolic health was evaluated in the EPIC Biomarkers subcohort (n = 14 800). Results: During a mean follow-up of 16.4 years, 41 693 deaths occurred. Compared with nonconsumers, participants in the highest quartile of coffee consumption had statistically significantly lower all-cause mortality (men: HR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.82 to 0.95]; P for trend 〈 0.001; women: HR, 0.93 [CI, 0.87 to 0.98]; P for trend = 0.009). Inverse associations were also observed for digestive disease mortality for men (HR, 0.41 [CI, 0.32 to 0.54]; P for trend 〈 0.001) and women (HR, 0.60 [CI, 0.46 to 0.78]; P for trend 〈 0.001). Among women, there was a statistically significant inverse association of coffee drinking with circulatory disease mortality (HR, 0.78 [CI, 0.68 to 0.90]; P for trend 〈 0.001) and cerebrovascular disease mortality (HR, 0.70 [CI, 0.55 to 0.90]; P for trend = 0.002) and a positive association with ovarian cancer mortality (HR, 1.31 [CI, 1.07 to 1.61]; P for trend = 0.015). In the EPIC Biomarkers subcohort, higher coffee consumption was associated with lower serum alkaline phosphatase; alanine aminotransferase; aspartate aminotransferase; gamma-glutamyltransferase; and, in women, C-reactive protein, lipoprotein(a), and glycated hemoglobin levels. Limitations: Reverse causality may have biased the findings; however, results did not differ after exclusion of participants who died within 8 years of baseline. Coffee-drinking habits were assessed only once. Conclusion: Coffee drinking was associated with reduced risk for death from various causes. This relationship did not vary by country. Primary Funding Source: European Commission Directorate-General for Health and Consumers and International Agency for Research on Cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28693038
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  • 7
    Keywords: ADULT, ADULTS, CANCER, colonoscopy, COLORECTAL-CANCER, Germany, MEN, NEOPLASIA, PATIENT, PERFORMANCE
    Abstract: Background: Different immunochemical fecal occult blood tests (FOBTs) have been proposed for noninvasive colorectal cancer screening. Large-scale, colonoscopy-based screening studies that allow evaluation of these tests for the detection of precursor lesions are scarce. Objective: To determine and compare performance characteristics of 6 qualitative immunochemical FOBTs for identifying colorectal adenomas among adults who attended screening colonoscopy examinations. Design: Prospective screening study from January 2006 to December 2007. Setting: 20 gastroenterology practices in Germany that did screening colonoscopy. Patients: 1319 participants at average risk for colorectal neoplasia who were undergoing screening colonoscopy (mean age, 63 years; 50% men). Measurements: 6 different qualitative immunochemical FOBTs were done with stool samples collected before bowel preparation for colonoscopy. Performance characteristics (sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios) of tests were measured by comparing test results with findings on colonoscopy. Technicians who read the tests were blinded to colonoscopy results, and colonoscopists were blinded to FOBT results. Results: Overall, 405 participants (31%) had an adenoma and 130 participants (10%) had an advanced adenoma. Performance characteristics varied widely among tests. For the 2 best-performing tests (immoCARE-C [ CAREdiagnostica, Voerde, Germany] and FOB advanced [ulti med, Ahrensburg, Germany]), the sensitivity for detection of advanced adenomas was 25% (95% CI, 18% to 34%) and 27% (CI, 20% to 35%), respectively; specificity was 97% (CI, 95% to 98%) and 93% (CI, 91% to 95%); and the positive likelihood ratio was 3.5 (CI, 2.2 to 5.4) and 2.5 (CI, 1.9 to 3.5). Limitation: The study differed from real-life conditions in that stool samples were not directly dissolved in a buffer-filled vial; instead, a small container was used and stool was frozen before testing. Conclusion: Qualitative immunochemical FOBTs could be an option for future colorectal cancer screening because they showed better performance characteristics for precursor lesions than guaiac-based FOBTs and are practical for mass screening. However, given the large differences in diagnostic performance among tests, careful evaluation of the different test variants is important
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19189905
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  • 8
    Abstract: Background: Colonoscopy with detection and removal of adenomas is considered a powerful tool to reduce colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence. However, the degree of protection achievable in a population setting with high-quality colonoscopy resources remains to be quantified. Objective: To assess the association between previous colonoscopy and risk for CRC. Design: Population-based case-control study. Setting: Rhine-Neckar region of Germany. Patients: A total of 1688 case patients with colorectal cancer and 1932 control participants aged 50 years or older. Measurements: A detailed lifetime history of CRC risk factors and preventive factors, including history and results of previous colonoscopies, and of medical data obtained by self-reports and medical records. Odds ratios of CRC associated with colonoscopy in the preceding 10 years were estimated, after adjustment for sex, age, education level, participation in a general health screening examination, family history of CRC, smoking status, body mass index, and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or hormone replacement therapy. Results: Overall, colonoscopy in the preceding 10 years was associated with 77% lower risk for CRC. Adjusted odds ratios for any CRC, right-sided CRC, and left-sided CRC were 0.23 (95% CI, 0.19 to 0.27), 0.44 (CI, 0.35 to 0.55), and 0.16 (CI, 0.12 to 0.20), respectively. Strong risk reduction was observed for all cancer stages and all ages, except for right-sided cancer in persons aged 50 to 59 years. Risk reduction increased over the years in both the right and the left colon. Limitation: The study was observational, with potential for residual confounding and selection bias. Conclusion: Colonoscopy with polypectomy can be associated with strongly reduced risk for CRC in the population setting. Aside from strong risk reduction with respect to left-sided CRC, risk reduction of more than 50% was also seen for right-sided colon cancer. Primary Funding Source: German Research Council and German Federal Ministry of Education and Research.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21200035
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