Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
  • 1
    Abstract: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and downstream progenitors have long been studied based on phenotype, cell purification, proliferation, and transplantation into myeloablated recipients. These experiments, complemented by data on expression profiles, mouse mutants, and humans with hematopoietic defects, are the foundation for the current hematopoietic differentiation tree. However, there are fundamental gaps in our knowledge of the quantitative and qualitative operation of the HSC/progenitor system under physiological and pathological conditions in vivo. The hallmarks of HSCs, self-renewal and multipotency, are observed in in vitro assays and cell transplantation experiments; however, the extent to which these features occur naturally in HSCs and progenitors remains uncertain. We focus here on work that strives to address these unresolved questions, with emphasis on fate mapping and modeling of the hematopoietic flow from stem cells toward myeloid and lymphoid lineages during development and adult life.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27168243
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Annual Review of Immunology 24 (), 571-606 
    Keywords: CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; tumor ; Germany ; DISEASE ; DISEASES ; TISSUE ; MECHANISM ; INDUCTION ; TISSUES ; ANTIGEN ; mechanisms ; PATHOGENESIS ; antigen presentation ; EPITHELIAL-CELLS ; ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS ; BODY ; HUMAN TUMOR-ANTIGENS ; AUTOIMMUNITY ; RE ; AUTOIMMUNE REGULATOR ; THYMIC EPITHELIAL-CELLS ; EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS ; MYELIN BASIC-PROTEIN ; PROMISCUOUS GENE-EXPRESSION ; REGULATORY T-CELLS ; EXPRESSION PATTERNS ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR FOXP3 ; IMMUNOLOGICAL SELF-TOLERANCE ; autoimmune disease ; regulatory T cells ; NEGATIVE SELECTION ; promiscuous gene expression ; thymic epithelium
    Abstract: Recent elucidation of the role of central tolerance in preventing organ-specific autoimmunity has changed our concepts of self/nonself discrimination. This paradigmatic shift is largely attributable to the discovery of promiscuous expression of tissue-restricted self-antigens (TRAs) by medullary, thymic epithelial cells (mTECs). TRA expression in mTECs mirrors virtually all tissues of the body, irrespective of developmental or spatio-temporal expression patterns. This review summarizes current knowledge on the cellular and molecular regulation of TRA expression in mTECs, outlines relevant mechanisms of antigen presentation and modes of tolerance induction, and discusses implications for the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and other biological processes such as fertility pregnancy, puberty, and tumor defense
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16551260
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Immunology 14 (1996), S. 233-258 
    ISSN: 0732-0582
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract T cells play a central role in the initiation and regulation of the immune response to antigen. Both the engagement of the TCR with MHC/Ag and a second signal are needed for the complete activation of the T cell. The CD28/B7 receptor/ligand system is one of the dominant costimulatory pathways. Interruption of this signaling pathway with CD28 antagonists not only results in the suppression of the immune response, but in some cases induces antigen-specific tolerance. However, the CD28/B7 system is increasingly complex due to the identification of multiple receptors and ligands with positive and negative signaling activities. This review summarizes the state of CD28/B7 immunobiology both in vitro and in vivo; summarizes the many experiments that have led to our current understanding of the participants in this complex receptor/ligand system; and illustrates the current models for CD28/B7-mediated T cell and B cell regulation. It is our hope and expectation that this review will provoke additional research that will unravel this important, yet complex, signaling pathway.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Immunology 14 (1996), S. 301-331 
    ISSN: 0732-0582
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Precise regulation of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) gene expression plays a crucial role in the control of the immune response. A major breakthrough in the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved in MHC-II regulation has recently come from the study of patients that suffer from a primary immunodeficiency resulting from regulatory defects in MHC-II expression. A genetic complementation cloning approach has led to the isolation of CIITA and RFX5, two essential MHC-II gene transactivators. CIITA and RFX5 are mutated in these patients, and the wild-type genes are capable of correcting their defect in MHC-II expression. The identification of these regulatory factors has furthered our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate MHC-II genes. CIITA was found to be a non-DNA binding transactivator that functions as a molecular switch controlling both constitutive and inducible MHC-II expression. The finding that RFX5 is a subunit of the nuclear RFX-complex has confirmed that a deficiency in the binding of this complex is indeed the molecular basis for MHC-II deficiency in the majority of patients. Furthermore, the study of RFX has demonstrated that MHC-II promoter activity is dependent on the binding of higher-order complexes that are formed by highly specific cooperative binding interactions between certain MHC-II promoter-binding proteins. Two of these proteins belong to families of which the other members, although capable of binding to the same DNA motifs, are probably not directly involved in the control of MHC-II expression. Finally, the facts that CIITA and RFX5 are both essential and highly specific for MHC-II genes make possible novel strategies designed to achieve immunomodulation via transcriptional intervention.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Immunology 14 (1996), S. 441-457 
    ISSN: 0732-0582
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The relationship between somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation in the mouse is delineated. Recent work on the anatomical and cellular site of this process is surveyed. The molecular characteristics of somatic hypermutation are described in terms of the region mutated and the distinctive patterns of nucleotide changes that are observed. The results of experiments utilizing transgenic mice to find out the minimum cis-acting sequences required to recruit hypermutation are summarized. The hypothesis that V gene sequences have evolved in order to target mutation to certain sites but not others is discussed. The use that different species make of somatic hypermutation to generate either the primary or secondary B cell repertoire is considered. Possible molecular mechanisms for the hypermutation process and future goals of research are outlined.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    ISSN: 0732-0582
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Antigen receptor variable region genes are assembled from germline variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) gene segments. This process requires expression of V(D)J recombinase activity, and "accessibility" of variable gene segments to this recombinase. The exact mechanism by which variable gene segments become accessible during development is not known. However, several studies have shown that cis-acting elements that regulate transcription may also function to regulate accessibility. Here we review the evidence that transcriptional promoters, enhancers, and silencers are involved in regulation of accessibility. The manner in which these elements may combine to regulate accessibility is addressed. In addition, current and potential strategies for identifying and analyzing cis-acting elements that mediate locus accessibility are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Immunology 11 (1993), S. 29-48 
    ISSN: 0732-0582
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Immunology 11 (1993), S. 165-190 
    ISSN: 0732-0582
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Immunology 11 (1993), S. 269-295 
    ISSN: 0732-0582
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Immunology 11 (1993), S. 501-538 
    ISSN: 0732-0582
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. More information can be found here...