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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 0163-8998
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract We review the direct measurements of the top quark mass Mt using the sample of events collected by the DO and CDF experiments at Fermilab. Measurements using events in the lepton plus jets, dilepton, and all-hadronic decay modes are reviewed, as is the combination of the results to yield the current world average Mt = 174.3 +- 3.2 (stat.) +- 4.0 (syst.) GeV/c2. We close by estimating the precision attainable with future data sets at Fermilab and the Large Hadron Collider.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 0163-8998
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Random matrix theory is a powerful way to describe universal correlations of eigenvalues of complex systems. It also may serve as a schematic model for disorder in quantum systems. In this review, we discuss both types of applications of chiral random matrix theory to the QCD partition function. We show that constraints imposed by chiral symmetry and its spontaneous breaking determine the structure of low-energy effective partition functions for the Dirac spectrum. We thus derive exact results for the low-lying eigenvalues of the QCD Dirac operator. We argue that the statistical properties of these eigenvalues are universal and can be described by a random matrix theory with the global symmetries of the QCD partition function. The total number of such eigenvalues increases with the square root of the Euclidean four-volume. The spectral density for larger eigenvalues (but still well below a typical hadronic mass scale) also follows from the same low-energy effective partition function. The validity of the random matrix approach has been confirmed by many lattice QCD simulations in a wide parameter range. Stimulated by the success of the chiral random matrix theory in the description of universal properties of the Dirac eigenvalues, the random matrix model is extended to nonzero temperature and chemical potential. In this way we obtain qualitative results for the QCD phase diagram and the spectrum of the QCD Dirac operator. We discuss the nature of the quenched approximation and analyze quenched Dirac spectra at nonzero baryon density in terms of an effective partition function. Relations with other fields are also discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 0163-8998
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract This paper presents a summary of the current status of determinations of the strong coupling constant alphas. A detailed description of the definition, scale dependence, and inherent theoretical ambiguities is given. The various physical processes that can be used to determine alphas are reviewed and attention is given to the uncertainties, both theoretical and experimental.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 0163-8998
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Accurate quantum Monte Carlo calculations of ground states and low-lying excited states of light p-shell nuclei are now possible for realistic nuclear Hamiltonians that fit nucleon-nucleon scattering data. Results for more than 30 different (Jpi;T) states, plus isobaric analogs, in A〈= 8 nuclei have been obtained with an excellent reproduction of the experimental energy spectrum. These microscopic calculations show that nuclear structure, including both single-particle and clustering aspects, can be explained starting from elementary two- and three-nucleon interactions. Various density and momentum distributions, electromagnetic form factors, and spectroscopic factors have also been computed, as well as electroweak capture reactions of astrophysical interest.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 0163-8998
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The measurement of parity violation in the helicity dependence of electron-nucleon scattering provides unique information about the basic quark structure of the nucleons. This review presents the general formalism of parity-violating electron scattering, with emphasis on elastic electron-nucleon scattering. The physics issues addressed by such experiments are discussed, and the major goals of the presently envisioned experimental program are identified. Results from a recent series of experiments are summarized and the future prospects of this program are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 0163-8998
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 0163-8998
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 0163-8998
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The legacy of the LEP program encompasses an extensive investigation of the electroweak interaction and the most comprehensive search to date for the origin of spontaneous symmetry breaking. The results comprise a large variety of theoretical models challenged by dedicated searches and a persistent search for the standard-model Higgs boson. The direct search for the standard-model Higgs boson confronted an excess of signal-like events in the final year. This observation reaches a significance of approximately two standard deviations for a Higgs boson mass of 115.6 GeV/c2, a value consistent with the mass range indicated by electroweak precision measurements. The definitive confirmation of the standard-model Higgs boson search and the continued investigation for a Higgs sector at higher masses await new data from the Tevatron and LHC colliders.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 0163-8998
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Atmospheric neutrinos produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the atmosphere are of interest for several reasons. As a beam for studies of neutrino oscillations, they cover a range of parameter space hitherto unexplored by accelerator neutrino beams. The atmospheric neutrinos also constitute an important background and calibration beam for neutrino astronomy and for the search for proton decay and other rare processes. We review the literature on calculations of atmospheric neutrinos over the full range of energy, with particular attention to the aspects important for neutrino oscillations. Our goal is to assess how well the properties of atmospheric neutrinos are known at present.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 0163-8998
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Positron emission tomography (PET) is a molecular imaging technology for examining the molecular basis of normal biological functions of cells and their failure in disease. PET's molecular diagnostics of the biology of disease are often more accurate than lesion-based diagnosis by structural imaging techniques such as x-ray films, x-ray computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. PET provides the means to examine the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of drugs in living mammals, from the mouse to the human patient. PET includes three major technical components: the PET scanner, cyclotron-based electronic generators for producing labeled probes, and biological assays using tracer principles. This chapter examines these components, provides a brief history of the development of PET technologies, and discusses applications of PET.
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