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  • 1
    ISSN: 0268-2605
    Keywords: Hydrogenation ; Reduction ; Catalystff ; Palladium ; Ferrocenylphosphanes ; Styrenes ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Cationic palladium(II) complexes of ferrocenylphosphines [(L-L′)Pd(S)2][ClO4]2 ((L-L′) = Fe(η5-C5H4P (C6H5)2)2 1, or Fe(η5-C5H5)(η5C5H3(CHMeNMe2)P(C6H5)2-1,2) 2a: S=pyridine or dimethylformamide) were prepared and characterized. The derivatives of 2a are effective catalysts for the hydrogenation of simple olefins at 30°C (1 atm H2). The rate of reduction of styrene depends on the substrate concentration, catalyst concentration and the solvent, and is only slightly inhibited (16%) by the addition of mercury. These observations are conistent with a homogeneous catalytic system.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Applied Organometallic Chemistry 1 (1987), S. 29-38 
    ISSN: 0268-2605
    Keywords: Algae ; alkyllead compounds ; toxicity ; alkyl chain length ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: There are conflicting reports concerning the toxicity of tetraalkyllead (TAL) compounds to algae. A number of groups have found the TAL's to be comparable in toxicity with the trialkyllead compounds (R3Pb+), whereas in a recent report it is suggested that the TAL's themselves are completely non-toxic and any apparent toxicity is due to R3Pb+ breakdown products.With the object of identifying the toxic agent, the effect of Et4Pb (TEL) on two algal species was re-examined. Analyses were carried out during the course of the incubations to establish the nature and concentrations of organoleads present in both media and algae, and hence evaluate their relative contributions to total toxicity.Algae were also cultured in the presence of Me4Pb (TML), Me3PbCl, Et3PbCl, Bu3PbCl and Et2PbCl2 to assess relationships between alkyl chain length and degree of substitution around the lead on algal activity. Additions of selenide and sulphide were made to the Et3Pb+ and Et2Pb2+ systems to see if these environmentally abundant species reduced or enhanced organolead toxicity. Problems were encountered in the analysis of the heterogeneous TEL containing media. Regardless of the analytical problems, the results confirm the previous findings that TAL's are non-toxic to algae and it is the R3Pb+ breakdown products which are responsible for the apparent toxicity of the TAL's. The trialkylleads were the most toxic of the several alkyllead species studied, and within the trialkyl series toxicity increased with alkyl chain length. Neither selenide or sulphide had any significant ameliorative effect on alkyllead toxicity. It was found that the ionic organoleads were complexed on the TAL's and this complexing led to a number of unexpected results.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Applied Organometallic Chemistry 1 (1987), S. 95-113 
    ISSN: 0268-2605
    Keywords: Introduction ; Mechanisms of PVC decomposition ; Organotin compounds useful in PVC stabilisation ; Basic stabilisation mechanisms ; Model compound studies ; In-situ studies ; Synergism ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: When subjected to heat and mechanical shear PVC decomposes via the elimination of HCl. This process is controlled most efficiently by the use of organotin stabilisers. This review outlines the basic degradation/stabilisation mechanisms which are involved in these processes. The organotin compounds of most commercial significance receive particular attention. Model compound studies which highlight potential stabilisation mechanisms are discussed but emphasis is placed on in-situ studies which are much more realistic. Finally the phenomenon of synergism is discussed with reference to conventional alkyltin and the more novel estertin compounds.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0268-2605
    Keywords: Photolytic degradation ; Kinetics ; Bis(tributyltin)oxide ; Tributyltin chloride ; Antifouling paints ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Malformations in shellfish have been reported by many authors. They attributed the cause of the deformity to the presence in water of organotin compounds used in the formulation of antifouling paints, for example bis(tributyltin) oxide (TBTO) and tributyltin chloride (TBTC). The behaviour of these compounds has been examined under abiotic laboratory conditions. The influence of many parameters such as sunlight, pH, oxygen, salinity have been examined. The degradation compounds obtained have been identified: (1) In the gas phase two major products, butene-1 and buetene-2, are observed with consumption of oxygen; (2) In the liquid phase, three main products are obtained, butanol-1, butanol-2 and butanone 2. The identified products represent a small part of the total concentration, suggesting a competing process such as formation of butyltin polymers; (3) In fresh water an amorphous solid phase is observed while in seawater a white cristalline precipitate appears.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Applied Organometallic Chemistry 1 (1987), S. 143-155 
    ISSN: 0268-2605
    Keywords: Agrochemicals ; Organotin ; Triphenyltin ; Tricyclohexyltin ; Trineophyltin ; Fungicide ; Bactericide ; Herbicide ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The object of this review paper is to provide a guide to agrochemical research involving organotin compounds which has been performed since 1980. The information is presented in tabular form and Part I is divided into main sections as indicated by the title. Each section is then subdivided to cover the various commercial organotin compounds. A final subsection lists investigations involving novel compounds. A table of the contents has been provided to enable ease of reference.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Applied Organometallic Chemistry 1 (1987), S. 188-189 
    ISSN: 0268-2605
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Applied Organometallic Chemistry 1 (1987), S. 185-187 
    ISSN: 0268-2605
    Keywords: Triorgan halides ; Synthesis ; Electrolysis ; Tin metal ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The synthesis of triorganotin halides directly from tin is described. The addition of an alkyl halide to tin metal dispersed in a molten quaternary halide rapidly and selectively produces the trialkyltin halide and a by-product containing the quaternary as a tin halide complex. The quaternary halide, the tin, and the halide ion are all recovered from the by-product by electrolysis and reused.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0268-2605
    Keywords: FAB MS review ; Organometallic ; Coordination ; Ion generation ; Matrices ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: This article describes the technique of fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB MS) and its applications to the analysis of organometallic and coordination complexes. Sections on ion generation and matrices are followed by a Periodic Group-based review of FAB MS results obtained from Transition Metal and Main Group compounds, organometallic cluster carbonyls and their derivatives, and salts of poly-oxo-anions. The literature has been surveyed from 1981 to approximately mid-1986.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Applied Organometallic Chemistry 1 (1987), S. 235-239 
    ISSN: 0268-2605
    Keywords: Environment ; Transmethylation ; Alkyllead ; Alkyltin ; Methylarsenic compounds ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Transmethylation reactions between organometals and metal ions in aqueous solutions in biotic and abiotic systems, with and without the presence of sediment, were investigated. It was found that alkyllead compounds can transfer their alkyl groups to Sn(II) and Sn(IV) ions to form various methyltin compounds in biotic and abiotic systems. The presence of sediment enhanced the transmethylation reactions. Methyltin compounds do not transfer their methyl groups of Pb(II). Methylarsenic acids transfer their methyl groups to Sn(II) and Sn(IV) in an abiotic system, but not in a biotic system containing sediment. The strong adsorption of tin onto sediment was the reason for the non-availability of tin ions for methylation. Methylarsenic acids do not transmethylate Pb(II). Other alkyllead compounds, such as ethyllead and butyllead species were also able to transfer their alkyl groups to tin. When both trimethyllead and triethyllead species are present in the same system, only the individual monoalkyl tin species were formed in both the Sn(II) and Sn(IV) solutions. No mixed alkyltin was produced. The findings of this study suggest that alkyllead compounds, if present in the environment, could be potential methylating agents for the formation of other methylmetals, such as methyltins. Methyltin compounds have already been documented to methylate mercuric ions in aqueous solution. Thus the study of transmethylation reactions opens up a new area of research that is essential in predicting the fate of organometals in the environment.
    Additional Material: 4 Tab.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0268-2605
    Keywords: Organotin complexes ; Mössbauer spectra ; Anti-tumour agents ; Aryltin chlorides ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The synthesis and 119mSn Mössbauer spectra of a series of 12 new and 3 other organotin complexes of general structure (4-ZC6H4)2SnCl2.L2.(Z = CH3, CF3, F, Cl, OCH3, L2=2,2′-bipyridyl, 1,10-phenanthroline, 2-aminomethylpyridine) arereported. A convenient method for the preparation of the intermediate diaryltin(IV) dihalides is given. The complexes fall into two isomeric types with either a trans- or cis-[ArSnAr] geometry. For this series 2-aminomethylpyridine gives exclusively the cis-[ArSnAr] geometry in its complexes.
    Additional Material: 4 Tab.
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