Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
Abstract In both fundamental and applied surface physics, it is essential to know as much as possible about the chemical composition of the outer atomic layers of solids. Rapid progress has recently been made in the development of analytical methods which could be used in surface analysis. All utilize some type of emission (photons, electrons, atoms, molecules, ions), caused by excitation of the surface states. Both the “excitation” and emission processes must meet certain basic requirements as regards information depth, form in which the information is obtained, sensitivity, changes in the surface layer during analysis, etc. The more important of the methods that qualify, namely Auger-Electron Spectroscopy (AES), photo-Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) and the static method of Secondary-Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), are discussed and their potentialities and limitations illustrated by characteristic examples.
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