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  • 1
    Abstract: Cathepsin D (Ctsd) is a ubiquitously expressed aspartic protease functioning primarily in the acidic endosomal/lysosomal cell compartment. At an age of 26 +/- 1 days, mice with constitutive Ctsd deficiency (Ctsd-/-) die from a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease equivalent to the congenital neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) type 10 in humans. In addition to neurodegeneration, Ctsd-/- mice exhibit a loss of CD4+/CD8+-double-positive thymocytes and an atrophy of the intestinal mucosa. To date, it is not understood if and how these phenotypes are triggering each other. In addition, the cell type causing initiation of NCL in Ctsd-/- mice has not been identified yet. To investigate the tissue- and cell type-specific functions of Ctsd, we generated a novel conditional Ctsd allele by flanking the second exon with loxP sites. We compared a ubiquitous Ctsd deletion with a deletion of the protease by a Nestin-promoter controlled Cre-recombinase expression in cells of neuroectodermal origin, e.g. in neurons and astroglia, but not in microglia. First, we confirmed absence of Ctsd in the respective cell- and tissue types. The neuroectoderm specific knock-out mice survived about 5.5 days longer than the mice with ubiquitous Ctsd deletion, which was in line with the progress in brain histopathology. Atrophies of thymus and small intestine were delayed to similar extend. The conditional Ctsd knock-out mouse model established in this study not only demonstrates that this type of NCL is initiated by cells of neuroectodermal origin, but will also help to further study tissue-specific functions of Ctsd in vivo.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26232697
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  • 2
    Abstract: Carcinomas establish a molecular cross talk between malignant tumor cells and the activated non-malignant cells of the tumor stroma. This cell-cell communication in tumor-stroma interaction includes soluble, secreted proteins that act in a paracrine or autocrine manner. Proteases are crucial factors in tumor-stroma interaction by degrading or truncating secreted bioactive proteins. The cysteine protease cathepsin B is frequently overexpressed in several cancer types, including breast cancer. Its abundance often correlates with poor prognosis. In the murine polyoma virus middle T oncogene (PyMT) breast cancer model, cathepsin B is equally pro-tumorigenic. In this study, we investigate how cathepsin B shapes the secreted proteome of PyMT breast cancers. We employed a novel strategy to harvest tumor interstitial fluid (IF) in combination with chemical stable isotope tagging for quantitative proteomic comparison of IF stemming from PyMT tumors from wild-type mice, mice lacking cathepsin B, and mice over-expressing human cathepsin B. In three biological replicates, we achieve good proteome coverage ( approximately 1700 proteins), with a large content (〉70%) of secreted proteins. This characterizes IF as a robust source for the investigation of cancer secretomes. We also identified a large number of shed ectodomains, thus highlighting the importance of tumor-contextual cell surface proteolysis. Furthermore, IF contained 〉190 proteases and protease inhibitors, which span the entire range of absolute protein abundances; an observation testifying for an important role of proteolysis in tumor-stroma interaction. The cathepsin B genotype consistently affected proteins including alpha-1B-glycoprotein and major urinary proteins 11 and 8 (MUP8). Our study establishes tumor IF as a rich source for the investigation of secreted proteins in tumor biology and sheds light on complex proteolytic networks in the breast cancer secretome.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26455267
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  • 3
    Keywords: DISTINCT ; LINES ; MOUSE ; MOUSE-BRAIN ; SIGNAL-TRANSDUCTION ; HSA ; P-SELECTIN ; ADHESION MOLECULE ; CD24 ; RAT-BRAIN ; HEAT-STABLE ANTIGEN ; HUMAN CEREBROSPINAL-FLUID ; LINKED SUGAR CHAINS ; MALDI-MS ; N-glycosylation pattern ; OLIGOSACCHARIDE PATTERNS
    Abstract: N-glycans of the mouse glycoprotein HSA and its human analogue CD24 from lymphoblastoma, neuroblastoma and astrocytoma cell lines as well as from mouse brain homogenate were analysed and compared to each other and to the N-glycosylation pattern of total glycoproteins from mouse and human brain. The N-glycans were released from PVDF-blotted HSA or CD24 and separated on Carbograph SPE into neutral and acid glycans. The naturally neutral glycan fraction and the fraction of glycans rendered neutral after neuraminidase treatment were analysed without further purification by MALDI-MS. In each fraction, about 25 molecular ions with an intensity 〉10% of the base peak were identified which corresponded to glycans with distinct isobaric monosaccharide compositions. Comparison of the neutral and desialylated glycans revealed some similarities between the samples analysed, but also clear differences. HSA and CD24 from all cell lines express almost no neutral N-glycans with two or more fucose in contrast to brain HSA and glycoproteins from mouse and human brain. The lack of extensive fucosylation was also observed for desialylated glycans of HSA and CD24 from all cell lines analysed except for CD24 from a human neuroblastoma cell line which exhibits like total human and mouse brain glycoproteins a large variety of highly fucosylated, higher branched N-glycans. HSA from mouse brain carries in addition desialylated non-fucosylated glycans of high abundance which were detected, if at all, only at low intensity in all other samples analysed suggesting that they may be implicated in specific functions of mouse brain HSA. Therefore, a rapid assessment of similarities or differences between glycosylation patterns of a glycoprotein isolated from different sources is possible using methods as described here. (C) 2003 Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12829373
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  • 4
    Keywords: PROTEIN ; DOWN-REGULATION ; NUCLEAR-LOCALIZATION ; ANIMAL LECTINS ; SUGAR CODE ; fetuin ; SUBSTRATE ; CARBOHYDRATE-RECOGNITION DOMAIN ; PANCREATIC-CARCINOMA MODEL ; SELF-ASSOCIATION
    Abstract: Many human proteins have a modular design with receptor and structural domains. Using adhesion/growth-regulatory galectin-3 as model, we describe an interdisciplinary strategy to define the functional significance of its tail established by nine non-triple helical collagen-like repeats (I-IX) and the N-terminal peptide. Genetic engineering with sophisticated mass spectrometric product analysis provided the tools for biotesting, i.e. eight protein variants with different degrees of tail truncation. Evidently,various aspects of galectin-3 activity (cis binding and cell bridging) are affected by tail shortening in a different manner. Thus, this combined approach reveals an unsuspected complexity of structure-function relationship, encouraging further application beyond this chimera-type galectin.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24909114
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  • 5
    Keywords: PROTEIN ; PURIFICATION ; MODEL MEMBRANES ; LIPID-COMPOSITION ; ACTINIA-EQUINA ; STICHOLYSIN-I ; PORE-FORMING TOXIN ; SEA-ANEMONE STICHODACTYLA ; CYTOLYSIN EQUINATOXIN-II ; HELIANTHUS
    Abstract: Actinoporins are pore-forming toxins (PFT) produced by sea anemones with molecular mass around 20 kDa and high affinity for sphingomyelin. The most studied atinoporins are sticholysins I and II (StI/StII) from Stichodactyla helianthus, equinatoxin II (EqtII) from Actinia equina, and fragaceatoxin C (FraC) from Actinia fragacea. Their N-terminal sequences encompassing residues 1-30 seem to be the best candidates for pore formation. This segment comprises an amphipathic alpha-helix preceded by a more or less hydrophobic segment, depending on the toxin, of around 10 amino acid residues. Although it is clear that the N-terminal is the most variable sequence in this protein family, the role of their hydrophobic segment in not fully understood. Here we show a comparison of StI, StII, EqtII, and FraC activities with that of their respective N-terminal synthetic peptides. The hemolytic and permeabilizing activity of the peptides reproduce qualitatively the behavior of their respective parental proteins and are particularly related to the hydrophobicity of the corresponding 1-10 segment. Furthermore, the dendrogram analysis of actinoporins' N-terminal sequence allows relating differences in alignment with differences in activity among the four toxins. We have also evaluated the penetration depth of the N-terminal segment of StI and StII by using Trp-containing peptide-analogs. Our data suggest that the N-terminus of StII is more deeply buried into the hydrophobic core of the bilayer than that of StI. We hypothesize that the highest activity of StII could be ascribed to a larger hydrophobic continuum, an uninterrupted sequence of non-charged mainly hydrophobic amino acid residues, of its N-terminus promoting a highest ability to partially insert in the membrane core. Moreover, as we show for four related peptides that a higher hydrophobicity contributes to increase the activity, we reinforce the notion that this property must be taken into account to design new potent membranotropic agents.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26134716
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  • 6
    Abstract: Occurrence of the adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins as family sets the challenge to achieve a complete network analysis. Along this route taken for a well-suited model organism (chicken), we fill the remaining gap to characterize its seventh member known from rat as galectin-related inter-fiber protein (GRIFIN) in the lens. Its single-copy gene is common to vertebrates, with one or more deviations from the so-called signature sequence for ligand (lactose) contact. The chicken protein is a homodimeric agglutinin with capacity to bind beta-galactosides, especially the histo-blood group B tetrasaccharide, shown by solid-phase/cell assays and a glycan microarray. Mass spectrometric identification of two lactose-binding peptides after tryptic on-bead fragmentation suggests an interaction at the canonical region despite a sequence change from Arg to Val at the site, which impairs reactivity of human galectin-1. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses of specimen from adult chicken organs reveal restriction of expression to the lens, here immunohistochemically throughout its main body. This report sets the stage for detailed structure-activity studies to define factors relevant for affinity beyond the signature sequence and to perform the first complete network analysis of the galectin family in developing and adult organs of a vertebrate.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27296808
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  • 7
    Keywords: ALPHA, analysis, ANTAGONIST, BIOLOGY, BONDS, BOVINE, CALCIFICATION, CANCER, cathepsin, CELL, CELLS,
    Abstract: Bovine fetuin-A is a member of a glycoprotein family with a wide spectrum of functions. Until now the bovine protein has been thought to be a single-chain protein. Recently we have shown that native bovine plasma fetuin-A partially exists as a disulfide-bridged two-chain protein with a heavy N-terminal and a lighter C-terminal chain similar to the structure of human fetuin-A homologue (alpha 2HS glycoprotein), and also is partially phosphorylated at residues Ser120, Ser302, Ser305 and Ser306 (Wind et al., Anal. Biochem. 317 (2003) 26-33). Both fetuin-A modifications, the phosphorylation at the four sites as well as the proteolysis which causes longer or shorter light chains (termed lc-1 and lc-2, respectively), are probably brought about by targeted enzymatic activities which still need to be defined. In this study we show that authentic bovine fetuin-A disulfide-bridged two-chain forms, which include the original C-ternimus, were liberated from the single-chain precursor by metalloprotemases MMP-3 (stromelysin-1) and MMP-7 (matrilysin), but not by elastase, cathepsin E and cathepsin G. Peptide sequencing suggested cleavage sites chiefly at the Pro277-Ser278 or Arg294-His295 peptide bonds. Fetuin-A radioactive phosphorylation in vitro by protein kinase CK2 caused (32)p incorporation into the fetuin-A light chain lc-1 but not lc-2 or the fetuin-A heavy chain, as revealed by MMP assisted proteolysis. Analysis by nanoESI-MS pinpointed phosphorylation at the native phospho-residues Ser302, Ser305 and Ser306 by increased relative abundance following in vitro phosphorylation. Moreover, CK2 phosphorylation of synthetic C-terminal fetuin-A peptides, used as effective controls to the native protein, strongly implies that CK2 is involved in the in vivo phosphorylation of fetuin-A. The phosphorylation of N-terminally truncated peptide homologs seemed highly dependent on the sequence context N-terminal of the phosphorylation sites, thus providing a likely explanation for the non-phosphorylation of the light chain lc-2 in native fetuin-A. (c) 2006 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17110014
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Biochimie 68 (1986), S. 357-365 
    ISSN: 0300-9084
    Keywords: Na^+ symport ; Na^+/H^+ antiport ; antiport Na^+:H^+ ; cinetique ; d-glucose ; energetics ; energetique ; kinetics ; lactose/H^+ symport ; mitochondrial transport ; symport d-glucose:Na^+ ; symport lactose:H^+ ; transports mitochondriaux
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Biochimie 68 (1986), S. 401-406 
    ISSN: 0300-9084
    Keywords: Cu depletion ; cytochrome a ; depletion du cuivre A ; proton pump
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0300-9084
    Keywords: Ca^2^+-ATPase ; detergents ; etats d'agregation ; monomeres ; oligomeres ; proteines membranaires
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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