Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Bioelectromagnetics 1 (1980), S. 21-34 
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: radiofrequency radiation ; microwaves ; rhesus monkey dosimetry ; microwave dosimetry ; cranial structures ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Temperature increases due to absorption of 1.2 GHz, CW, 70 mW/cm2, radio frequency (RF) energy, were measured in 3.3-cm-radius homogeneous muscle-equivalent spheres, M. mulatta cadaver heads (both detached from and attached to the body) and living, anesthetized M. mulatta heads. Temperatures were measured with a Vitek, Model 101 Electrothermia Monitor and temperature distributions were compared to theoretical predictions from a thermal-response model of a simulated cranial structure. The results show that the thermal response model accurately predicts the temperature distribution in muscle-equivalent spheres, the distribution of temperature in detached M. mulatta heads when exposed from the back of the head, and the distribution of temperature in attached M. mulatta cadaver heads for animals oriented with body parallel to the H-field. The temperature distribution in the detached M. mulatta heads varies markedly with exposure orientation, ie, facing forward, backward, or to the side. The orientation of the M. mulatta cadaver body significantly affects the temperature distribution in the head - with H-field orientation showing high, nonuniform values, and E-field orientation showing low, uniform values. In live animals blood flow produces a significant short-term effect on the temperature distribution in the midbrain, but not the cortex. Midbrain temperatures are both significantly higher and lower than the comparable cadaver measurements, depending on location.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: electric fields ; rat ; sciatic nerve ; vagus nerve ; superior cervical sympathetic ganglion ; chronic exposure ; 60 Hz ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Several reports have suggested that the nervous system can be affected by exposure to electric fields and that these effects may have detrimental health consequences for the exposed organism. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic (30-day) exposure of rats to a 60-Hz, 100-kV/m electric field on synaptic transmission and peripheral-nerve function. One hundred forty-four rats, housed in individual polycarbonate cages were exposed to uniform, vertical, 60-Hz electric fields in a system free of corona discharge and ozone formation and in which the animals did not receive spark discharges or other shocks during exposure. Following 30 days of exposure to the electric field, superior cervical sympathetic ganglia, vagus and sciatic nerves were removed from rats anesthetized with urethan, placed in a temperature-controlled chamber, and superfused with a modified mammalian Ringer's solution equilibrated with 95% O2 and 5% CO2. Several measures and tests were used to characterize synaptic transmission and peripheral-nerve function. These included amplitude, area, and configuration of the postsynaptic or whole-nerve compound-action potential; conduction velocity; accommodation; refractory period; strength-duration curves; conditioning-test (C-T) response, frequency response; post-tetanic response; and high-frequency-induced fatigue. The results of a series of neurophysiologic tests and measurements indicate that only synaptic transmission is significantly and consistently affected by chronic (30-day) exposure to a 60-Hz, 100-kV/m electric field. Specifically, an increase in synaptic excitability was detected in replicated measurements of the C-T response ratio. In addition, there are trends in other data that can be interpreted to suggest a generalized increase in neuronal excitability in exposed animals.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Bioelectromagnetics 1 (1980), S. 183-198 
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: operant behavior ; observing-responses ; microwaves ; vigilance ; dosimetry ; rats ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: The effects of microwave irradiation at two different frequencies (1.28 and 5.62 GHz) on observing-behavior of rodents were investigated. During daily irradiation, eight male hooded rats performed on a two-lever task; depression of one lever produced one of two different tones and the other lever produced food when depressed in the presence of the appropriate tone. At 5.62 GHz, the observing-response rate was not consistently affected until the power density approximated 26 mW/cm2 at 1.28 GHz, the observing-response rate of all rats was consistently affected at a power density of 15 mW/cm2. The respective whole-body specific absorption rates (SARs) were 4.94 and 3.75 W/Kg. Measurements of localized SAR in a rat-shaped model of simulated muscle tissue revealed marked differences in the absorption pattern between the two frequencies. The localized SAR in the model's head at 1.28 GHz was higher on the side distal to the source of radiation. At 5.62 GHz the localized SAR in the head was higher on the proximal side. It is concluded that the rat's observing behavior is disrupted at a lower power density at 1.28 than at 5.62 GHz because of deeper penetration of energy at the lower frequency, and because of frequency-dependent differences in anatomic distribution of the absorbed microwave energy.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Bioelectromagnetics 1 (1980), S. 285-298 
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: absorption ; millimeter wave ; biological media ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: A solid-state computer-controlled system has been used to make swept-frequency measurements of absorption of biological specimens from 26.5 to 90.0 GHz. A wide range of samples was used, including solutions of DNA and RNA, and suspensions of BHK-21/C13 cells, Candida albicans, C krusei, and Escherichia coli. Sharp spectra reported by other workers were not observed. The strong absorbance of water (10-30 dB/mm) caused the absorbance of all aqueous preparations that we examined to have a water-like dependence on frequency. Reduction of incident power (to below 1.0 μW), elimination of modulation, and control of temperature to assure cell viability were not found to significantly alter the water-dominated absorbance. Frozen samples of BHK-21/C13 cells tested at dry ice and liquid nitrogen temperatures were found to have average insertion loss reduced to 0.2 dB/cm but still showed no reproducible peaks that could be attributed to absorption spectra. It is concluded that the spectral resonances reported by others are likely to be in error.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: ELF electric field ; 60-Hz ; avoidance behavior ; activity ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: In repeated short-term tests (four sessions, each of 45-minute duration), and one longer test (a 23.5-hour session), behavior of rats was evaluated in a long, narrow shuttlebox. One side of the box was exposed to an electric field at various strengths, while a visually identical opposite side was shielded from exposure. In the short-term tests, rats generally remained shielded from electric fields of 90 kV/m and greater during the first session, and maintained this response in subsequent sessions. In the longer test, this same preference response was demonstrated at field strengths of 75 kV/m and greater; however, at 25 and 50 kV/m, rats exhibited a statistically significant preference for the exposed region of the shuttlebox, but only during the light portion of a 12-hour light: 12-hour dark cycle. Exposed animals made more traverses than sham-exposed controls between the two ends of the shuttlebox during the first hour of the test. The experimental data support the hypothesis that the observed behavioral effects are the result of direct interaction of the electric field with the animal, and not the result of secondary factors such as electric shock, corona discharge, audible noise, ozone, or vibration of the experimental apparatus.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Bioelectromagnetics 1 (1980), S. 117-129 
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: electric fields ; 60 Hz ; biological effects ; dosimetry ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Published and new data for grounded humans, swine, and rats exposed to vertical, 60-Hz electric fields are used to determine field strengths at the surfaces of the bodies and average components of induced-current density along the axes of the bodies. At the tops of the bodies, surface electric fields are increased (enhanced) over the unperturbed field strength present before the subjects entered the field by factors of 17,7, and 4 for humans, swine, and rats, respectively. For an unperturbed field strength of 10 kV/m, average induced axial current densities in the neck, chest, abdomen, and feet are: 550, 190, 250, and 2000 nA/cm2, respectively, for humans; 40, 13, 20, and 1100 nA/cm2, respectively, for swine; and 28, 16, 2, and 1400 nA/cm2, respectively, for rats. These data are used to show that the actual electric fields experienced by animals depend strongly on the shape of the body and its orientation relative to the electric field and ground plane. This fact must be taken into account if biological data obtained with laboratory animals are to be used for the assessment of possible hazards to humans exposed to 60-Hz electric fields.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Bioelectromagnetics 1 (1980), S. 149-160 
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: microwaves ; microwave dosimetry ; rhesus monkey dosimetry ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Dosimetric measurements were made in a muscle-equivalent model of an adult rhesus monkey subjected to far-field irradiation at 1.29 GHz. Profiles of microwave-induced heating in the model were obtained at eight locations, and a gradient-layer whole-body calorimeter was used to measure total absorbed energy. Average specific absorption rate (SAR) was calculated both from the calorimeter experiments and from the local temperature measurements. Thermographic imaging techniques were used to qualitatively show the microwave-induced surface heating patterns. For this model the calculated average SAR was 0.155 (W/kg)/(mW/cm2) which, at 1.29 GHs, makes the absorption cross section 84% of the geometric shadow cross section. The SAR is about three times that predicted for a prolate spheroidal model of similar mass. A disproportionally high absorption occured in the legs of the model positioned parallel to the E-polarization because of what is believed to be partial-body resonance.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: microwave bioeffects ; nonionizing radiation ; lymphoid cell metabolism ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: CBA/J adult male mice were given single or triple exposures to 2450-MHz microwaves in an environmentally controlled wave guide facility. The average absorbed dose rate for a single exposure varied from 12 to 15 mW/g. Shamexposed mice served as controls. Lymphoid cells were collected and tested for metabolic activity on days 3, 6, and 9 following a single exposure, and on days 9, 12, and 16 following triple exposures on days 0, 3, and 6. Cells were cultured in vitro for four hours to seven days before their metabolic rates were assayed. Under these conditions, microwaves failed to produce any detectable change in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), and protein synthesis, as measured by the incorporation of methyl(3H)-thymidine (3H-TDR) (DNA substrate), 3H-uridine (3H-UR) (RNA substrate), and 3H-leucine (protein substrate) by spleen, bone marrow, and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) in vitro. These data suggest that microwave-induced increases in the frequency of complement-receptor (CR)- or surface-immunoglobulin (sIg)-bearing cells were not associated with a concomitant increase in cell proliferation and/or protein synthesis, and favor the concept that microwaves under these conditions stimulate already existing B-cell precursors for maturation.
    Additional Material: 6 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Bioelectromagnetics 1 (1980), S. 199-251 
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: 2450-MHz radiation ; complement receptors ; endotoxin ; T cells ; genetic control ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: In attempting to evaluate the mechanisms responsible for susceptibility to the inductive increase in splenic complement receptor-positive (CR+) cells following exposure to 2450-MHz microwaves, it was found that sensitivity to microwave-induced CR+cell increases was under genetic control. In particular, evidence was accumulated suggesting that regulation was under the control of a gene or genes closely associated with but outside of the mouse major histocompatibility complex (H-2). All responsive strains of mice tested were of the H-2k haplotype, while mice of the H-2a, H-2b, H-2d and H-2i5 haplotypes were refractory to the microwave-induced increases in CR+ cells. By utilizing certain H-2k strains of mice that were genetically unable to respond to endotoxin, we were able to show that these strains of mice responded to microwaves, but not to endotoxin, by increasing CR+ cells. Microwave-induced increases in CR+cells were not mimicked by the intraperitoneal injection of hydrocortisone. Athymic mice responded to microwave exposure, indicating that this event was not regulated by the T-cell population. Mice less than eight weeks old were found not to be susceptible to exposure to 2450-MHz microwaves. These studies indicate that microwaves do induce changes in the population of cells with specific cell-surface receptors, that susceptibility to these changes is under genetic control, and that it is unlikely that endotoxin, corticosteroids, or regulatory T cells play a significant role in the mechanisms regulating these increases.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. More information can be found here...