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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-8272
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-8272
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Growing peroxidase utilisation in different industries encourages the search for high benefit/cost ratio purification methods such as aqueous two-phase partition. In this way, the partitioning behaviour of peroxidase from Armoracia rusticanaroots in polyvinylpirrolidone/Reppal and polyvinylpirrolidone/salt aqueous two-phase systems was investigated. Based on these results, a two-step purification process was developed. In the first system (polyvinylpyrrolidone K30/Reppal PES 200, pH 7.0), cell debris and some contaminating proteins were shifted to the bottom phase while peroxidase concentrated in the top phase. After discarding the bottom phase, the second step involved addition of magnesium sulphate thus forming a second aqueous two-phase system. At this step, the enzyme was extracted into the salt-rich bottom phase. The overall yield was 75% and the purification factor 7.3.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-8272
    Keywords: aqueous two-phase systems ; purification ; milk ; transgenic
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Transgenic sheep milk containing the protein humanα1-Antitrypsin (AAT) was partitioned in Poly(ethyleneglycol) (PEG)-Sulphate and PEG-Phosphate biphasic systems. Individual partition coefficients for AAT and some of the milk proteins were determined in these systems. The effects of PEG molecular weight, pH and the inclusion of NaCl on the partitioning of the proteins were also studied. It was found that increasing the concentration of NaCl and decreasing the molecular weight of the PEG resulted in an increase of the partition coefficients of the proteins to the upper (PEG) phase. This partitioning effect was greater for the more hydrophobic proteins and particularly in systems having a pH close to the isoelectric point of the protein. Solubilities of the proteins in increasing concentrations of ammonium sulphate were measured in order to investigate the effects of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions on the partitioning of these proteins in aqueous two-phase systems. Those proteins that precipitated at low levels of ammonium sulphate showed an increase in partition coefficient at low concentrations of NaCl, or they were precipitated at the interface of the phases at low concentrations of NaCl. Proteins that had low salting out constants in ammonium sulphate solutions were relatively unaffected by NaCl in ATPS. It is probable however that conformational changes and the state of aggregation of proteins are also important and should be invoked in describing the partitioning behavior observed for β-Lg for example. Comparison of theoretical and experimental values for AAT yield and purity showed clearly that partition coefficients are influenced by the degree of purity and values obtained with purified standards are not necessarily the same as for the same protein present in a complex mixture. Under the most favourable conditions using a 4% w/w loading of transgenic ovine milk, we obtained a 91% yield of AAT in the PEG phase with a purity of 73%.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-8272
    Keywords: amino acid solubilization ; cationic surfactants ; hydrophobic effect ; ion-exchange ; reversed micelles
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract The aim of this work is to discuss the mechanisms involved in amino acidsolubilization in cationic reversed micelles. A simple mechanism was assumedin which the amino acid solubilization is mediated by an ion-exchangeprocess between the amino acid and the surfactant counter ion neglecting theeffect of the reversed micellar structure. Based on this mechanism a simplemodel to predict equilibrium was developed and applied to the solubilizationof amino acids with different structures. It was found that solubilizationof hydrophilic and slightly hydrophobic amino acids can be described by anion-exchange mechanism and the amino acid equilibrium concentration can bedetermined for different experimental conditions using this model. However,solubilization of hydrophobic amino acids can not be described by a simpleion-exchange model. In this case hydrophobic contributions play an importantrole in amino acid solubilization and must be considered in the overallsolubilization process. This hydrophobic contribution was evaluated bydetermination of an interfacial partition coefficient. The overall aminoacid extraction was determined using distribution coefficients of all theamino acid forms and considering their dependence on ionic strength.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-8272
    Keywords: arachidonic acid (AA) ; downstream processing ; eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ; polyunsaturated fatty acids ; Porphyridium cruentum ; urea inclusion method
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Eicosapentaenoic acid (FPA, 20:5n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-3)were obtained from the microalga Porphyridium cruentum by a three-stepprocess: fatty acid extraction by direct saponification of biomass,polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentration by urea inclusion complexingand EPA isolation by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Twosolvents were tested for direct saponification of lipids in biomass. Themost efficient solvent, ethanol (96% v/v), extracted 75% ofthe fatty acids. PUFAs concentration by urea inclusion employed a urea/fattyacid ratio of 4:1 wt/wt at the crystallization temperatures of 4°C and28°C. Concentration factors were similar at both temperatures, but theEPA and AA recoveries were higher at 28°C (67.7% and 61.8%for the two acids, respectively). EPA and AA were purified from this PUFAconcentrate using analytical scale HPLC and the best results of thisseparation were scaled up to preparative level (4.7 i. d. × 30 cmcompression radial cartridge). A 94.3% pure EPA fraction and a81.4% pure AA fraction were obtained. Suitability of severalmicroalgae (Porphyridium cruentum, Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Isochrysisgalbana) and cod liver oil as sources of highly pure PUFAs, mainly EPA, wascompared.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-8272
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract The effect of the important ATPS- and bufferparameters on IgG and hybridoma partitioning in ATPSscontaining a PEG-dye-ligand was studied. Objective wasto establish selection criteria for effective ligandsfor extractive fermentations with animal cells inATPSs.In the presence of 1% PEG-dye-ligand the binding ofIgG to the PEG-ligand was affected severely by theNa-chloride concentration. The tie-line length and pHaffected IgG partitioning to a lesser extent. Thedesired partitioning of IgG into the top phase, wasonly obtained when, in addition to the 10 mmol/kgK-phosphate buffer, no Na-chloride was present. In anATPS culture medium, with ± 35 mmol/kg Na-bicarbonateand 60 mmol/kg Na-chloride, increasing thePEG-dye-ligand concentration up to 100% did increasethe partition coefficient, but was not effective inconcentrating the IgG in the top phase of ATPS culturemedium at a pH of 7.8.Furthermore, addition of the PEG-dye-ligand to ATPSculture medium changed the hybridoma cell partitioningfrom the bottom phase to the interface.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-8272
    Keywords: expanded bed adsorption ; β-D-galactosidase ; Kluyveromyces marxianus ; protein purification
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract The intracellular enzyme β-D-galactosidase provides interesting applications in the dairy industry, which are able to solve problems related to product processing, or can alleviate lactose intolerance in some populations. In order to obtain a technical enzyme, yeast cells of Kluyveromyces marxianus CDB 002 were disrupted by high pressure homogenization and an innovative chromatographic technique was tested for the recovery of β-D-galactosidase. A STREAMLINE 25 column, containing 65 ml STREAMLINE-DEAE was equilibrated with 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer pH 7.5 at an upward flow of 250 cmh–1. 100–200 ml cell homogenate were applied onto the expanded gel. After unbound proteins and cellular debris were washed out, the bed was allowed to sediment and β-D-galactosidase was eluted with a downward flow of 0.2 M NaCl in the same buffer. A 6-fold purification factor was achieved with 63% activity recovery, while removing cell debris at a single step, thus avoiding a centrifugation step. Concentration and volume of the applied sample affected purification and gel performance. The results presented show STREAMLINE-DEAE chromatography to be an interesting method for the production of β-D-galactosidase as a technical enzyme, since it can also be applied on a large scale without much modification.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Bioseparation 7 (1998), S. 159-165 
    ISSN: 1573-8272
    Keywords: affinity separation ; alpha amylase ; alginate beads ; downstream processing ; wheat amylase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Calcium-alginate beads were found to bind a variety of enzymes in a nonspecific fashion. However, alpha amylases from porcine pancreas, Bacillus subtilis (BAN 240L) and wheat germ bound at a significant level and B. subtilis and wheat germ amylases could be eluted with 1M maltose. The wheat germ alpha amylase could be purified 45 fold with 70% recovery. The SDS - PAGE pattern showed significant purification by this single step strategy.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-8272
    Keywords: metal chelate ; affinity precipitation ; poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-vinylimidazole) ; thermoprecipitation ; cloud-point ; protein purification ; protein inhibitors
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Metal chelate affinity precipitation of proteins, a method combining metal–protein interaction and affinity precipitation is being discussed as a selective separation process for proteins. The technique utilizes a flexible soluble–insoluble thermo-responsive polymer with a covalently linked ligand loaded with metal ions. The affinity binding of the target protein varies with different metal ions. Copolymers of N-isopropylacrylamide with 1-vinylimidazole loaded with Cu(II) ions are designed as a potential carriers for affinity purification and proved to be successful for purification of protein inhibitors from a variety of cereals.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Bioseparation 7 (1998), S. 269-280 
    ISSN: 1573-8272
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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