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• 1
Electronic Resource
New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
Biotechnology and Bioengineering 9 (1967), S. 57-76
ISSN: 0006-3592
Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: From soil and from the plant Elodea, we have isolated an organism which has not, yet been identified; it is a comparatively large Bacillus, which thriven in a medium of mineral salts saturated with a gaseous mixture of 40%, methane (or natural gas), 40% oxygen, 15% nitrogen, and 5% carbon dioxide. The isolated cells have amino acid and vitamin contents comparable to, or, in some cases greater than, those found in such nutrients as yeast, fish meal, or milk solids.
Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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• 2
Electronic Resource
New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
Biotechnology and Bioengineering 9 (1967), S. 113-127
ISSN: 0006-3592
Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: A consecutive, first-order, irreversible, biochemical reaction, \documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$A{\textstyle{{k(\theta)} \over {{\rm Enzyme }1}}} \to B{\textstyle{{k(\theta)} \over {{\rm Enzyme 2}}}} \to C$\end{document}, taking place in a series of N reactors with product recycle is considered. A discrete version of the maximum principle is used to derive general equations necessary for maximizing the production of (1) the final product, C, by choosing the temperature or the pH value in each reactor, and (2) the intermediate product, B, by choosing the reactor volume. A numerical computation for a series of three reactors with recycle is illustrated. The effects of varying the recycle rates on the optimal state and decision variables are also presented.
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• 3
Electronic Resource
New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
Biotechnology and Bioengineering 9 (1967), S. 267-269
ISSN: 0006-3592
Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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• 4
Electronic Resource
New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
Biotechnology and Bioengineering 9 (1967), S. 257-265
ISSN: 0006-3592
Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: The growth of Semliki Forest Virus in stirred culture vessels at volumes of 4 and 301. is described. Virus can be produced on a large scale in deep culture using industrial type vessels. Control of pH within close limits is important for maximum production of infective virus. With the parent, strain of SFV, virus yields were found to be influenced by an interference phenomenon which was apparently not due to interferon. Growth of a cloned strain of SFV obtained by serial selection of large plaques was not affected by this phenomenon. The cloned strain, when inoculated at a cell/virus input ratio of 1:1, gave maximum virus titers of 1010 p.f.u./ml., indicating an average yield of 10,000 p.f.u/BHK cell.
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• 5
Electronic Resource
New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
Biotechnology and Bioengineering 9 (1967), S. 321-327
ISSN: 0006-3592
Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: Geosmin, an earthy smelling substance, has been obtained from several actinomycetes in addition to those previously reported. On the basis of the NMR and mass spectra of geosmin and its acid transformation product, argosmin, tentative partial structures have been proposed for both.
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• 6
Electronic Resource
New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
Biotechnology and Bioengineering 9 (1967), S. 223-233
ISSN: 0006-3592
Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: (1) Samples of yeast which varied over an arbitrary 0-100% scale with respect, to cytochrome concentration were prepared. (2) The reflectance spectrum of each sample was scanned. (3) These reflectance spectra were analyzed numerically on a digital computer to determine the bandwidths and intensities as a function of cytochrome concentration. Band shapes using the profiles of Cauchy, Gauss, and Giovanlelli were used. The correlations may be used to estimate cytochrome concentrations with a standard deviation of about 3%.
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• 7
Electronic Resource
New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
Biotechnology and Bioengineering 9 (1967), S. 205-221
ISSN: 0006-3592
Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: Batch growth characteristics of various organisms were determined on a number of pairs of sugars to find a stable system showing clear-cut classical diauxie. The system selected for further study was a strain of Klebsiella (Acrobacter) aerogenes, NCIB 8021 growing on a mixture of glucose and maltose in minimal salts medium at 30°C. This showed a specific growth rate (μ) of 1.19 ± 0.03 hr.-1 on 0.01% (w/v) glucose, followed by a diauxie lag of 0.73 ± 0.04 hr and then further growth on 0.01% (w/v) maltose at μ = 0.60 ± 0.03 hr-1. This system was applied to a two-stage continuous, stirred, aerated fermentor system, with working volumes of 1.85 and 2.77 liters, respectively, and growth was followed (mainly by optical density, referred to dry weights and viable counts) and also the concentrations of the sugars were measured. Except at the very highest flow rates, glucose was immediately and virtually completely consumed, but the utilization of maltose showed interesting variations: (a) At low feed rates between 0.09 and 0.4 vol./hr. exactly the same response was found with mixed sugars as with double concentration glucose, showing that the organism was able to metabolize maltose as well and as quickly as glucose. (b) At medium feed rates of 0.46 to 1.03 vol./hr. two deviations were observed, both of which increased as the dilution rate increased: the system showed a time lag on maltose before the cell population began to rise and the volume of medium used before the steady state was established was greater than predicted, (c) At fast feed rates, approaching “washout” condition of 1.055 to 1.135 vol./hr. the first culture vessel showed no reaction to a step change which included maltose, although, of course, with doubled glucose it responded immediately. The second vessel, however, quickly metabolized the overflow maltose, and showed a steady increase of cell population to the theoretical steady state. These results may have significance for industrial systems using complex commercial substrates.
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• 8
Electronic Resource
New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0006-3592
Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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• 9
Electronic Resource
New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
Biotechnology and Bioengineering 9 (1967), S. 329-342
ISSN: 0006-3592
Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: A process for manufacturing disodium 5′-guanylate was devised. 5′-Amino 4-imidazole carboxamide riboside (AICA-R) was accumulated with an amount over 100 times those reported in the literature by fermentation of D-glucose with a non-exacting purineless mutant derived from Bacillus megaterium JAM 1245) by x-ray irradiation. The influence of RNA, amino acids, and salts on AICA-R accumulation was clarified. Appropriate aeration and agitation was found necessary. The (60-hr, cultivation of the medium containing 8% of D-glucose gave AICA-R in the concentration above, 11 g/l. AICA-R thus accumulated was separated from the fermentation broth by ion-exchange technique and subjected to synthetic processes to yield disodium 5′-guanylatc with the yield over 40%, based on AICA-R.
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• 10
Electronic Resource
New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
Biotechnology and Bioengineering 9 (1967), S. 429-437
ISSN: 0006-3592
Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: An aflatoxin-producing isolate of Aspergillus flavus was found to be a consistent producer of aflatoxin on all substrates which supported the growth of the mold. In competition with six other selected molds, this isolate was dominant except with one species of Penicillium. Aflatoxin production was parallel to the extent of A. flavus growth whether effected by substrate or competition.