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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cancer causes & control 1 (1990), S. 3-4 
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cancer causes & control 1 (1990), S. 149-154 
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Adolescence ; diet ; follow-up study ; menarche
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Early menarche has been associated with higher risk of breast cancer. A prospective study has been conducted in Quebec City, Canada, to evaluate the relationship of dietary intake to age at menarche. On three occasions during the schoolyear 1986–87, 2,299 pre-menarcheal girls kept a three-day dietary record. At the end of a 17-month follow-up, 911 girls (39.6 percent) had reached menarche. Incidence density ratios (IDRs) adjusted for age at entry and mothers' age at menarche were computed using proportional hazards models. IDRs for quartiles of energy, nutrient and food-group intakes were not different from the null value, In this population of well-nourished girls, diet did not influence the age at onset of menarche.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Alcohol ; oral cancer ; case-control ; tobacco
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A case-control study of oral cancer was conducted in Beijing, People's Republic of China (PRC). The study was hospital-based and controls were hospital in-patients matched for age and gender with the cases. The response rates for cases and controls were 100 percent and 404 case/control pairs were interviewed. Tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption emerged as independent risk factors for oral cancer. For tobacco smoking, the association was considerably stronger for smokers of pipes than for smokers of cigarettes. For all kinds of tobacco, expressed as cigarette equivalents, the odds ratio (OR) for total pack-years smoked, among males, rose from 1.0 in never-smokers to 3.7 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.8–7.4) in the highest quintile of exposure. Similar results were found for females. The association with tobacco consumption was strong for squamous cell carcinoma but there was no trend in risk associated with tobacco for adenocarcinomas and other histologic types. So few women reported consuming alcohol that this variable could be examined only in male. Risk in the highest category of total lifetime intake of alcohol relative to than in lifetime abstainers was 2.3 (1.1–4.8) with a significant trend in risk with increasing dose (P〈0.002). The combined effects of tobacco and alcohol appear to be approximately multiplicative in males. The attributable risk of oral cancer for tobacco among tobacco smokers was estimated as 34 percent (45 percent among males and 21 percent among females); for alcohol consumption in males the estimate was 23 percent.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Brain tumor ; electromagnetic fields ; occupational risk factors ; population-based case-control study ; smoking
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In a population-based case-control study in the Rhein—Neckar—Odenwald area (containing 1.3 million inhabitants) of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), risk factors were assessed for brain tumor development in 226 cases with primary brain tumors (ICD-9 191, 192.1, 192.0) and 418 population controls, interviewed by a standardized questionnaire. The analysis of occupational risk factors and smoking is presented. No elevated risk was found for smoking. Similarly, no significant effects were found for most occupations. Five specific occupational groups were examined because of a priori determination that they were of interest. Some categories showed slightly elevated risks but in none was the elevation statistically significant. A significant increase in risk for brain tumor development was found associated with working in electrical occupations for women (relative risk [RR]=5.2; 95 percent confidence interval [CI] 1.4–20.1) but not for men (RR=0.9, 95 percent CI 0.3–2.3).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Cigarettes ; liver cancer ; tobacco ; veterans
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The relationship of tobacco use with risk of primary liver cancer was investigated using data from a 26-year mortality follow-up of nearly 250,000 US veterans, mostly from World War I. Significantly increased risks for liver cancer (289 deaths) were associated with most forms of tobacco use, including pipe and cigar smoking. Elevated relative tisks (RRs) were seen for current cigarette smokers (RR=2.4; 95 percent confidence interval [CI] 1.6–3.5) and former cigarette smokers (RR=1.9, 1.2–2.9). A strong dose-response relationship (P〈0.001) was found for cigarette smoking, with smokers of 40 or more cigarettes per day having almost a fourfold risk (RR=3.8, 1.9–8.0). Risks were also found to increase significantly with years of cigarette use and with earlier age at the start of cigarette smoking. These results are consistent with those of other cohort and case-control studies, suggesting that cigarette smoking may be related to the risk of liver cancer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Alcohol drinking ; alcoholic beverages ; colorectal neoplasms
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Quantitative methods were used to review epidemiologic data relating consumption of alcoholic beverages to risk of colorectal cancer. The data (27 studies) supported the presence of a weak association. For consumption of two alcoholic beverages daily, on average the relative risk of colorectal cancer was 1.10 (95% confidence interval 1.05–1.14). Other findings were: (1) the association did not vary according to gender or site within the large bowel; (2) results from follow-up studies (relative risk 1.32, 95% confidence interval 1.16–1.51) suggested a stronger relationship than those from case-control studies (relative risk 1.07, 95% confidence interval 1.02–1.12); and (3) the evidence supporting beverage specificity was not conclusive, although the results were consistent with a stronger association with consumption of beer (relative risk 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.13–1.41) than with consumption of wine (relative risk 1.11, 95% confidence interval 0.91–1.36) or liquor (relative risk 1.13, 95% confidence interval 0.99–1.29). Because the magnitude of the association between alcohol consumption and risk of colorectal cancer was small, the findings regarding a causal role of alcohol were inconclusive.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Case-control study ; diet ; iodine ; thyroid cancer
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A population-based case-control interview study was designed to test the hypothesis that dietary iodine or the consumption of goitrogenic vegetables increases the risk of thyroid cancer. A total of 191 histologically confirmed cases (64 percent female) and 441 matched controls from five ethnic groups in Hawaii were available for analysis. Among women, intake of seafood (especially shellfish), harm ha (a fermented fish sauce), and dietary iodine were associated with an increased risk of cancer, whereas consumption of goitrogenic (primarily cruciferous) vegetables was associated with a decreased risk. Non-dietary risk factors included miscarriage (especially at first pregnancy), use of fertility drugs, family history of thyroid disease, obesity, and work as a farm laborer. The odds ratio for the combined effect of a high iodine intake and a first-pregnancy miscarriage was 4.8 (95 percent confidence interval [CI]=1.2 – 19.2); and for high iodine intake and use of fertility drugs 7.3 (95 percent CI=1.5 – 34.5). Among men, positive associations were found for obesity, work as a farm laborer, and a past history of benign thyroid disease. Although this study identified several dietary and non-dietary risk factors for thyroid cancer, it could not fully explain the exceptionally high incidence rates among Filipino women in Hawaii.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cancer causes & control 1 (1990), S. 254-254 
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Breast cancer ; case-control study ; estradiol ; luteal-phase ; progesterone ; sex-hormone binding ; globulin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: To assess whether risk of breast cancer in young women is associated with differences in luteal-phase hormone production and to attempt to explain differences in risk of breast cancer of young Shanghai Chinese and Los Angeles white women, two concurrent case-control studies of serum hormone concentrations were conducted. Both studies were carefully controlled for the possible confounding effects of age, weight, height, pregnancy history, and day of the menstrual cycle, by individually matching cases and controls on these factors. Case eligibility was limited to women with localized breast cancer. Sixteen of 39 Shanghai breast-cancer cases were sampled prior to the histologic diagnosis of their disease. The remaining 23 Shanghai cases and all 42 Los Angeles cases were diagnosed, and treated by surgery only, at least six months prior to hormonal evaluation. All subjects were sampled on day 22 of the menstrual cycle. Overall, cases had 13.5% higher serum estradiol concentrations (p=0.038) with a case-to-control excess of 16.6% in Shanghai subjects (p=0.089) and 10.8% in Los Angeles subjects (p=0.23). There were no appreciable differences in amounts of sex-hormone binding globulin between cases and controls. Cases had lower progesterone levels than controls, but the situation was reversed when the analysis was restricted to subjects with evidence of ovulation. Los Angeles controls had 20.6% greater estradiol concentrations than Shanghai controls (p=0.036); adjustment for body weight accounted for only 25.7% of this difference. This higher level of estradiol in Los Angeles women could be an important part of the explanation of the two-to-three-fold differences in breast cancer incidence rates of women under age 45 in Shanghai and Los Angeles.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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