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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; PATIENT ; DNA ; GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS ; ASSOCIATION ; FREQUENCY ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; DIFFERENCE ; GLUTATHIONE ; REPAIR ; smoking ; BLADDER ; BLADDER-CANCER ; GENOTYPES ; CANCER-PATIENTS ; CANCER PATIENTS ; EXCISION-REPAIR ; glutathione-S-transferase ; GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE ; TRANSITIONAL-CELL CARCINOMA ; DEHYDROGENASE ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; REDUCTASE ; XRCC1 POLYMORPHISMS ; GSTT1 ; METAANALYSIS ; DAMAGE RECOGNITION ; S-TRANSFERASE M1
    Abstract: We investigated the association of urinary bladder cancer with genetic polymorphisms in the xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC), group D (XPD) and group G (XPG), X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) and group 3 (XRCC3), Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1 (NBS1), cyclin D1, methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1 (NQO1), H-ras and glutathione S-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1) genes. Bladder cancer patients from the different hospitals in Stockholm County Council area and matching controls were genotyped for different polymorphisms. The frequency of the variant allele for A/C polymorphism in exon 15 of the XPC gene was significantly higher in the bladder cancer cases than in the controls (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.16-1.92, P = 0.001). The variant allele homozygote genotype for the T/C polymorphism in exon 1 of the H-ras gene was associated with a decreased risk for bladder cancer (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.02-0.67, P = 0.006). The variant allele genotypes for the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA repair genes, XPG and NBS1, showed a marginal association with the occurrence of bladder cancer (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.15-0.94, P = 0.03 and OR 1.64, 95% CI 0.92-2.90, P = 0.09, respectively). We also report a positive correlation between the null homozygote of GSTT1 with the risk of bladder cancer (OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.32-4.98, P = 0.003). For other polymorphisms included in this study, NBS1 Glu185Gln, XPD Lys751Gln, XPG Asp1104His, XRCC1 Arg399Gln, XRCC3 Thr241Met, cyclin D1 Pro242Pro, MTHFR Ala222Val and Glu429Ala, NQO1 Arg139Trp and Pro187Ser, no significant differences for genotype distributions and allele frequencies between the bladder cancer cases and the controls were observed in the present study
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 14688016
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  • 2
    Keywords: POPULATION ; ENZYMES ; GENE ; GENES ; DNA ; GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS ; ASSOCIATION ; FREQUENCY ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; REPAIR ; RATES ; ABERRATIONS ; MARKERS ; cancer risk ; COMET ASSAY ; DAMAGE ; genotoxicity ; LYMPHOCYTES ; GENOTYPES ; ADDUCTS ; INDIVIDUALS ; EXCISION-REPAIR ; VARIANT ; OCCUPATIONAL-EXPOSURE ; XRCC1 ; STYRENE
    Abstract: We analysed the associations between genetic polymorphisms in genes coding for DNA repair enzymes XPD (exon 23 A --〉 C, K751Q), XPG (exon 15 G --〉 C, D1104H), XPC (exon 15 A --〉 C, K939Q), XRCC1 (exon 10 G --〉 A, R399Q) and XRCC3 (exon 7 C --〉 T, T241 M) and the levels of chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and single-strand breaks (SSBs) in peripheral lymphocytes in a central European population. We also measured the irradiation-specific DNA repair rates and the repair rates of 8-oxoguanines in these individuals. An elevated frequency of CAs was observed in individuals with the XPD exon 23 A allele (AA and AC) genotypes (F = 3.6, P = 0.028, ANOVA). In multifactorial analysis of variance, the XPD exon 23 polymorphism appeared as a major factor influencing CAs (F = 4.2, P = 0.017). SSBs in DNA, on the other hand, were modulated by XPD (F = 4.3, P = 0.023), XPG (F = 4.3, P = 0.024) and XRCC1 genotypes (F = 3.0, P = 0.064). Irradiation-specific DNA repair rates (reflecting mainly base excision repair activity) were affected by XRCC1 (F = 5.9, P = 0.010) and XPC polymorphisms (F = 4.2, P = 0.046, MANOVA). Our results from this study suggest that markers of genotoxicity are associated with polymorphisms in genes encoding DNA repair enzymes
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 14729591
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  • 3
    Keywords: ACTIVATION, ASSOCIATION, BRCA2, BREAST, breast cancer, BREAST-CANCER, CANCER, cancer risk, CARCINOGE
    Abstract: Overexpression of the proto-oncogene ERBB2 (HER2/NEU) has been observed in 20-30% of breast cancers involving poor prognosis. Genetic alterations within ERBB2 have been shown to induce carcinogenesis and metastasis. We investigated eight annotated single nucleotide polymorphisms for occurrence in familial breast cancer samples. The confirmed variants Ile654Val, Ile655Val and Ala1170Pro were analysed in subsequent epidemiological studies on familial breast cancer risk. While Ala1170Pro resides within a C-terminally located regulatory domain, the two adjacent polymorphisms Ile654Val and Ile655Val are part of the transmembrane domain. A case-control study analysing a cohort of 348 German familial breast cancer cases and 960 corresponding controls showed no significant association of either Ile655Val (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.82-1.34, P = 0.728) or Ala1170Pro (OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.74-1.20, P = 0.632) with familial breast cancer risk. Differences in haplotype frequencies between cases and controls could also not be detected. The ERBB2 variant Ile654Val, however, revealed an increased risk for carriers of the heterozygous Val654 allele (OR = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.08-6.08, P = 0.028). The rare Val654 variant is linked with the more frequent Val655, resulting in two consecutive valine instead of two isoleucine residues within the transmembrane domain. Computational analyses suggest that the Val654-Val655 allele provokes receptor dimerization and activation, thus stimulating kinase activity and cell transformation. We hypothesize that ERBB2 Val654 represents an oncogenic variant which might, in addition, influence clinical outcome and predict a worse prognosis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15550452
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  • 4
    Keywords: BREAST-CANCER RISK, Germany, HER2, polymorphism, RE, VARIANT
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15860504
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  • 5
    Keywords: CANCER ; FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; EXPOSURE ; RISK ; NITRIC-OXIDE ; INFECTION ; ASSOCIATION ; antibodies ; antibody ; PLASMA ; NUMBER ; cancer risk ; DIETARY ; INDIVIDUALS ; CARDIA ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; GASTRIC-CANCER ; HELICOBACTER-PYLORI ; nutrition ; DIETARY-INTAKE ; INCREASE ; IRON ; LEVEL ; prospective ; MEAT INTAKE ; RED MEAT ; CANCER-RISK ; Helicobacter pylori ; N-NITROSO COMPOUNDS ; HEME ; processed meat
    Abstract: The risk of gastric cancer (GC) associated with dietary intake of nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and endogenous formation of nitroso compounds (NOCs) was investigated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The study included 521 457 individuals and 314 incident cases of GC that had occurred after 6.6 average years of follow-up. An index of endogenous NOC (ENOC) formation was estimated using data of the iron content from meat intake and faecal apparent total NOC formation according to previous published studies. Antibodies to Helicobacter pylori and vitamin C levels were measured in a sub-sample of cases and matched controls included in a nested case-control within the cohort. Exposure to NDMA was 〈 1 mu g on average compared with 93 mu g on average from ENOC. There was no association between NDMA intake and GC risk (HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.7-1.43). ENOC was significantly associated with non-cardia cancer risk (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.14-1.78 for an increase of 40 mu g/day) but not with cardia cancer (HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.69-1.33). Although the number of not infected cases is low, our data suggest a possible interaction between ENOC and H.pylori infection (P for interaction = 0.09). Moreover, we observed an interaction between plasma vitamin C and ENOC (P 〈 0.02). ENOC formation may account for our previously reported association between red and processed meat consumption and gastric cancer risk
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16571648
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELLS ; LUNG ; MODEL ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; COHORT ; EXPOSURE ; TIME ; CARCINOGENESIS ; STAGE ; prevention ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; smoking ; COUNTRIES ; RATES ; PARAMETERS ; TRANSFORMATION ; PROJECT ; EPIC ; nutrition ; mechanistic model ; INITIATION ; DEPENDENCE ; TOBACCO-SMOKE ; 2-MUTATION MODEL ; PROMOTION ; prospective ; EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ; ATOMIC-BOMB SURVIVORS ; EXPANSION ; CIGARETTE-SMOKE ; BRITISH DOCTORS DATA ; CLONAL EXPANSION MODEL ; P53 MUTATION SPECTRUM ; SOMATIC MUTATIONS ; STATE-VECTOR MODEL
    Abstract: A stochastic two-stage cancer model is used to analyse the relation between lung cancer and cigarette smoking. The model contains the main rate-limiting stages of carcinogenesis, which include initiation, promotion (clonal expansion of initiated cells), malignant transformation and a lag time for tumour formation. Various data sets were used to test the model. These include the data of a large prospective collaborative project carried out in 10 different European countries, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). This new data set has not been modelled before. The model is also tested on other published data from CPS-II (Cancer Prevention Study II) of the American Cancer Society and the British doctors' study. The analyses indicate that the EPIC data are best described with smoking dependence on the rates of malignant transformation and clonal expansion. With increasing smoking rates, saturation effects in the two exposure rate-dependent model parameters were observed. The results find confirmation in the biological literature, where both mutational effects and promotional effects of cigarette smoke are documented
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16410261
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  • 7
    Keywords: SPECTRA ; CANCER ; CELLS ; CELL ; human ; DNA adducts ; EXPOSURE ; RISK ; GENE ; TISSUE ; PATIENT ; DNA ; MECHANISM ; CARCINOGENESIS ; DNA ADDUCT FORMATION ; RATS ; tumour ; ASSOCIATION ; ACID ; NUMBER ; MUTATION ; p53 ; MUTATIONS ; ADDUCTS ; INDIVIDUALS ; NEPHROPATHY ; mutagenesis ; CONSUMPTION ; aristolochic acid ; CHINESE HERBS NEPHROPATHY ; DNA-ADDUCTS ; RENAL-FAILURE ; molecular ; FEATURES ; ONCOLOGY ; MOLECULAR-MECHANISM ; RE ; PATTERN ; P53 GENE ; RAS GENE ; ADDUCT FORMATION ; development ; analysis ; DNA ADDUCT ; p53 mutation ; RISK-FACTOR ; SPECTRUM ; PREDICT ; aetiology ; COVALENT DNA ADDUCTION ; HUMAN P53 GENE ; OCHRATOXIN-A
    Abstract: Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is found in certain rural areas of the Balkans and affects at least 25 000 inhabitants. Of the many hypotheses on BEN, the Aristolochia hypothesis has recently gained ground substantiated by the investigations on aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN). On both clinical and morphological grounds, AAN is very similar to BEN. That exposure to aristolochic acid (AA) of individuals living in endemic areas through consumption of bread made with flour contaminated with seeds of Aristolochia clematitis is responsible for BEN is an old hypothesis, but one which is fully consistent with the unique epidemiologic features of BEN. Here, we propose an approach to investigate AA-induced mutagenesis in BEN that can provide molecular clues to the aetiology of its associated urothelial cancer. The molecular mechanism of AA-induced carcinogenesis demonstrates a strong association between DNA adduct formation, mutation pattern and tumour development. A clear link between urothelial tumours, p53 mutations and AA exposure should emerge as more tumour DNA from BEN patients from different endemic areas becomes available for mutation analysis. We predict that the observed p53 mutation spectrum will be dominated by AT -〉 TA transversion mutations as has already been demonstrated in the human p53 gene of immortalized cells after exposure to AAI and urothelial tumours from BEN patients in Croatia. Moreover, the detection of AA-specific DNA adducts in renal tissue of a number of BEN patients and individuals living in areas endemic for BEN in Croatia provides new evidence that chronic exposure to AA is a risk factor for BEN and its associated cancer
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17434925
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  • 8
    Keywords: AGE, APOPTOSIS, ASSOCIATION, BINDING, BINDING PROTEIN-3, BREAST, breast cancer, BREAST-CANCER, CANCE
    Abstract: The regulation of growth hormone 1 (GH1) and insulin-like-growth factor-1 (IGF-1) release is under the influence of three pituitary hormones [growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), ghrelin (GHRL) and somatostatin (SST)], which act in an autocrine/paracrine fashion in the breast. By binding to their respective receptors, they control cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in a GH1/IGF-1-dependent manner. We investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the GHRH, GHRHR, GHRL, GHSR, SST and SSTR2 gene regions in a Polish and a German cohort of 798 breast cancer cases and 1011 controls. Our study revealed an association of a novel TC repeat polymorphism in the SST promoter with a decreased breast cancer risk in the Polish study population [odds ratio (OR), 0.65; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.44-0.96]. The closely linked SNP IVS1 A+46G showed the same trend. For both polymorphisms the association was stronger in women above the age of 50 (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.14-0.76 and OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.18-0.87, respectively). The protective effect of these polymorphisms was confirmed in a haplotype analysis among women above 50 years of age and carrying the two variant alleles (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.17-0.80). In the independent German population, we observed slightly decreased ORs among women above the age of 50 years. In the SSTR2 gene, carriers of the promoter 21/21 TG repeat genotype were at a decreased breast cancer risk (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.41-0.94) compared to carriers of the other genotypes in the Polish population. Furthermore, we identified a protective effect of the GHRHR C-261T SNP in both populations (joint analysis CT+TT versus CC: OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.65-0.99). This effect was carried by a haplotype containing the protective allele. Thus, our study concludes a possible protective influence of distinct polymorphisms in genes involved in GH1 release on breast cancer risk
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16606630
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  • 9
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; proliferation ; SURVIVAL ; carcinoma ; CELL ; CELL-PROLIFERATION ; Germany ; FOLLOW-UP ; RISK ; SITE ; SITES ; GENE ; GENES ; MARKER ; CARCINOGENESIS ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; TARGET ; STAGE ; PROGRESSION ; NUMBER ; METASTASIS ; REGION ; GENOTYPES ; REGIONS ; EXTRACELLULAR-MATRIX ; MIGRATION ; INTEGRIN ; PROGNOSTIC VALUE ; MATRIX ; ONCOLOGY ; RE ; TUMOR-SUPPRESSOR ; MAMMARY-GLAND ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; SNPs ; GRADE ; cell proliferation ; SINGLE-NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; INTEGRINS ; PROGNOSTIC MARKER ; GENOTYPE ; single-nucleotide polymorphism ; HIGH-GRADE ; ENGLAND ; MicroRNAs ; outcome ; MICRORNA ; UNTRANSLATED REGION ; hazard ratio ; SWEDISH ; LEU33PRO HOMOZYGOSITY
    Abstract: Integrins control the cell attachment to the extracellular matrix and play an important role in mediating cell proliferation, migration and survival. A number of important cancer-associated integrin genes can be regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs) that bind to their target sites in the 3' untranslated regions. We examined the effect of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in predicted miRNA target sites of six integrin genes (ITGA3, ITGA6, ITGAv, ITGB3, ITGB4 and ITGB5) on breast cancer (BC) risk and clinical outcome. Six SNPs were genotyped in 749 Swedish incident BC cases with detailed clinical data and up to 15 years of follow-up together with 1493 matched controls. We evaluated associations between genotypes and BC risk and clinical tumour characteristics. Survival probabilities were compared between different subgroups. As a novel finding, several SNPs seemed to associate with the hormone receptor status. The strongest association was observed between the A allele of the SNP rs743554 in the ITGB4 gene and oestrogen receptor-negative tumours [odds ratio 2.09, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) 1.19-3.67]. The same SNP was associated with survival. The A allele carriers had a worse survival compared with the wild-type genotype carriers (hazard ratio 2.11, 95% CIs 1.21-3.68). The poor survival was significantly associated with the aggressive tumour characteristics: high grade, lymph node metastasis and high stage. None of the SNPs was significantly associated with BC risk. As the ITGB4 SNP seems to influence tumour aggressiveness and survival, it may have prognostic value in the clinic
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18550570
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  • 10
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; RISK ; RISK-FACTORS ; CARCINOGENESIS ; HUMANS ; risk factors ; DAMAGE ; ETHENO-DNA ADDUCTS ; LIPID-PEROXIDATION ; OXIDATIVE STRESS ; URINE ; ONCOLOGY ; RE ; 1,N-6-ETHENODEOXYADENOSINE ; TOBACCO-SPECIFIC NITROSAMINES ; cancer research ; RISK-FACTOR ; ENGLAND ; saliva ; BETEL QUID
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
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