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    Abstract: Diets with high inflammatory potential are suspected to increase risk for pancreatic cancer (PC). Using pooled analyses, we examined whether this association applies to populations from different geographic regions and population subgroups with varying risks for PC, including variation in ABO blood type. Data from six case-control studies (cases, n=2,414; controls, n=4,528) in the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4) were analyzed, followed by replication in five nested case-control studies (cases, n=1,268; controls, n=4,215) from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan). Two polymorphisms in the ABO locus (rs505922 and rs8176746) were used to infer participants' blood types. Dietary questionnaire-derived nutrient/food intake was used to compute energy-adjusted dietary inflammatory index (DII(R)) scores to assess inflammatory potential of diet. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression. Higher E-DII scores, reflecting greater inflammatory potential of diet, were associated with increased PC risk in PanC4 (ORQ5 vs. Q1=2.20, 95% CI=1.85-2.61, Ptrend〈0.0001; ORcontinuous=1.20, 95% CI=1.17-1.24), and PanScan (ORQ5 vs. Q1=1.23, 95% CI=0.92-1.66, Ptrend=0.008; ORcontinuous=1.09, 95% CI=1.02-1.15). As expected, genotype-derived non-O blood type was associated with increased PC risk in both the PanC4 and PanScan studies. Stratified analyses of associations between E-DII quintiles and PC by genotype-derived ABO blood type did not show interaction by blood type (Pinteraction=0.10 in PanC4 and Pinteraction=0.13 in PanScan). The results show that consuming a pro-inflammatory diet and carrying non-O blood type are each individually, but not interactively, associated with increased PC risk.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 29800239
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; INHIBITOR ; INVASION ; proliferation ; Germany ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; GENES ; microarray ; DIFFERENTIATION ; LINES ; ACTIVATION ; DNA ; MECHANISM ; tumour ; mechanisms ; BINDING ; CELL-LINES ; DOWN-REGULATION ; gene expression ; MICROARRAY DATA ; microarrays ; NUMBER ; MUTATION ; METASTASIS ; LINE ; MELANOMA ; PCR ; DNA-BINDING ; SIGNALING PATHWAY ; MUTATIONS ; ONCOGENE ; MALIGNANT-MELANOMA ; real-time PCR ; cell lines ; REGULATOR ; INITIATION ; B-RAF ; BRAF ; N-RAS ; TRANSCRIPTS ; MATRIX ; RE ; KINASE PATHWAY ; BRAF MUTATIONS ; MELANOCYTES ; RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK PATHWAY ; transcript
    Abstract: We studied global gene expression in three melanoma cell lines with the most common and potent V600E mutation in the B-RAF gene-four cell lines with a common Q61R mutation in the N-RAS gene and three cell lines with no mutations using human HG-U133A 2.0 micro-arrays with 22 277 transcripts. Data analysis using stringent criteria revealed several upregulated and downregulated genes in cell lines with B-RAF and N-RAS mutations compared with cell lines without mutations. We found 29 genes specifically upregulated and 32 genes downregulated in cell lines with B-RAF mutations, whereas 70 genes were upregulated and 39 downregulated in cell lines with N-RAS mutations; 11 genes showed overlapping upregulation and 45 down-regulation. The micro-array data for nine selected genes were validated by the real-time PCR technique. Expression of a large number of genes, that encode members or regulators of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathways or are involved in metastasis or invasion, was affected in cell lines with mutations in B-RAF and N-RAS. Upregulated genes in cell lines with mutations included dual-specificity phosphatase 6 (DUSP6), sprouty 2 (SPRY2), v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 3 (AKT3) and matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14); downregulated genes included interleukin 18 (IL18), Kruppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) and inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (ID2). Our results, though carried on cell lines, provide a novel insight into the effect of mutations in the B-RAF and N-RAS genes on global gene expression in melanoma and highlight the complexity of mechanisms involved in tumour initiation and maintenance
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15760917
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  • 4
    Keywords: BREAST-CANCER RISK, Germany, HER2, polymorphism, RE, VARIANT
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15860504
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  • 5
    Keywords: ACTIVATION, ASSOCIATION, BRCA2, BREAST, breast cancer, BREAST-CANCER, CANCER, cancer risk, CARCINOGE
    Abstract: Overexpression of the proto-oncogene ERBB2 (HER2/NEU) has been observed in 20-30% of breast cancers involving poor prognosis. Genetic alterations within ERBB2 have been shown to induce carcinogenesis and metastasis. We investigated eight annotated single nucleotide polymorphisms for occurrence in familial breast cancer samples. The confirmed variants Ile654Val, Ile655Val and Ala1170Pro were analysed in subsequent epidemiological studies on familial breast cancer risk. While Ala1170Pro resides within a C-terminally located regulatory domain, the two adjacent polymorphisms Ile654Val and Ile655Val are part of the transmembrane domain. A case-control study analysing a cohort of 348 German familial breast cancer cases and 960 corresponding controls showed no significant association of either Ile655Val (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.82-1.34, P = 0.728) or Ala1170Pro (OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.74-1.20, P = 0.632) with familial breast cancer risk. Differences in haplotype frequencies between cases and controls could also not be detected. The ERBB2 variant Ile654Val, however, revealed an increased risk for carriers of the heterozygous Val654 allele (OR = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.08-6.08, P = 0.028). The rare Val654 variant is linked with the more frequent Val655, resulting in two consecutive valine instead of two isoleucine residues within the transmembrane domain. Computational analyses suggest that the Val654-Val655 allele provokes receptor dimerization and activation, thus stimulating kinase activity and cell transformation. We hypothesize that ERBB2 Val654 represents an oncogenic variant which might, in addition, influence clinical outcome and predict a worse prognosis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15550452
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  • 6
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS, APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND, ASSOCIATION, BINDING, BREAST, breast cancer, BREAST-CANCER, CA
    Abstract: Dysregulation of apoptosis plays a crucial role in carcinogenesis. Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand stimulates the extrinsic apoptotic pathway by binding to death receptor 4 (DR4). Thus, genetic alterations within the candidate tumour suppressor gene DR4 would be expected to provoke a deficient apoptotic signalling thereby facilitating the development of cancer. The DR4 variants Thr209Arg and Glu228Ala were genotyped in a series of 521 breast cancer cases and 1100 control subjects from Germany, determining their impact on breast cancer risk. Neither Thr209Arg (626C 〉 G) nor Glu228Ala (683A 〉 C) alone were significantly associated with breast cancer risk [odds ratio (OR) = 0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.65-1.08, P = 0.18 and OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.72-1.12, P = 0.30]. However, haplotype analysis revealed a 3.5-fold risk for carriers of the 626C-683C haplotype (OR = 3.52, 95% CI = 1.45-8.52, P = 0.003)
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15975957
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  • 7
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELLS ; LUNG ; MODEL ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; COHORT ; EXPOSURE ; TIME ; CARCINOGENESIS ; STAGE ; prevention ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; smoking ; COUNTRIES ; RATES ; PARAMETERS ; TRANSFORMATION ; PROJECT ; EPIC ; nutrition ; mechanistic model ; INITIATION ; DEPENDENCE ; TOBACCO-SMOKE ; 2-MUTATION MODEL ; PROMOTION ; prospective ; EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ; ATOMIC-BOMB SURVIVORS ; EXPANSION ; CIGARETTE-SMOKE ; BRITISH DOCTORS DATA ; CLONAL EXPANSION MODEL ; P53 MUTATION SPECTRUM ; SOMATIC MUTATIONS ; STATE-VECTOR MODEL
    Abstract: A stochastic two-stage cancer model is used to analyse the relation between lung cancer and cigarette smoking. The model contains the main rate-limiting stages of carcinogenesis, which include initiation, promotion (clonal expansion of initiated cells), malignant transformation and a lag time for tumour formation. Various data sets were used to test the model. These include the data of a large prospective collaborative project carried out in 10 different European countries, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). This new data set has not been modelled before. The model is also tested on other published data from CPS-II (Cancer Prevention Study II) of the American Cancer Society and the British doctors' study. The analyses indicate that the EPIC data are best described with smoking dependence on the rates of malignant transformation and clonal expansion. With increasing smoking rates, saturation effects in the two exposure rate-dependent model parameters were observed. The results find confirmation in the biological literature, where both mutational effects and promotional effects of cigarette smoke are documented
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16410261
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  • 8
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; Germany ; human ; RISK ; SITE ; GENE ; GENES ; PATIENT ; IMPACT ; RISK-FACTORS ; BINDING ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; ACID ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; MUTATION ; risk factors ; p53 ; cancer risk ; MUTATIONS ; HIGH-RISK ; EXCHANGE ; CANCER-PATIENTS ; CANCER PATIENTS ; DISORDERS ; RE ; VARIANT ; BINDING-SITE ; INCREASED RISK ; RISK-FACTOR ; CANCER-RISK ; FAMILIAL BREAST ; familial breast cancer ; RARE ; MspI ; DNA HELICASE ; FUNCTIONAL INTERACTION ; HOLLIDAY JUNCTIONS ; JAPANESE POPULATION ; POLYMORPHIC VARIANT ; RECQ HELICASES ; ROTHMUND-THOMSON-SYNDROME ; SYNDROME PROTEIN
    Abstract: Mutations of the human RecQ helicase genes WRN and BLM lead to rare autosomal recessive disorders, Werner and Bloom syndromes, which are associated with premature ageing and cancer predisposition. We tested the hypothesis whether three polymorphic, non-conservative amino acid exchanges in WRN and BLM act as low-penetrance familial breast cancer risk factors. Moreover, we examined the putative impact of p53 MspI 1798G 〉 A, which is completely linked to p53PIN3, a 16 bp insertion/duplication that has been associated with reduced p53 expression, on familial breast cancer risk. Genotyping analyses, performed on 816 BRCA1/2 mutation-negative German familial breast cancer patients and 1012 German controls, revealed a significant association of the WRN Cys1367Arg polymorphism with familial breast cancer (OR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.06-1.54) and high-risk familial breast cancer (OR = 1.32, 95 % CI 1.06-1.65). The analysis of p53 MspI 1798G 〉 A, which is completely linked to p53PIN3, showed a significantly increased familial breast cancer risk for carriers of the 16 bp insertion/duplication, following a recessive mode (OR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.124.11). WRN Cys1367Arg, located in the C-terminus, the binding site of p53, is predicted to be damaging. The joint effect of WRN Cys1367Arg and p53 MspI resulted in an increased breast cancer risk compared to the single polymorphisms (OR = 3.39, 95% CI 1.19-9.71). In conclusion, our study indicates the importance of inherited variants in the WRN and p53 genes for familial breast cancer susceptibility
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16501249
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  • 9
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; AGENTS ; Germany ; THERAPY ; RISK ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; GENES ; transcription ; TIME ; PATIENT ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ; IMPACT ; RISK-FACTORS ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; ALPHA ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; ACID ; hormone ; gene expression ; risk factors ; cancer risk ; HIGH-RISK ; DNA-DAMAGE ; EXCHANGE ; CANCER-PATIENTS ; DIABETES-MELLITUS ; CANCER PATIENTS ; ESTROGEN-RECEPTOR ; TAMOXIFEN ; signaling ; CBP ; REGRESSION ; ASSOCIATIONS ; RE ; VARIANT ; ESTROGEN ; CANCER DEVELOPMENT ; NUCLEAR RECEPTORS ; estrogen receptor ; p300 ; RISK-FACTOR ; CANCER-RISK ; FAMILIAL BREAST ; familial breast cancer ; OVARIAN ; MUTATION ANALYSIS ; genotype combination ; GAMMA COACTIVATOR ; PREINVASIVE MAMMARY-TUMORS ; STEROID-HORMONE RECEPTORS
    Abstract: The mitogen effect of the ovarian steroid estrogen is a strong risk factor for breast cancer development. This effect is mainly mediated by the estrogen receptor alpha, a hormone inducible transcription factor, which activates gene expression through recruiting multiple coactivators, such as PPARGC1A, PPARGC1B and EP300. We tested the hypothesis that non-conservative, putative functional amino acid exchanges in PPARGC1A, PPARGC1B and EP300 act as low-penetrance familial breast cancer risk factors. The analysis of 816 BRCA1/2 mutation-negative familial breast cancer patients and 1012 controls revealed an association of the PPARGC1A Thr612Met polymorphism with familial breast cancer (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.00-1.81, P = 0.049), high-risk familial breast cancer (OR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.08-2.12, P = 0.017) and bilateral familial breast cancer (OR = 2.30, 95% CI 1.24-4.28, P = 0.009). Logistic regression analyses of the PPARGC1B Ala203Pro variant showed an increased familial breast cancer risk of heterozygous and homozygous variant allele carriers (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.15-1.91, P = 0.002). The genotype-combination analysis of the associated PPARGC1A Thr612Met variant and the associated PPARGC1B Ala203Pro variant suggests an allele dose-dependent breast cancer risk (P-trend = 0.0004). Our results indicate for the first time the importance of inherited variants in the estrogen receptor coactivator genes PPARGC1A and PPARGC1B for familial breast cancer susceptibility. Owing to their impact on estrogen signaling, these polymorphisms might also influence adjuvant anti-estrogen therapy, using agents such as tamoxifen and raloxifen, and outcome of breast cancer patients
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16704985
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  • 10
    Keywords: SPECTRA ; CANCER ; CELLS ; CELL ; human ; DNA adducts ; EXPOSURE ; RISK ; GENE ; TISSUE ; PATIENT ; DNA ; MECHANISM ; CARCINOGENESIS ; DNA ADDUCT FORMATION ; RATS ; tumour ; ASSOCIATION ; ACID ; NUMBER ; MUTATION ; p53 ; MUTATIONS ; ADDUCTS ; INDIVIDUALS ; NEPHROPATHY ; mutagenesis ; CONSUMPTION ; aristolochic acid ; CHINESE HERBS NEPHROPATHY ; DNA-ADDUCTS ; RENAL-FAILURE ; molecular ; FEATURES ; ONCOLOGY ; MOLECULAR-MECHANISM ; RE ; PATTERN ; P53 GENE ; RAS GENE ; ADDUCT FORMATION ; development ; analysis ; DNA ADDUCT ; p53 mutation ; RISK-FACTOR ; SPECTRUM ; PREDICT ; aetiology ; COVALENT DNA ADDUCTION ; HUMAN P53 GENE ; OCHRATOXIN-A
    Abstract: Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is found in certain rural areas of the Balkans and affects at least 25 000 inhabitants. Of the many hypotheses on BEN, the Aristolochia hypothesis has recently gained ground substantiated by the investigations on aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN). On both clinical and morphological grounds, AAN is very similar to BEN. That exposure to aristolochic acid (AA) of individuals living in endemic areas through consumption of bread made with flour contaminated with seeds of Aristolochia clematitis is responsible for BEN is an old hypothesis, but one which is fully consistent with the unique epidemiologic features of BEN. Here, we propose an approach to investigate AA-induced mutagenesis in BEN that can provide molecular clues to the aetiology of its associated urothelial cancer. The molecular mechanism of AA-induced carcinogenesis demonstrates a strong association between DNA adduct formation, mutation pattern and tumour development. A clear link between urothelial tumours, p53 mutations and AA exposure should emerge as more tumour DNA from BEN patients from different endemic areas becomes available for mutation analysis. We predict that the observed p53 mutation spectrum will be dominated by AT -〉 TA transversion mutations as has already been demonstrated in the human p53 gene of immortalized cells after exposure to AAI and urothelial tumours from BEN patients in Croatia. Moreover, the detection of AA-specific DNA adducts in renal tissue of a number of BEN patients and individuals living in areas endemic for BEN in Croatia provides new evidence that chronic exposure to AA is a risk factor for BEN and its associated cancer
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17434925
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