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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; INDEX ; BODY-WEIGHT ; FAT ; nutrition ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED-TRIAL ; EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ; GLYCEMIC LOAD VALUES ; DIETARY-PROTEIN
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: The health impact of dietary replacement of carbohydrates with protein for patients with type 2 diabetes is still debated. This study aimed to investigate the association between dietary substitution of carbohydrates with (animal and plant) protein and 5-year weight change, and all-cause and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: The study included 6,107 diabetes patients from 15 European cohorts. Patients with type 1 diabetes were excluded. At recruitment, validated country-specific food-frequency questionnaires were used to estimate dietary intake. Multivariable adjusted linear regression was used to examine the associations between dietary carbohydrate substitution with protein and 5-year weight change, and Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for (CVD) mortality. RESULTS: Annual weight loss of patients with type 2 diabetes was 0.17 (SD 1.24) kg. After a mean follow-up of 9.2 (SD 2.3)y, 787 (13%) participants had died, of which 266 (4%) deaths were due to CVD. Substitution of 10 gram dietary carbohydrate with total (ss = 187 [75;299]g) and animal (ss = 196 [137;254]g) protein was associated with mean 5-year weight gain. Substitution for plant protein was not significantly associated with weight change (beta = 82 [-421;584]g). Substitution with plant protein was associated with lower all-cause mortality risk (HR = 0.79 [0.64;0.97]), whereas substitution with total or animal protein was not associated with (CVD) mortality risk. CONCLUSIONS: In diabetes patients, substitution with plant protein was beneficial with respect to weight change and all-cause mortality as opposed to substitution with animal protein. Therefore, future research is needed whether dietary guidelines should not actively promote substitution of carbohydrates by total protein, but rather focus on substitution of carbohydrates with plant protein.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25896172
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  • 2
    Keywords: UNITED-STATES ; MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION ; RANDOMIZED-TRIAL ; CARDIOVASCULAR RISK-FACTORS ; HIGH PREVALENCE ; EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ; SEX-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES ; BLOOD-PRESSURE CONTROL ; PRIMARY-CARE PATIENTS ; LIPID MANAGEMENT
    Abstract: ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Hypertension and dyslipidemia are often insufficiently controlled in persons with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Germany. In the current study we evaluated individual characteristics that are assumed to influence the adequate treatment and control of hypertension and dyslipidemia and aimed to identify the patient group with the most urgent need for improved health care. METHODS: The analysis was based on the DIAB-CORE project in which cross-sectional data from five regional population-based studies and one nationwide German study, conducted between 1997 and 2006, were pooled. We compared the frequencies of socio-economic and lifestyle factors along with comorbidities in hypertensive participants with or without the blood pressure target of 〈 140/90 mmHg. Similar studies were also performed in participants with dyslipidemia with and without the target of total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio 〈 5. Furthermore, we compared participants who received antihypertensive/lipid lowering treatment with those who were untreated. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the odds of potentially influential factors. RESULTS: We included 1287 participants with T2D of whom n = 1048 had hypertension and n = 636 had dyslipidemia. Uncontrolled blood pressure was associated with male sex, low body mass index (BMI), no history of myocardial infarction (MI) and study site. Uncontrolled blood lipid levels were associated with male sex, no history of MI and study site. The odds of receiving no pharmacotherapy for hypertension were significantly greater in men, younger participants, those with BMI 〈 30 kg/m2 and those without previous MI or stroke. Participants with dyslipidemia received lipid lowering medication less frequently if they were male and had not previously had an MI. The more recent studies HNR and CARLA had the greatest numbers of well controlled and treated participants. CONCLUSION: In the DIAB-CORE study, the patient group with the greatest odds of uncontrolled co-morbidities and no pharmacotherapy was more likely comprised of younger men with low BMI and no history of cardiovascular disease.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23035799
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  • 3
    Keywords: MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION ; HYPERTENSION ; CARDIOVASCULAR RISK-FACTORS ; HIGH PREVALENCE ; CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE ; INSULIN-RESISTANCE ; PRIMARY-CARE ; KORA SURVEY 2000 ; ATHEROSCLEROTIC DISEASE ; NONDIABETIC SUBJECTS
    Abstract: ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Although most deaths among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are attributable to cardiovascular disease, modifiable cardiovascular risk factors appear to be inadequately treated in medical practice. The aim of this study was to describe hypertension, dyslipidemia and medical treatment of these conditions in a large population-based sample. METHODS: The present analysis was based on the DIAB-CORE project, in which data from five regional population-based studies and one nationwide German study were pooled. All studies were conducted between 1997 and 2006. We assessed the frequencies of risk factors and co-morbidities, especially hypertension and dyslipidemia, in participants with and without T2D. The odds of no or insufficient treatment and the odds of pharmacotherapy were computed using multivariable logistic regression models. Types of medication regimens were described. RESULTS: The pooled data set comprised individual data of 15, 071 participants aged 45-74 years, including 1287 (8.5%) participants with T2D. Subjects with T2D were significantly more likely to have untreated or insufficiently treated hypertension, i.e. blood pressure of 〉 = 140/90 mmHg (OR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.26-1.61) and dyslipidemia i.e. a total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio 〉 = 5 (OR = 1.80, 95% CI 1.59-2.04) than participants without T2D. Untreated or insufficiently treated blood pressure was observed in 48.9% of participants without T2D and in 63.6% of participants with T2D. In this latter group, 28.0% did not receive anti-hypertensive medication and 72.0% were insufficiently treated. In non-T2D participants, 28.8% had untreated or insufficiently treated dyslipidemia. Of all participants with T2D 42.5% had currently elevated lipids, 80.3% of these were untreated and 19.7% were insufficiently treated. CONCLUSIONS: Blood pressure and lipid management fall short especially in persons with T2D across Germany. The importance of sufficient risk factor control besides blood glucose monitoring in diabetes care needs to be emphasized in order to prevent cardiovascular sequelae and premature death.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22569118
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  • 4
    Keywords: THERAPY ; CARE ; HEALTH ; AGE ; CARDIOVASCULAR RISK-FACTORS ; thiazolidinediones ; CLINICAL-PRACTICE ; SELF-MANAGEMENT ; BLOOD-GLUCOSE CONTROL ; SEX DISPARITIES
    Abstract: Background: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common long-term complications in people with type 2 diabetes. We analyzed whether or not gender differences exist in diabetes and CHD medication among people with type 2 diabetes. Methods: The study was based on data from the baseline examination of the DIANA study, a prospective cohort study of 1,146 patients with type 2 diabetes conducted in South-West Germany. Information on diabetes and CHD medication was obtained from the physician questionnaires. Bivariate and multivariate analyses using logistic regression were employed in order to assess associations between gender and prescribed drug classes. Results: In total, 624 men and 522 women with type 2 diabetes with a mean age of 67.2 and 69.7 years, respectively, were included in this analysis. Compared to women, men had more angiopathic risk factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption and worse glycemic control, and had more often a diagnosed CHD. Bivariate analyses showed higher prescription of thiazolidinediones and oral combination drugs as well as of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, calcium channel blockers and aspirin in men than in women. After full adjustment, differences between men and women remained significant only for ACE inhibitors (OR = 1.44; 95%-confidence interval (CI): 1.11 - 1.88) and calcium channel blockers (OR = 1.42, 95%-CI: 1.05 - 1.91). Conclusions: These findings contribute to current discussions on gender differences in diabetes care. Men with diabetes are significantly more likely to receive oral combination drugs, ACE inhibitors and calcium channel blockers in the presence of coronary heart disease, respectively. Our results suggest, that diabetic men might be more thoroughly treated compared to women. Further research is needed to focus on reasons for these differences mainly in treatment of cardiovascular diseases to improve quality of care.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22838970
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