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  • 1
    Abstract: Purpose: Constitutively active WNT signaling is a hallmark of colorectal cancers and a driver of malignant tumor progression. Therapeutic targeting of WNT signaling is difficult due to high pathway complexity and its role in tissue homeostasis. Here, we identify the transcription factor ADNP as a pharmacologically inducible repressor of WNT signaling in colon cancer.Experimental Design: We used transcriptomic, proteomic, and in situ analyses to identify ADNP expression in colorectal cancer and cell biology approaches to determine its function. We induced ADNP expression in colon cancer xenografts by low-dose ketamine in vivo Clinical associations were determined in a cohort of 221 human colorectal cancer cases.Results: ADNP was overexpressed in colon cancer cells with high WNT activity, where it acted as a WNT repressor. Silencing ADNP expression increased migration, invasion, and proliferation of colon cancer cells and accelerated tumor growth in xenografts in vivo Treatment with subnarcotic doses of ketamine induced ADNP expression, significantly inhibited tumor growth, and prolonged survival of tumor-bearing animals. In human patients with colon cancer, high ADNP expression was linked to good prognosis.Conclusions: Our findings indicate that ADNP is a tumor suppressor and promising prognostic marker, and that ketamine treatment with ADNP induction is a potential therapeutic approach that may add benefit to current treatment protocols for patients with colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 23(11); 2769-80. (c)2016 AACR.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27903678
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; SURVIVAL ; tumor ; carcinoma ; Germany ; FOLLOW-UP ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; PROTEIN ; DIFFERENTIATION ; TUMORS ; LINES ; TIME ; PATIENT ; primary ; ANTIGEN ; BIOLOGY ; ASSOCIATION ; MOLECULE ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; antibodies ; antibody ; IDENTIFICATION ; PROGRESSION ; immunohistochemistry ; MALIGNANCIES ; DESIGN ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; CARCINOMA-CELLS ; BREAST-CARCINOMA ; PARAMETERS ; MULTIVARIATE ; CARCINOMAS ; FOLLOW-UP TIME ; P-SELECTIN ; CD24 ; CELL MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODIES ; protein expression
    Abstract: Purpose: CD24 is expressed in hematological malignancies as well as in a large variety of solid tumors including breast cancer. We aimed to evaluate CD24 protein expression in breast cancer and to correlate to clinicopatbological data including patient survival.Experimental Design: Primary breast carcinomas (201) with a mean clinical follow-up time of 53 months were immunostained using a monoclonal CD24 antibody (Ab-2, clone 24C02). The staining was evaluated as negative versus positive for statistical analysis.Results: In invasive breast carcinomas, CD24 expression was observed in 84.6% of cases. In univariate survival analyses, a significant association of CD24 expression with shortened patient overall survival (5-year survival rate 91.9% versus 83.8%; P = 0.031; log rank test) and disease-free survival (5-year progression rate 88.3% versus 57.0%; P = 0.0008) was demonstrated. In multivariate analyses CD24, tumor grading and nodal status were significant prognostic parameters for shortened disease-free survival.Conclusions: Our data suggest that CD24 expression in primary breast cancer as detected by immunohistochemistry might be a new marker for a more aggressive breast cancer biology
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 14581365
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; tumor ; carcinoma ; CLASSIFICATION ; COHORT ; DISTINCT ; GENE ; GENES ; TUMORS ; PATIENT ; prognosis ; treatment ; FREQUENCY ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; BREAST ; DESIGN ; AGE ; BRCA1 ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; WOMEN ; MUTATION ; REPRODUCIBILITY ; p53 ; MUTATIONS ; MORPHOLOGY ; adenocarcinoma ; CARRIERS ; CANCER-RESEARCH ; SERIES ; POOR-PROGNOSIS ; FEATURES ; BRCA2 GENE ; GRADE ; MUTATION CARRIERS ; GERM-LINE MUTATIONS ; FAMILIAL BREAST-CANCER
    Abstract: Purpose: Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes confer increased susceptibility to ovarian cancer. There is evidence that tumors in carriers may exhibit a distinct distribution of pathological features, but previous studies on the pathology of such tumors have been small. Our aim was to evaluate the morphologies and immunophenotypes in a large cohort of patients with familial ovarian cancer.Experimental Design: We performed a systematic review of ovarian tumors from 178 BRCA1 mutation carriers, 29 BRCA2 mutation carriers, and 235 controls with a similar age distribution. Tumors were evaluated by four pathologists blinded to mutation status. Both morphological features and immunochemical staining for p53 and HER2 were evaluated.Results: Tumors in BRCA1 mutation carriers were more likely than tumors in age-matched controls to be invasive serous adenocarcinomas (odds ratio, 1.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-2.79) and unlikely to be borderline or mucinous tumors. Tumors in BRCA1 carriers were of higher grade (P 〈 0.0001), had a higher percentage solid component (P 0.001), and were more likely to stain strongly for p53 (P = 0.018). The distribution of pathological features in BRCA2 carriers was similar to that in BRCA1 carriers.Conclusions: Use of pathological features can substantially improve the targeting of predictive genetic testing. Results also suggest that BRCA1 and BRCA2 tumors are relatively. aggressive and may be expected to have poor prognosis, although this may be treatment dependent
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15073127
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; IRRADIATION ; radiotherapy ; Germany ; TOXICITY ; LUNG-CANCER ; RISK ; RISKS ; GENE ; GENES ; HYBRIDIZATION ; SURGERY ; radiation ; PATIENT ; DNA ; GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS ; SKIN ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; DESIGN ; DNA-REPAIR ; REPAIR ; DAMAGE ; PROBES ; CARRIERS ; CANCER PATIENTS ; body mass index ; NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION-REPAIR ; DNA repair ; radiation sensitivity ; ACID SUBSTITUTION VARIANTS ; radiosensitivity ; MASSES ; RE ; VARIANT ; CAPACITY ; CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY ; XPD ; ALLELES ; INTERVAL ; DNA repair gene ; DNA repair genes ; GENETIC-POLYMORPHISM ; CARRIER ; GENOTYPE ; HAPLOTYPE
    Abstract: Purpose: Several DNA repair gene polymorphisms have been described, which affect DNA repair capacity and modulate cancer susceptibility. We evaluated the association of six polymorphisms in the DNA repair genes: XRCC1 (Arg(194) Trp, Arg(280)His, and Arg(399)GIn), APE1 (Asp(148)Glu), and XPD (Lys(751)Gln and Asp(312)Asn), with the risk of acute skin reactions following radiotherapy. Design: We conducted a prospective study of 446 female patients with breast cancer who received radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery. Individual genetic polymorphisms were determined using melting point analysis of sequence-specific hybridization probes. The development of acute skin reactions (moist desquamation) associated with DNA repair gene polymorphisms was modeled using Cox proportional hazards, accounting for cumulative biologically effective radiation dose. Results: Overall, the development of acute toxicity, which presented in 77 patients, was not associated with the genetic variants studied, although the hazard ratios (HR) were generally below 1. Risks were however differential by body mass index. Among normal-weight patients only, both carriers of theAPE1 (148)Glu and the XRCC1 (399)Gln alleles had decreased risk of acute skin reactions after radiotherapy (HR, 0.49 and 0.51, respectively). The results for XRCC1 were confirmed by haplotype analysis. When considering joint effects, we observed that compared with homozygote carriers of the wild-type allele in both genes, the risk was most strongly reduced in carriers of both APE1 (148)Glu and XRCC1 (399)GIn alleles with normal weight [HR, 0.19; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.06-0.56] but not in those with overweight (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 0.56-3.45; P-interaction = 0-009). Conclusion: The XRCC1 (399)Gln or APE1 (148)Glu alleles may be protective against the development of acute side effects after radiotherapy in patients with normal weight
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16000577
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  • 5
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; tumor ; carcinoma ; Germany ; human ; HYBRIDIZATION ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; TISSUE ; TUMORS ; PATIENT ; FAMILY ; MARKER ; hormone ; IN-SITU ; PROGRESSION ; immunohistochemistry ; PATTERNS ; prostate cancer ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; MARKERS ; BENIGN ; GLYCATION END-PRODUCTS ; RAGE ; CARCINOMAS ; adenocarcinoma ; intraepithelial neoplasia ; NEURITE OUTGROWTH ; KAPPA-B ; CANCER PATIENTS ; HEALTHY ; prostate carcinoma ; OXIDANT STRESS ; SERUM ; in situ hybridization ; ELISA ; RE ; END ; TUMORIGENESIS ; HUMAN PROSTATE ; HYPERPLASIA ; TUMOR TISSUE ; MOLECULAR-GENETICS ; HUMAN-PROSTATE ; S100 PROTEINS ; EXPRESSION PATTERNS ; SERUM-LEVELS ; TUMOR DIFFERENTIATION
    Abstract: Purpose: S100 proteins comprise a family of calcium-modulated proteins that have recently been associated with epithelial tumors. We examined the expression of two members of this family, S10OA8 and S100A9, together with the S100 receptor RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products) in human prostate adenocarcinomas and in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Experimental Design:Tissue specimens of 75 patients with organ-confined prostate cancer of different grades were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for expression of S10OA8, S100A9, and RAGE. In addition, in situ hybridization of S10OA8 and S10OA9 was done for 20 cases. An ELISA was applied to determine serum concentrations of S10OA9 in cancer patients compared with healthy controls or to patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Results: S100A8, S100A9, and RAGE were up-regulated in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and preferentially in high-grade adenocarcinomas, whereas benign tissue was negative or showed weak expression of the proteins. There was a high degree of overlap of S10OA8 and S10OA9 expression patterns and of S100A8 or S100A9 and RAGE, respectively. Frequently, a gradient within the tumor tissue with an increased expression toward the invaded stroma of the prostate was observed. S100A9 serum levels were significantly elevated in cancer patients compared with BPH patients or healthy individuals. Conclusion: Our data suggest that enhanced expression of S100A8, S100A9, and RAGE is an early event in prostate tumorigenesis and may contribute to development and progression or extension of prostate carcinomas. Furthermore, S100A9 in serum may serve as useful marker to discriminate between prostate cancer and BPH
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16033829
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; tumor ; TUMOR-CELLS ; Germany ; KINASE ; PROTEIN ; TISSUE ; TUMORS ; PATIENT ; ACTIVATION ; COMPLEX ; COMPLEXES ; prognosis ; RAT ; ASSOCIATION ; ALPHA ; DESIGN ; colorectal cancer ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; COLON-CANCER ; BETA ; ADHESION ; MIGRATION ; INTEGRIN ; adenocarcinoma ; POOR-PROGNOSIS ; HUMAN EPIDERMAL-KERATINOCYTES ; HEALTHY ; CELL-MIGRATION ; ALPHA-6-BETA-4 INTEGRIN ; RE ; TUMOR INVASION ; cell migration ; INTERNALIZATION ; ALPHA-3-BETA-1 INTEGRIN ; BETA(1) INTEGRINS ; EXTRACELLULAR-MATRIX PROTEINS ; laminin ; METASTASIS SUPPRESSOR ; TRANSMEMBRANE 4 SUPERFAMILY
    Abstract: Purpose: Patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma have a poor prognosis due to the extraordinary high invasive capacity of this tumor. Altered integrin and tetraspanin expression is suggested to be an important factor. We recently reported that after protein kinase C activation, colocalization of alpha 6 beta 4 with the tetraspanin CO-029 strongly supports migration of a rat pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The finding led us to explore whether and which integrin-tetraspanin complexes influence the motility of human pancreatic tumors. Experimental Design: Integrin and tetraspanin expression of pancreatic and colorectal adenocarcinoma was evaluated with emphasis on colocalization and the impact of integrin-tetraspanin associations on tumor cell motility. Results: The majority of pancreatic and colorectal tumors expressed the alpha 2, alpha 3, alpha 6, beta 1, and beta 4 integrins and the tetraspanins CD9, CD63, CD81, CD151, and CO-029. Expression of alpha 6 beta 4 and CO-029 was restricted to tumor cells, whereas alpha 1, alpha 2, a3, a6, 1, and CD9, CD81, CD151 were also expressed by the surrounding stroma. CD63, CD81, and beta 1 expression was observed at comparably high levels in healthy pancreatic tissue. alpha 3 beta 1 frequently colocalized and coimmunoprecipitated with CD9, CD81, and CD151, whereas alpha 6 beta 4 colocalized and coimmunoprecipitated mostly with CD151 and CO-029. Notably, protein kinase C activation strengthened only the colocalization of CD151 and CO-029 with beta 4 and was accompanied by internalization of the integrin-tetraspanin complex, decreased laminin 5 adhesion, and increased cell migration. Conclusion: alpha 6 beta 4 is selectively up-regulated in pancreatic and colorectal cancer. The association of alpha 6 beta 4 with CD151 and CO-029 correlates with increased tumor cell motility
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15837731
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  • 7
    Keywords: CELLS ; GROWTH-FACTOR ; IRRADIATION ; tumor ; TUMOR-CELLS ; carcinoma ; Germany ; KINASE ; DENSITY ; LINES ; RELEASE ; PATIENT ; prognosis ; CELL-LINES ; PHOSPHORYLATION ; MOLECULE ; CLEAVAGE ; DESIGN ; CARCINOMA CELLS ; MEMBRANE ; NECROSIS-FACTOR-ALPHA ; LINE ; ADHESION ; MIGRATION ; CARCINOMAS ; L1 ; MALIGNANT-MELANOMA ; ADHESION MOLECULE ; ECTODOMAIN ; MEDIATED RELEASE ; ovarian carcinoma ; cell lines ; CELL-MIGRATION ; SERUM ; ELISA ; FEATURES ; RE ; CONVERTING-ENZYME ; cell migration ; ADHESION MOLECULE L1 ; CD171 ; CELLULAR CHOLESTEROL ; PROHB-EGF
    Abstract: Purpose: The L1 adhesion molecule (CD171) is overexpressed in human ovarian and endometrial carcinomas and is associated with bad prognosis. Although expressed as a transmembrane molecule, L1 is released from carcinoma cells in a soluble form. Soluble L1 is present in serum and ascites of ovarian carcinoma patients. We investigated the mode of L1 cleavage and the function of soluble L1. Experimental Design: We used ovarian carcinoma cell lines and ascites from ovarian carcinoma patients to analyze soluble L1 and L1 cleavage by Western blot analysis and ELISA. Results: We find that in ovarian carcinoma cells the constitutive cleavage of L1 proceeds in secretory vesicles. We show that apoptotic stimuli like C-2-ceramide, staurosporine, UV irradiation, and hypoxic conditions enhance L1-vesicle release resulting in elevated levels of soluble L1. Constitutive cleavage of L1 is mediated by a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10, but under apoptotic conditions multiple metalloproteinases are involved. L1 cleavage occurs in two types of vesicles with distinct density features: constitutively released vesicles with similarity to exosomes and apoptotic vesicles. Both types of L1-containing vesicles are present in the ascites fluids of ovarian carcinoma patients. Soluble L1 from ascites is a potent inducer of cell migration and can trigger extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation. Conclusions: We suggest that tumor-derived vesicles may be an important source for soluble L1 that could regulate tumor cell function in an autocrine/paracrine fashion
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15814625
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  • 8
    Keywords: PEPTIDE ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; IN-VITRO ; BLOOD ; COMBINATION ; Germany ; IN-VIVO ; VITRO ; GENERATION ; TOOL ; PROTEIN ; DIFFERENTIATION ; LINES ; MICE ; PATIENT ; RESPONSES ; ANTIGEN ; SKIN ; T-CELL ; T-CELLS ; BINDING ; CELL-LINES ; RECOGNITION ; TRANSGENIC MICE ; DESIGN ; NUMBER ; LINE ; MELANOMA ; LYMPHOCYTES ; LIGANDS ; STRATEGIES ; EPITOPES ; IMMUNITY ; IMMUNOTHERAPY ; vaccination ; SELECTION ; NY-ESO-1 ; IMMUNOGENICITY ; PERIPHERAL-BLOOD ; cell lines ; T-cell response ; AUTOIMMUNITY ; RE ; monitoring ; tumor-antigen
    Abstract: Purpose: The frequently expressed differentiation antigen tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TRP-2) has repeatedly been described as a target of spontaneous cytotoxic T-cell responses in melanoma patients, suggesting that it might be an ideal candidate antigen for T cell -〉 based immunotherapy. As a prerequisite for immunization, T-cell epitopes have to be identified. Whereas a number of HLA class I-presented TRP-2-derived epitopes are known, information about HILA class 11 presented antigenic ligands recognized by CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells is limited. Experimental Design: The search for TRP-2-derived Th epitopes was carried out by competitive in vitro peptide binding studies with predicted HLA-DRB1 *0301 ligands in combination with peptide and protein immunizations of HLA-DRB1 *0301 transgenic mice. In vivo selected candidate epitopes were subsequently verified for their immunogenicity in human T-cell cultures. Results: This strategy led to the characterization of TRP-2(60-74) as an HLA-DRB1 *0301-restricted Th epitope. Importantly, TRP-2(60-74)- reactive human CD4+ Th cell lines, specifically recognizing target cells loaded with recombinant TRP-2 protein, could be established by repeated peptide stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes from several HLA-DRB1 *03(+) melanoma patients. Even short-term peptide stimulation of patients' peripheral blood lymphocytes showed the presence of TRP-260-74- reactive T cells, suggesting that these T cells were already activated in vivo. Conclusion: Peptide TRP-2(60-74) might be a useful tool for the improvement of immunotherapy and immune monitoring of melanoma patients
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16033842
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  • 9
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; IN-VITRO ; SURVIVAL ; tumor ; TUMOR-CELLS ; carcinoma ; CELL LUNG-CANCER ; Germany ; VITRO ; DISEASE ; LINES ; PATIENT ; ACTIVATION ; RECEPTOR EXPRESSION ; prognosis ; CELL-LINES ; PROGRESSION ; ASSAY ; DESIGN ; NUMBER ; METASTASIS ; colorectal cancer ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; LINE ; CANCER-CELLS ; MIGRATION ; RECEPTORS ; BEHAVIOR ; POOR-PROGNOSIS ; cell lines ; CELL-MIGRATION ; chemokine ; LOCATION ; ANTAGONIST ; intensity ; LYMPH-NODE METASTASIS ; CHEMOKINE RECEPTORS ; cell migration ; ASSAYS ; DISSEMINATION ; CELL-DERIVED FACTOR ; DISEASE PROGRESSION ; MATURE DENDRITIC CELLS
    Abstract: Purpose: The expression of chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR.7 has been associated with tumor dissemination and poor prognosis in a limited number of tumor entities. However, no data are currently available on the impact of chemokine receptor expression on disease progression and prognosis in human colorectal cancer. Experimental Design: The expression of CXCR4 and CCR7 was evaluated in 96 patients with histologically confirmed colorectal cancers and in four colorectal cancer cell lines by immunohistochemical staining. Furthermore, cell migration assays were done with SW480, SW620, and LS174T cancer cells to confirm the effect of the CXCR4 ligand stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha on migration. Results: Human colorectal cancer specimens and cell lines displayed a CXCR4 and CCR7 expression with variable intensities. Interestingly, strong expression of CXCR4, but not of CCR7, was significantly associated with higher Union International Contre Cancer stages 3/4 (P = 0.0017), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.00375), and distant metastasis (P = 0.00003) and further correlated with a reduced 3-year survival rate (P = 0.1). Strong CXCR4 and CCR7 expression positively correlated with the location of the primary tumor in the rectum (P 〈 0.01). Furthermore, activation of CXCR4-expressing cancer cells by stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha resulted in a significant increase of cell migration (P 〈 0.014). Conclusion: Strong expression of CXCR4 by colorectal cancer cells is significantly associated with lymphatic and distant dissemination in patients with colorectal cancer as well as with cancer cell migration in vitro
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15755995
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  • 10
    Keywords: PEPTIDE ; CANCER ; CELLS ; IN-VITRO ; tumor ; AGENTS ; carcinoma ; Germany ; MICROSCOPY ; MODEL ; PERFUSION ; THERAPY ; VITRO ; DIAGNOSIS ; imaging ; TOOL ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; TISSUE ; TUMORS ; MICE ; RAT ; ANTIGEN ; BINDING ; MOUSE ; DESIGN ; CARCINOMA CELLS ; MEMBRANE ; NUMBER ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; NUDE-MICE ; LINE ; PEPTIDES ; BIODISTRIBUTION ; MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODIES ; positron emission tomography ; POSITRON-EMISSION-TOMOGRAPHY ; tomography ; CARCINOMAS ; COMPUTED-TOMOGRAPHY ; KINETICS ; sensitivity ; prostate carcinoma ; TRACER ; ultrasound ; PHAGE DISPLAY ; HUMAN TISSUES ; AGENT ; RE ; tumor imaging ; INTERNALIZATION ; HIGH-SENSITIVITY ; SOMATOSTATIN ANALOGS ; CYTOTOXIC ANALOGS ; EXTRACELLULAR DOMAIN ; HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE ; MEMBRANE ANTIGEN-EXPRESSION ; RADIONUCLIDE THERAPY
    Abstract: Purpose: Prostate carcinomas belong to the most widespread tumors, and their number is increasing. Imaging modalities used for diagnosis, such as ultrasound, computed tomography, and positron emission tomography, often produce poor results. Radiolabeled peptides with high sensitivity and specificity for prostate cancer would be a desirable tool for tumor diagnosis and treatment. Experimental Design: We used phage display and the prostate-specific membrane antigen -negative cell line DU-145 to identify a peptide. The isolated DUP-1 was tested in vitro for its binding specificity, kinetics, and affinity. Internalization of the peptide was evaluated with confocal microscopy. The tumor accumulation in a nude mouse model was analyzed with I-131-labeled DUP-1 in PC-3 and DU-145 prostate tumors as well as in the rat prostate tumor model AT-1. Results: The synthesized peptide showed rapid binding kinetics peaking at 10 minutes. It shows specific binding to prostate carcinoma cells but low binding affinity to non-tumor cells. Peptide binding is competed with unlabeled DUP-1, and a time-dependent internalization into DU-145 cells was shown. Biodistribution studies of DUP-1 in nude mice with s.c. transplanted DU-145 and PC-3 tumors showed a tumor accumulation of 5% and 7% injected dose per gram, and bound peptide could not be removed by perfusion. The rat prostate tumor model showed an increase of radioactivity in the prostate tumor up to 300% in comparison with normal prostate tissue. Conclusions: DUP-1 holds promise as a lead peptide structure applicable in the development of new diagnostic tracers or anticancer agents that specifically target prostate carcinoma
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15671538
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