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  • 1
    Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Brain metastases (BMs) are the most common malignant brain tumors in adults. Despite multimodal treatment options such as microsurgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, prognosis still remains very poor. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) constitutes the most common source of brain metastases. In this study, prognostic factors in this patient population were identified through an in-depth analysis of clinical parameters of patients with BMs from NSCLC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical data of 114 NSCLC cancer patients who underwent surgery for BMs at the University Hospital Heidelberg were retrospectively reviewed for age, gender, type of treatment, time course of the disease, presence of neurologic symptoms, Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS), smoking history, presence of extracranial metastases at initial diagnosis of NSCLC, number, location and size of brain metastases. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were performed using the Log-rank test and Cox' proportional hazard model, respectively. RESULTS: Median survival time from surgery for BMs was 11.2 months. 18.4% (21 of 114) patients were long-term survivors (〉24 months; range 26.3-75.1 months). Age, gender, size and number of intracranial metastases were not significantly associated with patient survival. Univariate analysis identified complete resection, postoperative whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and a preoperative KPS of 〉80% as positive prognostic factors. Infratentorial location and presence of extracranial metastases were shown to be negative prognostic factors. Surgery for the primary tumor was associated with a superior patient outcome both in univariate and multivariate analyses. CONCLUSION: Our data strongly suggest that surgical treatment of the primary tumor and complete resection of brain metastases in NSCLC patients followed by WBRT improve survival. Moreover, long-term survivors (〉2 years) were more frequent than previously reported.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26816105
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  • 2
    Keywords: SURVIVAL ; CLASSIFICATION ; DIAGNOSIS ; TUMORS ; validation ; NERVOUS-SYSTEM ; MANAGEMENT ; MULTIFORME ; HIGH-GRADE GLIOMA ; PERIOPERATIVE COMPLICATIONS
    Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Thromboembolic events, seizures, neurologic symptoms and adverse effects from corticosteroids and chemotherapies are frequent clinical complications seen in Glioblastoma (GB) patients. The exact impact these have on dismal patient outcome has not been fully elucidated. We aimed at assessing treatment associated complications, evaluating the impact on survival and defining risk factors. METHODS: Two hundred and thirty three consecutive adult patients operated on for newly diagnosed GB at a single tertiary institution over a 5-year-period (2006-2011) were assessed. Demographic parameters (age, gender, comorbidity status quantified by the Charlson-comorbidity-index (CCI), functional status computed by the Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS), tumor characteristics (size, location, IDH-1 mutation and MGMT-Promotor-methylation-status) and treatment parameters (volumetrically quantified extent of resection and adjuvant therapy) were retrospectively reviewed. Complications assessed were recorded as neurological (N), surgical (S) and medical (M). Independent risk factor analysis was performed by the univariate and multivariate logistic regression method. Survival analysis was plotted by the Kaplan-Meier-method, influence of complication occurrence was evaluated by the log-rank test. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty nine (68.2%) patients had a total of 281 complications (90 N, 174 M and 17 S). Univariate analysis identified age (P=0.003), KPS〈70 (P=0.002), CCI〉3 (P=0.03), eloquent tumor location (P=0.001) and therapy other than the standard radio-chemotherapy with temozolomide therapy (P=0.034) as risk factors for complications. Multivariate analysis extracted the eloquent tumor location (P=0.007, odds ratio 1.94) as a significant predictor for complications. Having a complication significantly decreased patient survival (P=0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Complications significantly decrease GB patient survival. Age, poor functional status, other than standard adjuvant therapy and eloquent tumor location proved as significant risk factors for encountering a therapy associated complication. Not extensive surgery or tumor size but surgery at eloquent locations impacts complication occurrence the strongest with a 2 fold increased complication occurrence risk.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25942630
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  • 3
    Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study is to evaluate the role of stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy (SFRT) in patients with one to three brain metastases after surgical resection. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We performed a retrospective single-institutional study in patients undergoing SFRT of surgical cavity after resection of 〈/=3 brain metastases. 60 patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases treated with SFRT following resection were included. The total irradiation dose was 30Gy (5Gy/d, BED 45Gy) after complete macroscopical resection and 35Gy (5Gy/d, BED 52.5Gy) in patients with macroscopic residual tumour after surgery. Macroscopic residual tumour was defined as contrast enhancement next to the resection cavity on the postoperative T1-MRI. The gross tumour volume (GTV) encompassing the residual tumour was delineated on the T1-MRI, the clinical target volume (CTV) encompassed the surgical cavity plus 1mm and the planning target volume (PTV) the CTV plus 2mm. RESULTS: Eight of 60 patients had no imaging follow-up due to morbidity/mortality. Two of 52 (3.8%) patients experienced local failures only, 25 of 52 (48.1%) patients experienced distant intracranial failures only and 4 (7.7%) patients experienced both local and distant intracranial failures. In summary, there were 6 (11.5%) local failures and 29 (55.8%) distant failures. Age was significant for local control in the Cox regression test (p=0.046). Thirty-seven of 60 (61.7%) patients died during follow-up. Median follow-up was 8 months. Median overall survival was 15 months. Cox regression for survival was significant for KPS score 〈/=70% and size of PTV. No severe side effects were seen. Patients undergoing whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) as salvage therapy in case of progression had no severe side effects either. CONCLUSION: In the light of encouraging local control rates, SFRT could be an alternative to WBRT after surgical resection of 〈/=3 brain metastases. Due to the high rate of distant intracranial failure regular follow-up with MRI is mandatory.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26816106
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