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  • 1
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; Germany ; human ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; DIAGNOSIS ; screening ; DISEASE ; DISEASES ; MORTALITY ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; PATIENT ; NF-KAPPA-B ; ACTIVATION ; kidney ; DONOR ; INDUCTION ; treatment ; TARGET ; STAGE ; IDENTIFICATION ; PROMOTER ; STRESS ; STRESS-RESPONSE ; REGION ; REGIONS ; NF-kappa B ; TARGETS ; FAILURE ; COMPLICATIONS ; BIOPSY ; inflammation ; PROGRAM ; CLUSTER-ANALYSIS ; SIGNATURE ; HLA-A ; PROMOTER REGION ; renal failure ; RISK-FACTOR ; PROGRAMS ; DIABETIC-NEPHROPATHY ; PREVENTS ; CELL-ADHESION MOLECULE-1 ; GLOMERULAR INJURY
    Abstract: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal failure and a major risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in diabetic patients. To evaluate the multiple pathogenetic factors implicated in DN, unbiased mRNA expression screening of tubulointerstitial compartments of human renal biopsies was combined with hypothesis-driven pathway analysis. Expression fingerprints obtained from biopsies with histological diagnosis of DN (n = 13) and from control subjects (pretransplant kidney donors [n = 71 and minimal change disease [n = 41) allowed us to segregate the biopsies by disease state and stage by the specific expression signatures. Functional categorization showed regulation of genes linked to inflammation in progressive DN. Pathway mapping of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B), a master transcriptional switch in inflammation, segregated progressive from mild DN and control subjects by showing upregulation of 54 of 138 known NF-kappa B targets. The promoter regions of regulated NF-kappa B targets were analyzed using Modellnspector, and the NF-kappa B module NFKB_IRFF_01 was found to be specifically enriched in progressive disease. Using this module, the induction of eight NFKB-IRFF-01-dependant genes was correctly predicted in progressive DN (B2M, CCL5/RANTES, CXCL10/IP10, EDN1, HLA-A, HLA-B, IFNB1, and VCAM1). The identification of a specific NF-kappa B promoter module activated in the inflammatory stress response of progressive DN has helped to characterize upstream pathways as potential targets for the treatment of progressive renal diseases such as DN
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17065335
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  • 2
    Keywords: BLOOD, CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS, CONTRAST, DIABETIC DYSLIPIDEMIA, ENERGY, EXPRESSION, Genetic, Germany,
    Abstract: OBJECTIVE-In mammals, proper storage and distribution of lipids in and between tissues is essential for the maintenance of energy homeostasis. In contrast, aberrantly high levels of triglycerides in the blood ("hypertriglyceridemia") represent a hallmark of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. As hypertriglyceridemia has been identified as an important risk factor for cardiovascular complications, in this study we aimed to identify molecular mechanisms in aberrant triglyceride elevation under these conditions. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-To determine the importance of hepatic lipid handling for systemic dyslipidemia, we profiled the expression patterns of various hepatic lipid transporters and receptors under healthy and type 2 diabetic conditions. A differentially expressed lipoprotein receptor was functionally characterized by generating acute, liver-specific loss- and gain-of-function animal models. RESULTS-We show that the hepatic expression of lipid transporter lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) is specifically impaired in mouse models of obesity and type 2 diabetes and can be restored by leptin replacement. Experimental imitation of this pathophysiological situation by liver-specific knockdown of LSR promotes hypertriglyceridemia and elevated apolipoprotein (Apo)B and E serum levels in lean wild-type and ApoE knockout mice. In contrast, genetic restoration of LSR expression in obese animals to wild-type levels improves serum triglyceride levels and serum profiles in these mice. CONCLUSIONS-The dysregulation of hepatic LSR under obese and diabetic conditions may provide a molecular rationale for systemic dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome and represent a novel target for alternative treatment strategies in these patients. Diabetes 58:1040-1049, 2009
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19188430
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  • 3
    Keywords: CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; BLOOD ; CELL ; Germany ; DISEASE ; SITE ; SITES ; GENE ; PROTEIN ; METABOLISM ; PATIENT ; RATS ; polymorphism ; DELETION ; diabetes ; GLUCOSE ; glycosylation ; COMPLICATIONS ; OLIGOSACCHARIDES ; SERUM ; secretion ; EXTRACT ; DIABETIC-NEPHROPATHY ; IMMUNE ; hyperglycemia ; AMERICANS ; GENE CNDP1 ; LEUCINE REPEAT ; SERUM CARNOSINASE
    Abstract: OBJECTIVE-The (CTG)(n) polymorphism in the serum carnosinase (CN-1) gene affects CN-1 secretion Since CN-1 is heavily glycosylated and glycosylation might influence protein secretion as well, we tested the role of N-glycosylation for CN-1 secretion and enzyme activity. We also tested whether CN-1 secretion is changed under hyperglycemic conditions. RESULTS-N-glycosylation of CN-1 was either inhibited by tunicamycin in pCSII-CN-1-transfected Cos-7 cells or by stepwise deletion of its three putative N-glycosylation sites. CN-1 protein expression, N-glycosylation, and enzyme activity were assessed in cell extracts and supernatants. The influence of hyperglycemia on CN-1 enzyme activity in human serum was tested in homozygous (CTG)(5) diabetic patients and healthy control subjects Tunicamycin completely inhibited CN-1 secretion Deletion of all N-glycosylation sites was required to reduce CN-1 secretion efficiency. Enzyme activity was already diminished when two sites were deleted. In pCSII-CN-1-transfected Cos-7 cells cultured in medium containing 25 mmol/l D-glucose, the immature 61 kilodaltons (kDa) CN-1 immune reactive band was not detected. This was paralleled by an increased GlcNAc expression in cell lysates and CN-1 expression in the supernatants. Homozygous (CTG)(5) diabetic patients had significantly higher serum CN-1 activity compared with genotype-matched, healthy control subjects CONCLUSIONS-We conclude that apart from the (CTG)(n) polymorphism in the signal peptide of CN-1, N-glycosylation is essential for appropriate secretion and enzyme activity. Since hyperglycemia enhances CN-1 secretion and enzyme activity, our data suggest that poor blood glucose control in diabetic patients might result in an increased CN-1 secretion even in the presence of the (CTG)(5) allele Diabetes 59:1984-1990, 2010
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20460427
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  • 4
    Keywords: DENDRITIC CELLS ; LYMPH-NODES ; T-CELL ; MOUSE ; IMMUNE-RESPONSE ; EFFECTOR ; C-KIT ; AUTOIMMUNITY ; W-SH ; BIOBREEDING RAT
    Abstract: Mast cells have been invoked as important players in immune responses associated with autoimmune diseases. Based on in vitro studies, or in vivo through the use of Kit mutant mice, mast cells have been suggested to play immunological roles in direct antigen presentation to both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, in the regulation of T-cell and dendritic cell migration to lymph nodes, and in Th1 versus Th2 polarization, all of which could significantly impact the immune response against self-antigens in autoimmune disease, including type 1 diabetes (T1D). Until now, the role of mast cells in the onset and incidence of T1D has only been indirectly tested through the use of low-specificity mast cell inhibitors and activators, and published studies reported contrasting results. Our three laboratories have generated independently two strains of mast cell-deficient nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, NOD.Cpa3(Cre/+) (Heidelberg) and NOD.Kit(W-sh/W-sh) (Leuven and Boston), to address the effects of mast cell deficiency on the development of T1D in the NOD strain. Our collective data demonstrate that both incidence and progression of T1D in NOD mice are independent of mast cells. Moreover, analysis of pancreatic lymph node cells indicated that lack of mast cells has no discernible effect on the autoimmune response, which involves both innate and adaptive immune components. Our results demonstrate that mast cells are not involved in T1D in the NOD strain, making their role in this process nonessential and excluding them as potential therapeutic targets.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24917576
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  • 5
  • 6
    Keywords: MODEL ; RISK ; ACTIVATION ; TARGET ; STEM-CELLS ; DIABETES-MELLITUS ; ARREST ; DUCTAL ADENOCARCINOMA ; METAANALYSIS ; TO-MESENCHYMAL TRANSITION
    Abstract: Metformin treatment is associated with a decreased risk and better prognosis of pancreatic cancer (PC) in patients with type 2 diabetes, but the mechanism of metformin's PC growth inhibition in the context of a prediabetic state is unknown. We used a Panc02 pancreatic tumor cell transplant model in diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6 mice to compare the effects of metformin and the direct mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor rapamycin on PC growth, glucose regulation, mTOR pathway signaling, and candidate microRNA (miR) expression. In DIO/prediabetic mice, metformin and rapamycin significantly reduced pancreatic tumor growth and mTOR-related signaling. The rapamycin effects centered on decreased mTOR-regulated growth and survival signaling, including increased expression of let-7b and cell cycle-regulating miRs. Metformin (but not rapamycin) reduced glucose and insulin levels and expression of miR-34a and its direct targets Notch, Slug, and Snail. Metformin also reduced the number and size of Panc02 tumor spheres in vitro and inhibited the expression of Notch in spheroids. Our results suggest that metformin and rapamycin can both inhibit pancreatic tumor growth in obese, prediabetic mice through shared and distinct mechanisms. Metformin and direct mTOR inhibitors, alone or possibly in combination, represent promising intervention strategies for breaking the diabetes-PC link.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25576058
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  • 7
    Keywords: DISEASE ; BLOOD-PRESSURE ; metabolic syndrome ; INSTRUMENTS ; NO EVIDENCE ; CARDIOVASCULAR RISK ; ASSOCIATION ANALYSES IDENTIFY ; EXCESSIVE FRUCTOSE INTAKE ; SERUM URATE ; TRANSPORTER SLC2A9
    Abstract: We aimed to investigate the causal effect of circulating uric acid concentrations on type 2 diabetes risk. A Mendelian randomization study was performed using a genetic score with 24 uric acid-associated loci. We used data of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct case-cohort study, comprising 24,265 individuals of European ancestry from eight European countries. During a mean (SD) follow-up of 10 (4) years, 10,576 verified incident case subjects with type 2 diabetes were ascertained. Higher uric acid was associated with a higher diabetes risk after adjustment for confounders, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.20 (95% CI 1.11, 1.30) per 59.48 micromol/L (1 mg/dL) uric acid. The genetic score raised uric acid by 17 micromol/L (95% CI 15, 18) per SD increase and explained 4% of uric acid variation. By using the genetic score to estimate the unconfounded effect, we found that a 59.48 micromol/L higher uric acid concentration did not have a causal effect on diabetes (HR 1.01 [95% CI 0.87, 1.16]). Including data from the Diabetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis (DIAGRAM) consortium, increasing our dataset to 41,508 case subjects with diabetes, the summary odds ratio estimate was 0.99 (95% CI 0.92, 1.06). In conclusion, our study does not support a causal effect of circulating uric acid on diabetes risk. Uric acid-lowering therapies may therefore not be beneficial in reducing diabetes risk.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25918230
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  • 8
    Keywords: BODY-WEIGHT ; sensitivity ; FOOD-INTAKE ; leptin ; ARCUATE NUCLEUS ; GANGLIOSIDE GM3 ; POMC NEURONS ; NERVOUS-SYSTEM CONTROL ; ADIPOSE-TISSUE LIPOLYSIS ; OBESE MICE
    Abstract: Central nervous regulation of body weight and adipose tissue function is mainly conducted by hypothalamic neurons. Neuronal function depends on the integrity of the membrane lipid microenvironment. Lipid microdomains contain large quantities of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids, including glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) (gene Ugcg)-derived gangliosides. The current study demonstrates that Ugcgf/f//CamKCreERT2 mice with genetic GCS deletion in forebrain neurons, dominantly targeting mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH), display impaired fasting-induced lipolysis accompanied by a decreased norepinephrine content in white adipose tissue (WAT). MBH insulin receptor (IR) levels and signaling are increased in Ugcgf/f//CamKCreERT2 mice. These results are in concordance with reports stating that MBH insulin signaling restrains sympathetic nervous outflow to WAT in fasted mice. In line with the in vivo data, pharmacological GCS inhibition by Genz123346 also increases IR levels as well as IR phosphorylation in insulin-stimulated hypothalamic cells. In addition to studies suggesting that simple gangliosides like GM3 regulate peripheral IR signaling, this work suggests that complex neuronal gangliosides also modulate hypothalamic IR signaling and protein levels. For example, the complex ganglioside GD1a interacts dynamically with the IRs on adult hypothalamic neurons. In summary, our results suggest that neuronal GCS expression modulates MBH insulin signaling and WAT function in fasted mice.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26038579
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  • 9
  • 10
    Abstract: Atrasentan, a selective endothelin A receptor antagonist, has been shown to reduce albuminuria in type 2 diabetes. We previously showed that the structural integrity of a glomerular endothelial glycocalyx is required to prevent albuminuria. Therefore we tested the potential of atrasentan to stabilize the endothelial glycocalyx in diabetic apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient mice in relation to its antialbuminuric effects. Treatment with atrasentan (7.5 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks reduced urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios by 26.0 +/- 6.5% (P 〈 0.01) in apoE knockout (KO) mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes consuming an atherogenic diet, without changes in gross glomerular morphology, systemic blood pressure, and blood glucose concentration. Endothelial cationic ferritin surface coverage, investigated using large-scale digital transmission electron microscopy, revealed that atrasentan treatment increases glycocalyx coverage in diabetic apoE KO mice from 40.7 +/- 3.2% to 81.0 +/- 12.5% (P 〈 0.05). This restoration is accompanied by increased renal nitric oxide concentrations, reduced expression of glomerular heparanase, and a marked shift in the balance of M1 and M2 glomerular macrophages. In vitro experiments with endothelial cells exposed to laminar flow and cocultured with pericytes confirmed that atrasentan reduced endothelial heparanase expression and increased glycocalyx thickness in the presence of a diabetic milieu. Together these data point toward a role for the restoration of endothelial function and tissue homeostasis through the antialbuminuric effects of atrasentan, and they provide a mechanistic explanation for the clinical observations of reduced albuminuria with atrasentan in diabetic nephropathy.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27207530
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