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  • 1
    Keywords: DISEASES ; RISK ; CARCINOGENESIS ; IDENTIFICATION ; STRESS ; CLINICAL-TRIALS ; EFFICACY ; DAMAGE ; DNA-DAMAGE ; ADDUCTS ; LIPID-PEROXIDATION ; WHITE BLOOD-CELLS ; clinical trials ; 1,N-6-ETHENODEOXYADENOSINE ; CANCER GENOME
    Abstract: Background: Oxidative stress enhances lipid peroxidation (LPO), which both are implicated in the promotion and progression stages of carcinogenesis, in particular under conditions of chronic inflammation and infections. Exocyclic etheno-DNA adducts, which are formed by LPO-products such as 4-hydroxy -2-nonenal, are strongly pro-mutagenic DNA lesions. Methods: The development of ultra-sensitive detection methods for etheno-adducts in human tissues, white blood cells(WBC) and urine has provided evidence that these adducts are elevated in affected organs of cancer-prone patients, probably acting as a driving force to malignancy. Results: Two recent studies that yielded some new insights into disease causation are briefly reviewed: DNA-damage in WBC of mother-newborn child pairs, and lipid peroxidation derived DNA damage in patients with cancer-prone liver diseases. Our results indicate that biomonitoring of etheno-DNA adducts in humans are promising tools (i) to better understand disease aetiopathogenesis, allowing hazard identification(ii) to monitor disease progression and (iii) to verify the efficacy of chemopreventive and therapeutic interventions. Such clinical trials are warranted
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21489207
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; LUNG ; FOLLOW-UP ; INFORMATION ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; DISEASE ; EXPOSURE ; LONG-TERM ; POPULATION ; RISK ; RISKS ; QUALITY ; REDUCTION ; BIOMARKERS ; PARTICLES ; HEALTH ; DESIGN ; smoking ; COUNTRIES ; SWEDEN ; TOBACCO ; EUROPE ; HIGH-LEVEL ; HEAVY ; prospective studies ; bias ; LEVEL ; EPIDEMIOLOGIC EVIDENCE ; methods ; POWER ; prospective ; prospective study ; NEVER SMOKERS ; CANCERS ; ENGLAND ; EMISSION ; plant ; nonsmokers ; GASES ; discussion ; OUTDOOR
    Abstract: Background: Several countries are discussing new legislation on the ban of smoking in public places, and on the acceptable levels of traffic-related air pollutants. It is therefore useful to estimate the burden of disease associated with indoor and outdoor air pollution. Methods: We have estimated exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) and to air pollution in never smokers and ex-smokers in a large prospective study in 10 European countries (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)(N = 520,000). We report estimates of the proportion of lung cancers attributable to ETS and air pollution in this population. Results: The proportion of lung cancers in never-and ex-smokers attributable to ETS was estimated as between 16 and 24%, mainly due to the contribution of work-related exposure. We have also estimated that 5-7% of lung cancers in European never smokers and ex-smokers are attributable to high levels of air pollution, as expressed by NO2 or proximity to heavy traffic roads. NO2 is the expression of a mixture of combustion (traffic-related) particles and gases, and is also related to power plants and waste incinerator emissions. Discussion: We have estimated risks of lung cancer attributable to ETS and traffic-related air pollution in a large prospective study in Europe. Information bias can be ruled out due to the prospective design, and we have thoroughly controlled for potential confounders, including restriction to never smokers and long-term ex-smokers. Concerning traffic-related air pollution, the thresholds for indicators of exposure we have used are rather strict, i.e. they correspond to the high levels of exposure that characterize mainly Southern European countries (levels of NO2 in Denmark and Sweden are closer to 10-20 ug/m(3), whereas levels in Italy are around 30 or 40, or higher). Therefore, further reduction in exposure levels below 30 ug/m(3) would correspond to additional lung cancer cases prevented, and our estimate of 5-7% is likely to be an underestimate. Overall, our prospective study draws attention to the need for strict legislation concerning the quality of air in Europe
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17302981
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  • 3
    Keywords: brain ; CANCER ; Germany ; COHORT ; cohort study ; DISEASE ; EXPOSURE ; MORTALITY ; RISK ; RISKS ; WORKERS ; radiation ; FIELD ; HEALTH ; FEASIBILITY ; review ; ELECTROMAGNETIC-FIELDS ; EXPOSURES ; OPERATORS ; RADIO ; 33 ; TELEPHONES
    Abstract: Background: The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of performing a cohort study on health risks from occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in Germany. Methods: A set of criteria was developed to evaluate the feasibility of such a cohort study. The criteria aimed at conditions of exposure and exposure assessment (level, duration, preferably on an individual basis), the possibility to assemble a cohort and the feasibility of ascertaining various disease endpoints. Results: Twenty occupational settings with workers potentially exposed to RF-EMF and, in addition, a cohort of amateur radio operators were considered. Based on expert ratings, literature reviews and our set of predefined criteria, three of the cohorts were identified as promising for further evaluation: the personnel (technicians) of medium/short wave broadcasting stations, amateur radio operators, and workers on dielectric heat sealers. After further analyses, the cohort of workers on dielectric heat sealers seems not to be feasible due to the small number of exposed workers available and to the difficulty of assessing exposure (exposure depends heavily on the respective working process and mixture of exposures, e.g. plastic vapours), although exposure was highest in this occupational setting. The advantage of the cohort of amateur radio operators was the large number of persons it includes, while the advantage of the cohort of personnel working at broadcasting stations was the quality of retrospective exposure assessment. However, in the cohort of amateur radio operators the exposure assessment was limited, and the cohort of technicians was hampered by the small number of persons working in this profession. Conclusion: The majority of occupational groups exposed to RF-EMF are not practicable for setting up an occupational cohort study due to the small numbers of exposed subjects or due to exposure levels being only marginally higher than those of the general public
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19480652
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