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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-2983
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The paper gives the background to the current debate in the U.K. concerning the possible need to introduce a standardised and perhaps mandatory system of environmental impact analysis for developmental proposals. This is shown to be a subject of very considerable interest to those concerned with mineral extraction and its environmental effects. The paper considers some of those features of the extractive industries which are of particular importance when selecting an approach to environmental assessment. It discusses the appropriate content for such a study. Attention is given to the socio-economic factors which are almost inevitably associated with the extractive industries. The paper concludes with a plea for a more systematic assessment of the potential impact of both new and continued extraction of raw materials and fossil fuels and suggests that there should be more emphasis on environmental issues when national, regional and local policies and plans for the extractive industries are prepared.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-2983
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Huge quantities of solid wastes are generated as a result of mining and mineral processing activities in the United States. Over the years, the majority of these by-products have been disposed of in unsightly dumping areas which are aesthetically unattractive and often degrading to the environment. However, many of these wastes, because of their similarity to conventional soils and aggregates, represent potentially useful sources of material for a variety of applications. This paper describes the principal classifications of solid wastes from mining and mineral processing. The outstanding physical and chemical properties of each type of waste material are included in these descriptions. The paper also discusses the principal locations and approximate quantities of each category of mining and mineral processing waste. Examples are given of ways in which each type of waste has been utilized in different areas of the United States. Pertinent technical, economic, and environmental considerations involved in specific uses are included in these discussions. Significant research needs and efforts involving particular waste materials are also documented.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1573-2983
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A review of changes in approach to the restoration of mineral sites in Britain since the introduction of planning control in 1947, together with likely trends for the next decade. The period has seen great technological advances in the capacity of machinery, increased demand, and more rapid rates of extraction. The resulting re-organisation of the industry through mergers and take-overs has led to concentration into fewer and larger units of production, with the parallel closure of many smaller works and quarries. It is to assess the significance of such changes in their effect upon both restoration and after-use that this study has been prepared.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1573-2983
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In the past 10 years the Government of Ontario has taken a leadership role in assessing the quantity, quality, and distribution characteristics of aggregate resources in that Province. Concomitant with that has been a drive to determine operational standards, design criteria and rehabilitation programmes that more closely reflect contemporary social and environmental expectations and how they might be imposed on aggregate producers. That the problem is not simply a technological one has become apparent and this article stresses the wide range of interests and concerns that practitioners in the mining/rehabilitation field should be aware of.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-2983
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The landscape architecture profession is a source of creative thinking and planning which is relatively untapped within the mining industry in the United States of America. The landscape architect has been active in European operations for years as indicated by the four examples presented. The landscape architect can provide an important interface with mine design and engineering and environmental affairs. To initiate this interface within the United States, and increase its effectiveness, six objectives are presented and discussed.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-2983
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Four vegetative associations occur on surface mines located in Mercer County, Pennsylvania. Seventeen different species of grasses and legumes and 30 different species of trees and shrubs were evaluated for their ability to become established and control erosion on surface mines. The amount of organic matter and soil moisture are the principle factors regulating the establishment of vegetative cover on surface mines. Those species possessing a fibrous root system are better able to adapt for erosion control than tap rooted species. Likewise, shrubs such as bristley locust (Robina hispida) and Silver Bush or Autumn Olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) that will produce shoots when a root becomes exposed due to erosion are better adapted for erosion control than other species. The methods and species utilized during reclamation will determine, at least in part, the future use of the land and should establish conditions for natural succession to occur.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-2983
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The removal of heavy metals and neutralisation of acidity in mine waste waters by algae and bacteria are reviewed. Algal growths in artificial meander systems have been shown to remove significant quantities of heavy metals and fine particulates from mine waste waters. Bacterial systems for the oxidation of ferrous iron and the reduction of sulphate leading to neutralisation of acidity are described. The use of bacterial extracellular polymers in the removal of heavy metals from solution is discussed with reference to its application to acid mine waters. It is concluded that a combination of bacterial and algal systems with process optimisation, including nutrient amendment, may provide suitable treatment for mine waste waters. Metal-resistant bacteria may also be important in reclamation, where it is possible that they can confer some degree of tolerance on the plants used to revegetate metal-contaminated tailings dumps.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1573-2983
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Medicine
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-2983
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The intent of this study was to develop an understanding of some of the factors that affect the concentration ol radon-222 (222Rn) in drinking water supplies derived from groundwater, with specific application to North Carolina. Data for this investigation were collected on a sample of 96 North Carolina public water supply wells. Water samples were collected and analyzed for222Rn content. Data on site geology and well characteristics (discharge, specific capacity, depth, and casing length) were obtained from existing sources. From a statistical examination of the data collected in this study, we conclude that there is a distinct and statistically significant difference in the mean222Rn concentrations of groundwater associated with different types of rocks. The data, however, also indicate that there is a great degree of variability in the222Rn concentrations of samples drawn from any giver rock type. The situation is made slightly better by introducing a second variable given as the geologic region of a water supply. A fairly surprising finding of this study is the relative insignificance of discharge, specific capacity, depth, and casing length of wells as predictors of222Rn concentration. The present study indicates that use of these variables as predictors does not significantly improve the likelihood of locating water supplies with elevatec222Rn concentrations.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-2983
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Of the halogens, fluorine has the highest crustal abundance (544 mg/kg) while iodine has the lowest (0.25 mg/kg), however, chlorine is by far the most abundant halogen in the cosmos. The geochemistries of the four naturally occurring halogens have some similarities with fluorine, chlorine and bromine being classified as lithophile elements while iodine is more chalcophile in nature. Bromine and iodine behave in a similar fashion in the secondary environment and could be classified as biophile elements being concentrated in organic matter. Chlorine, bromine and iodine are strongly enriched in the sea while iodine and to a lesser extent bromine are further concentrated in the marine algae. Apart from the occurrence of fluorine in fluorite (CaF2) there are few commonly occurring minerals which contain the halogens as essential constituents. In the igneous environment fluorine and chlorine tend to occupy hydroxyl lattice sites in micas, amphiboles, apatites etc., while in sediments clays can contain appreciable quantities of these elements. Bromine and iodine, however, would be unlikely to fit into the lattice sites of common rock-forming minerals. Bromine, like iodine, is probably volatilised from the marine environment and is carried on to land surfaces. This behaviour of iodine and bromine is reflected in the increased I/CI and Br/CI ratios of surface run-off in continental compared with near coastal environments. Limited information on the soil geochemistry of the halogens suggests that the soil contents of chlorine, bromine and iodine are influenced by proximity to the sea. Soil fluorine, however, is generally dependent on its content in the parent material. In some areas pollutant sources of the halogens contribute appreciably to their concentration in the environment. Iodine and chlorine are essential elements for mammals and fluorine has been shown to have beneficial effects on bone and tooth formation. However, excess quantities of dietary fluorine can be harmful. It is possible, in view of its ubiquitous occurrence in the biosphere, that bromine has a hitherto unknown function in human and animal health.
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