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  • 1
    Abstract: Guidelines recommend early colonoscopy for individuals with a positive family history of colorectal cancer (CRC), but little is known about the utilization of colonoscopy and the frequency of colorectal neoplasms among younger affected individuals in Germany. The aim of this study was to determine the utilization of colonoscopy and the frequency of colorectal neoplasms in this risk group. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a general practice setting. Patients aged 40-54 years with at least one first-degree relative with CRC were identified, counseled on their increased risk, and referred to colonoscopy if they decided to undergo this procedure. We assessed the reported utilization of colonoscopy before study participation with a questionnaire and obtained results of colonoscopies performed during the study period from colonoscopy reports. Out of 484 patients with a positive family history of CRC, 191 (39.5%) fulfilled the inclusion criteria and participated in the study: 54% reported that at least one colonoscopy had been performed before study participation. Out of 191 participants, 86 (45%) underwent a colonoscopy during study period. No CRC was found, but 16.3% had any adenoma, and 7.0% had advanced adenomas. Overall, 155 (82%) study participants underwent a colonoscopy either before or during the study period. The utilization of colonoscopies among participants was remarkably high even before study participation. This rate increased up to 82% after counseling by general practitioners. A relevant number of participants had (advanced) adenomas. It appears worthwhile to involve general practitioners in identifying and counseling younger individuals with familial risk for CRC.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28692588
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; evaluation ; Germany ; screening ; COHORT ; DEATH ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; LONG-TERM ; MORTALITY ; POPULATION ; REDUCTION ; LINKAGE ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; TARGET ; TRIALS ; cancer prevention ; prevention ; DESIGN ; NUMBER ; WOMEN ; HIGH-LEVEL ; ONCOLOGY ; RE ; survival analysis ; USA ; data protection ; comparison ; BENEFITS ; BREAST-CANCER MORTALITY ; cancer registration ; MILLION WOMEN ; PUBLIC-HEALTH POLICY
    Abstract: In cancer screening, it is considered mandatory not only to prove the efficacy of the screening test, but also, as a permanent commitment, to demonstrate and quantify the effectiveness of service screening in terms of mortality reduction when the test becomes part of a screening programme. In Germany, a nationwide organized and quality-assured mammography screening programme among 50-69-year-old women, a target population of about 10 million women, is currently implemented. The envisaged short implementation period of about 2 years raises the issue of how to estimate the effectiveness of the programme in terms of long-term mortality reduction. On the basis of sample size calculations, a strategy for evaluation of mortality reduction is outlined. Our approach compares breast cancer mortality in different geographical areas or temporally within geographical areas. The latter design appears useful also for established programmes to examine site-specific mortality reduction by screening in late-starting areas, which are frequently used as control areas of a geographical comparison, but rarely a subject of evaluation on their own. Emphasis has to be put on the collection of the required data from the very beginning of the programme. For this, performance of cancer registration and proper linkage with the screening programme must be enhanced. In the trade-off between data protection and public interest in quality-assurance of medical care, emphasis should be put on assurance of high-level medical care whose relevance may be counted in terms of the numbers of deaths prevented. It is from this the individual truly benefits. European Journal of Cancer Prevention 16:225-231 (C) 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17415093
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; SURVIVAL ; LUNG ; LUNG-CANCER ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; incidence ; liver ; POPULATION ; SITES ; TIME ; PATIENT ; prognosis ; IDENTIFICATION ; RATES ; metastases ; SWEDEN ; adenocarcinoma ; INCIDENCE RATES ; TRENDS ; BIRTH COHORT ; PRIMARY TUMORS ; REGISTRIES ; sex ; PRIMARY-CARCINOMA ; PRIMARY SITE ; cancer of unknown primary ; causes of death ; CONSECUTIVE PATIENTS
    Abstract: Time trends in incidence, causes of death, and prognosis of cancer of unknown primary (CUP) could provide important clues for occult primary sites and thus result in effective organ-specific treatment, although such studies are seldom reported. We aimed at examining time trends in percentage and incidence rates, causes of death, and survival of CUP. A total of 50 545 patients with CUP were identified in the Swedish Cancer Registry from 1960 to 2008. We used direct standardization to standardize age-adjusted incidence rate to the Segi world population. Consistent increase before the late 1990s and dramatic decrease afterward was observed for both percentage and incidence of CUP in Swedes regardless of sex. Comparable time trends were noted in Norwegian and Finnish populations, but with several years earlier peaking times. For most anatomic sites, CUP and lung cancer were the two most common causes of death for patients with CUP irrespective of nodal involvement. Survival probability at 12 months after CUP was approximately 20% and then leveled off at approximately 10%. Adenocarcinoma accounted for most of this incidence variation and experienced the worst prognosis. High incidence rates and comparable time trends for CUP were observed in Sweden, Norway, and Finland. The increasing time trends may partially reflect the change of autopsy rates in these countries. The decreased incidence in the last decade could be due to an increasing identification of unknown primary caused by improving diagnostic methods. Histological types were significantly associated with survival in patients with CUP.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21968687
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  • 4
    Keywords: SURVIVAL ; AGE ; TRENDS ; MANAGEMENT ; TESTICULAR CANCER ; 2ND-GENERATION IMMIGRANTS ; FINNISH IMMIGRANTS ; 1ST-GENERATION ; cancer of unknown primary ; etiological clues ; first-generation immigrant ; standardized incidence ratio
    Abstract: Incidence of cancer of unknown primary (CUP) varies globally, and environmental factors are suspected to be related to its development. Immigrant studies offer insights into disease etiology, but no studies have been published on CUP. We investigated CUP risk in immigrants to Sweden to search for etiological clues. The nationwide Swedish Family Cancer Database was used to calculate standardized incidence ratios for CUP in the first-generation immigrants compared with native Swedes from 1958 to 2008. A total of 2340 patients with CUP were identified among immigrants during a follow-up of 23 million person-years compared with 30 507 patients with CUP identified in native Swedes who were followed for 260 million person-years, showing an overall standardized incidence ratio of 0.88 (95% confidence interval: 0.85-0.93). The median age at immigration was 28 years for men and 27 for women. Significantly lower CUP risks, ranging from 0.18 to 0.89, were mainly observed among Finnish, German, and Asian immigrants. The decreased risks tended to be lower for women compared with men. Danes of both sexes had an increased risk. The increased or decreased CUP risks observed in this novel study suggested that early life environmental risk factors or genetic factors influence the development of CUP. The risk patterns were modified by sex. The observed differences may give clues about incidence rates in countries of origin for which incidence data are lacking.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22044851
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  • 5
    Keywords: CANCER ; DIAGNOSIS ; DEATH ; DISEASE ; MORTALITY ; RISK ; PATIENT ; statistics ; SWEDEN ; PEPTIDES ; MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION ; DIABETES-MELLITUS ; MELLITUS ; REGISTRIES ; FAMILIAL RISKS ; HOSPITALIZATIONS ; Type 2 diabetes mellitus ; causes of death ; CARDIOTOXICITY ; death causes
    Abstract: Cancer patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at an increased risk of death due to cancer. However, whether T2DM comorbidity increases other causes of death in cancer patients is the novel theme of this study. Patients with T2DM were identified from the nationwide Swedish Hospital Discharge Register and linked with patients with cancer recorded from the Swedish Cancer Registry. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated for death due to all causes among cancer patients with and without T2DM; both underlying and multiple causes of death were examined using the Cox regression model. A total of 13 325 cancer patients were identified with comorbidity of T2DM. The total number of deaths of cancer patients was 276 021. Of these, 5900 occurred after T2DM diagnosis. For underlying causes of death, except for T2DM, the highest cause-specific HRs were found for complications of bacterial disease (HR, 3.93; 95% CI, 3.04-5.09), urinary system disease (HR, 3.39; 95% CI, 2.78-4.12), and myocardial infarction (HR, 2.93; 95% CI, 2.75-3.12). When risk of death was examined for both underlying and multiple causes of death, the highest HRs were found for hypertensive disease (HR, 3.42; 95% CI, 3.15-3.72), urinary system disease (HR, 3.39; 95% CI, 3.17-3.63), and arterial disease (HR, 3.26; 95% CI, 3.08-3.46). The diagnosis of T2DM in cancer patients is associated with an increased risk of death due to various causes, including myocardial infarction, other bacterial disease, urinary system disease, hypertensive disease, arterial disease, and so on, which may be related to both cancer and treatment. Clinicians that treat cancer patients with T2DM should pay more attention to comorbidities.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21960185
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  • 6
    Keywords: SURVIVAL ; DIAGNOSIS ; TRENDS ; PRIMARY SITE ; PRIMARY CUP
    Abstract: In unsparing efforts to find the hidden primaries, second primary cancers (SPCs) unrelated to cancer of unknown primary (CUP) are found. The detection rates of SPCs after CUP can be considered as measures for the effectiveness of modern diagnostic techniques in finding tumors. We aimed to compare the rates of specific SPCs found after the work-up of CUP and the more sign/symptom-directed diagnostic approaches applied after any other cancer. The number of CUP patients identified in the nationwide Swedish database and nine German cancer registries was 24 641 from 1997 through 2006, and rate ratios (RRs) for SPCs were recorded in two follow-up periods. The detection rate of SPCs immediately after any other cancer was about two times higher in Germany than in Sweden, but the rate immediately after CUP was almost the same for the two datasets. In the joint analyses after CUP, the RRs of liver, lung, breast, and kidney cancers were higher than after any other cancer, whereas the RRs of prostate, urinary bladder, and connective tissue cancers as well as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were not significantly different; the RR of cancers of upper aerodigestive tract was lower after CUP than after any other cancer. The joint data indicate that the work-up is efficient in detecting tumors in the thoracoabdominal organs that are screened by computed tomography. For some other organ sites, the more sign/symptom-directed diagnostic approaches may be equally efficient. However, none of the applied techniques could detect all tumors immediately after the first diagnosis.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22960777
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  • 7
    Keywords: SURVIVAL ; carcinoma ; DISEASE ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; DATABASE ; PRIMARY TUMORS ; BONE ; PRIMARY SITE ; REGISTER ; PRIMARY CUP
    Abstract: Increasing incidences of cancer of unknown primary (CUP) have been observed in Sweden previously. However, it is not known how the incidence trends for specific locations of metastasis vary. Site-specific data are available on the basis of the ninth international classification of diseases. CUP patients were identified between 1987 and 2008 from the Swedish Family-Cancer Database. Malignant neoplasms of ill-defined sites were diagnosed in 4042 patients, 1976 developed metastasis in lymph nodes, 9615 had metastasis in specified organs, and in 8052 patients, the malignant neoplasm was diagnosed without further specification. Age-standardized incidence rates for 23 685 patients were analyzed using a direct method of standardization. Overall, the incidence of CUP decreased from 6.98 to 6.00 per 100 000 from 1987 to 2008. The number of patients diagnosed with metastasis in specified organs decreased, whereas the number of patients diagnosed with CUP without further specification increased from 2.65 to 3.02 per 100 000. With improvements in diagnostic methods and imaging techniques for identification of cancer, the incidences of CUP have been decreasing because primary tumors can be specified more often. Computed tomography is typically sensitive in detecting lung, kidney, and colorectal cancers, which are known to have a genetic link with CUP. Prostate-specific antigen testing is used to detect prostate cancer, for which bone is a common metastatic site. Liver metastases are common if the primary tumor is located in the colorectum. If the primary tumor is found, this cancer site replaces the diagnosis of CUP within the Cancer Register and therefore CUP incidence is decreased.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22387673
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  • 8
    Keywords: Germany ; RISK ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; VALIDITY ; PREDICTORS ; INEQUALITIES ; PROGRAM ; ENGLAND ; CANCER SCREENING PARTICIPATION
    Abstract: We aimed to describe the utilization of colonoscopy and its association with sociodemographic characteristics within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Heidelberg cohort study. We included 15 014 study participants (43% men) of the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort recruited between 1994 and 1998. At baseline recruitment, as well as in the 3-yearly follow-up surveys, study participants completed questionnaires on lifestyle, socioeconomic background variables, health status, and use of medications and medical services, including colonoscopy examinations. The present analyses focused on participants who completed the question on colonoscopy examination in all follow-up rounds. Our results show that by the end of the fourth follow-up round, more than half of all participants of the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort had had a colonoscopy. Colonoscopy was associated with some socioeconomic and demographic characteristics: a positive association with vocational training level as well as overall socioeconomic status level [International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) classification]. A negative association was found for household size and employment status. Colonoscopy usage increased steeply within the subgroup of participants older than 55 years of age and decreased again within the subgroup of participants older than 75 years of age. Organized colorectal cancer screening should include a written invitation system, to overcome the problem of sociodemographic-related differential awareness of and attendance at colonoscopy examinations. Also, the high proportion of prescreened individuals should be taken into account to avoid unnecessary re-examinations.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25244156
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