Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Abstract A total of 592 children with clinical diagnosis of typhoid fever admitted to the Dr B. C. Roy Memorial Hospital for Children, Calcutta, India during the period between February 1990 and January 1992, were screened forSalmonella typhi by blood culture.S. typhi was isolated from 221 (37.3%) cases. The majority of the strains (92.3%) showed multi-drug resistant (MDR). They were resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. However, all the strains were uniformly (100%) susceptible to gentamicin, amikacin, furazolidone, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the antimicrobial agents against the resistant strains ofS. typhi ranged between 200 and >1600 µg/ml. Phage type 0 was most frequently encountered. The rate of isolation ofS. typhi was more or less the same in all the pediatric age groups. The majority of the cases came from lower socio-economic classes with poor personal hygiene. Fever was the main presenting feature in all the cases. Other associated features of the MDR typhoid fever cases, who were uncomplicated during admission, were headache (36.0%), chill and rigor (23.2%), diarrhea (37.2%), anorexia (26.2%), vomiting (23.8%), cough (18.0%) and abdominal pain (19.8%). Hepatosplenomegaly was present in 42.4% cases. However, complications were less frequently encountered among the MDR typhoid fever cases who were uncomplicated during admission and treated as in-patients. Fourteen bacteriologically-confirmed MDR typhoid fever cases had jaundice and another 18 cases had an abnormal state of consciousness during admission. Four (2.0%) bacteriologically-confirmed MDR typhoid fever patients died during the period of observation.
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