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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Keywords: S. pyogenes serum-opacity factor ; Rheumatogenic M types ; S. pyogenes M types
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Two hundred ten S. pyogenes strains isolated in 1979, 1980 and 1984 from children with pharyngitis were here examined for properties which might be relevant to their rheumatogenic potential. Strains were first tested for the production of streptococcal serum-opacity factor and, among those scored as OF-negative, the presence was then verified of M types which have been epidemiologically related to rheumatic fever. Members of ≪rheumatogenic≫ M types are present among strains causing pharyngitis in children; which, however, also include a considerable proportion of OF-positive, probably non-rheumatogenic, strains. The results are discussed in the light of the low incidence of rheumatic fever in this country.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of epidemiology 1 (1985), S. 54-61 
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Keywords: Mould allergy ; House dust mites ; Mouldy odours ; Xerophilic fungi ; Mycotoxins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The occurrence of saprophytic moulds in indoor environments and their potential hazards to human health are discussed. In addition to mesophilic species, xerophilic moulds appear to be common, often developing together with mites. Allergic and non-allergic symptoms are reported when patients are exposed to moulds in homes, schools and working places. Airconditioning systems are consistently involved with mould development. Complaints of eye-, nose- and throat-irritation as well as fatigue seem to be correlated with unpleasant odours produced by abundant mould growth, but the relationship between the symptoms and the odours is not understood. The role of air-borne mycotoxins is discussed. Methods to detect moulds in indoor environments are described. Because no single method or cultivation medium is sufficient to detect all the various indoor moulds, a combination of air sampling, direct microscopic examination and cultivation on both standard and low water activity media is recommended.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Keywords: Maternal epilepsy ; Birth defects ; Valproic acid ; Spina bifida ; Anticonvulsant drugs
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A case control study on the association between maternal epilepsy, anticonvulsants use during pregnancy and birth defects was carried out in the Italian Multicentric Registry of Birth Defects (IPIMC). In the period 1980–1983, 7,607 malformed babies out of 439,717 total births (still+live) were registered. Fourtyone malformed babies with maternal epilepsy were identified (5.39×1,000). The overall relative risk of having a malformed baby among pregnant epileptic women was 1.87. Spina Bifida, Congenital Heart Defects, Clefts, Diaphragmatic Hernia and Trisomy 18 were more frequent than expected among babies with maternal epilepsy. The different therapeutic regimens were also tested to identify the possible independent teratogenic effect of anticonvulsants. A statistically significant association between Spina Bifida and Valproic Acid (odds ratio 22.7; Fisher p value = 0.0364) was observed: no other anticonvulsant tested showed any association with any type of malformation.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of epidemiology 1 (1985), S. 76-76 
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Keywords: Neisseria gonorrhoeae ; Auxotyping ; Antibiotic susceptibility ; Serogrouping
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Seven hundred and seventy nine isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from the County of Avon, United Kingdom, were examined by auxotyping and penicillin susceptibility testing. Prototrophic strains which were heterogeneous as judge by penicillin susceptibility were the most commonly isolated and increased in prevalence over The three year period. The group most generally susceptible to penicillin required ArgHypUra for growth and decreased in prevalence over the three year period. Ten strains failed to grow on the auxotyping medium. Serogrouping was undertaken on 408 isolates. All strains reacting with the WI reagents were ArgHypUra requiring. However auxotypically similar strains (Arg°-HypUra) reacted with WII/WIII reagents suggesting a distinct and separately evolved group. Twenty four strains did not type with the Serogrouping reagents. Using contact pairs, W-class serology was found to be a stable marker during natural transmission. However auxotypes were found to be unstable in 22 of 104 contact pairs and of these 18 involved a single requirement for proline. This very high incidence of instability with respect to this marker means it is not possible to reliably differentiate between the prototrophic group and the group with a single requirement for proline.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Keywords: Diabetes ; Reovirus ; Mumps ; Measles ; Viral antibodies
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Type 1 diabetes mellitus is thought to derive from organ-specific autoimmune reactions, probably triggered by environmental factors. In view of the possible involvement of mumps virus and reoviruses in the pathogenesis of autoimmune endocrine disease, serum antibody levels to these viruses were measured in newly-diagnosed diabetic patients aged 5 to 25 years and in matched control subjects. Diabetic patients showed a significantly lower prevalence and reduced titers of antibodies to mumps and reoviruses. By contrast, the antibody response to measles virus (a non-diabetogenic agent) was remarkably similar in the two groups. It is suggested that individuals with an impaired humoral response to some viral agents are at increased risk of developing diabetes when exposed to pancreotropic viruses.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Keywords: Chlamydial antibody ; Genital infection ; Pregnancy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In this matched-pair study 139 pregnant women were matched on the basis of age to an equal number of non-pregnant women with no signs of genital infection. The mean age was 28.7 years (range 20–41). The cut-offs used for detection of chlamydial antibody were 1:64 and 1:128 for IgG and 1:16 for IgA. IgG antibody at 64 was detected in 37.4% of pregnant women, compared to 46% of controls (p=0.145). There was, however, a statistically significant difference between the groups for IgG at 128 (gravidae=15.8%; controls=28%;p=0.014). IgA were detected in 8.6% and 16.5% of subjects, respectively (p=0.047). IgG levels did not vary with increasing age among the pregnant women, but rose significantly with age in non-pregnant controls (logistic regressionp-values=0.011 and 0.006, for IgG at 64 and 128, respectively). IgG-positive women in the control group tended to be older than pregnant IgG-positive women (p=0.06). These differences could not be explained by marital status, parity or use of oral contraceptives. In view of the lack of epidemiological differences, biological explanations might be invoked.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Keywords: Children ; Clinical features ; Drug-resistant ; Epidemiological profiles ; Salmonella typhi ; Typhoid fever
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A total of 592 children with clinical diagnosis of typhoid fever admitted to the Dr B. C. Roy Memorial Hospital for Children, Calcutta, India during the period between February 1990 and January 1992, were screened forSalmonella typhi by blood culture.S. typhi was isolated from 221 (37.3%) cases. The majority of the strains (92.3%) showed multi-drug resistant (MDR). They were resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. However, all the strains were uniformly (100%) susceptible to gentamicin, amikacin, furazolidone, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the antimicrobial agents against the resistant strains ofS. typhi ranged between 200 and >1600 µg/ml. Phage type 0 was most frequently encountered. The rate of isolation ofS. typhi was more or less the same in all the pediatric age groups. The majority of the cases came from lower socio-economic classes with poor personal hygiene. Fever was the main presenting feature in all the cases. Other associated features of the MDR typhoid fever cases, who were uncomplicated during admission, were headache (36.0%), chill and rigor (23.2%), diarrhea (37.2%), anorexia (26.2%), vomiting (23.8%), cough (18.0%) and abdominal pain (19.8%). Hepatosplenomegaly was present in 42.4% cases. However, complications were less frequently encountered among the MDR typhoid fever cases who were uncomplicated during admission and treated as in-patients. Fourteen bacteriologically-confirmed MDR typhoid fever cases had jaundice and another 18 cases had an abnormal state of consciousness during admission. Four (2.0%) bacteriologically-confirmed MDR typhoid fever patients died during the period of observation.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Keywords: Bias ; Community-acquired infection ; Misclassification ; Nosocomial infection ; Risk factors
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective: To analyze the relationship between presentation with a community-acquired infection (CAI) and the risk of subsequent nosocomial infection, and the assessment of a likely diagnostic bias in this association.Design: A prospective cohort study. APACHE II and TISS were used to assess severity and therapeutic intensity, respectively. Nosocomial infection (NI) was diagnosed according to SENIC and CDC diagnostic criteria. The relative risk and its 95% confidence interval were estimated.Setting: The intensive care unit (ICU) of the University of Granada Hospital (Spain). It is a ten-bed multidisciplinary unit.Patients: 448 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) between December-1986 and April-1988 who stayed at the ICU for at least 24 hours were included in the study.Results: The crude analysis suggests that CAI may prevent NI. When data were stratified by other variables a previous infection acted as a preventive factor in patients admitted to the ICU from emergency room, in patients with lower severity level and in those with shorter stay lengths at ICU. Patients with a CAI showed higher severity; they were treated more aggressively, they had a longer stay at ICU before a NI was diagnosed and they remained at ICU longer. In multivariate analysis the NI risk in patients with a CAI compared with those not infected previously and controlling for other variables was of 0.36.Conclusion: The presence of a CAI may introduce a differential information bias in the study of NI.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Keywords: Acute respiratory infection (ARI) ; Diarrhoea ; Malnutrition ; Vitamin A
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To determine the effect of a massive single oral dose of Vitamin A (200,000 IU) supplementation on diarrhoea and acute respiratory infection (ARI), a double blind placebo controlled trial involving 174 children under six years of age (excluding infants) was carried out in a Calcutta slum community. Ninety-one children received vitamin A supplementation (experimental group) and 83 children received a placebo (control group). All the children were followed up for six months by active fortnightly surveillance for occurrence of diarrhoea or ARI and their duration. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of diarrhoeal episodes or ARI. However, there was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the average duration of diarrhoea per episode (2.1 vs. 3 days) between the experimental and control groups. Possible beneficial effects of a single oral dose of vitamin A supplementation on the incidence of diarrhoea and ARI could not be demonstrated in the present study.
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