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    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; THERAPY ; DENSITY ; COHORT ; HISTORY ; RISK ; FAMILY ; ASSOCIATION ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; TRIAL ; family history ; WOMEN ; HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY ; cancer risk ; MAMMOGRAPHY ; case-control studies ; case-control study ; population-based case-control study ; HORMONE-REPLACEMENT THERAPY ; case control studies ; INTERVAL ; SCREEN ; FAMILY-HISTORY ; ESTROGEN PLUS PROGESTIN ; HEALTHY POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; breast cancer risks ; family history of cancer ; HRT USE ; risk-modifying factors
    Abstract: Objectives: Hormone-replacement therapy (HRT) is an established risk factor for breast cancer. HRT users are different from non-users with respect to socio-economic and other characteristics. There may be women where the HRT-related risk could be modulated by other factors. Methods: We conducted a population-based case-control study with 688 breast cancer cases and 724 controls to characterize HRT users and to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for HRT use and potentially risk modifying factors. Results: In women aged 50 years and older, 58% of controls and 61% of cases ever used HRT. Among women in natural menopause, HRT use for 10 years and more years was associated with an increased breast cancer risk (OR 1.79, 95% CI, 1.12-2.87), but not among women in surgical menopause (OR 0.61, 95% CI, 0.09-4.17). In the subgroup of women with a positive family history of breast cancer, each year of HRT use increased the risk by 1.22 (95% CI, 1.02-1.47). Another subgroup comprised women with at least 10 diagnostic mammograms (OR 4.04, 95% CI, 1.10-14.81 for using HRT 10 or more years). Conclusions: Long-term HRT use was associated with a breast cancer risk in women with natural menopause. Our findings suggest that this risk may be increased in women with a positive family history of breast cancer and in women who received frequent diagnostic mammographic screens
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16151884
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; TOOL ; DISEASE ; DISEASES ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; TIME ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; HUMANS ; AGE ; WOMEN ; case-control studies ; body mass index ; QUESTIONNAIRE ; questionnaires ; INTERVIEW ; breast neoplasms ; exercise ; physical activity ; ADULT ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; LEVEL ; technique ; female ; UNIT ; cancer research ; Aged ; Middle Aged ; AGREEMENT ; retrospective ; Retrospective Studies ; Interviews ; Physical Fitness ; Random Allocation ; telephone
    Abstract: Physical activity (PA) is discussed as a preventive factor for many chronic diseases. Thus, in epidemiological studies it often is an important covariate. Due to frequently long latency periods, long-term PA in the past is of greater interest than current PA. However, there is a lack of retrospective questionnaires that are validated for long-term PA, including occupational, household, and leisure activities. We therefore evaluated a short questionnaire for the comprehensive assessment of usual PA in distant age periods, administered with cognitive interviewing techniques. From an ongoing study on postmenopausal breast cancer 110 cases and 101 controls, age 50-74 years, were randomly selected. Our questionnaire was administered in a telephone interview more than two months after the main study interview, which included a detailed questionnaire on PA performed in the age periods 30-49 years and 50+ years. Total PA scores were derived from both interviews as MET-hours per week. Degree of agreement was assessed using Bland-Altman analyses. Further, potential sources of systematic and random error were investigated. The mean difference between both questionnaires was 3 MET hours/week, and 53.6% of absolute differences were below 35 MET hours/week, i.e. showing good agreement. Further 28.9% of differences could be considered acceptable agreement. Measurement errors seem to be non-differential with respect to cancer status. The median interviewing time was 10 min. Overall, this short questionnaire appears to be a useful and valid tool to distinguish between high and low levels of women's physical activity in the distant past
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17004027
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; DIAGNOSIS ; COHORT ; cohort study ; DISEASE ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; HISTORY ; RISK ; meningioma ; ASSOCIATION ; POLYMORPHISMS ; HEALTH ; AGE ; etiology ; NETHERLANDS ; case-control studies ; SELECTION ; asthma ; ATOPY ; case control study ; case-control study ; MEDICAL HISTORY ; GLIOMA ; allergy ; brain tumour ; PRIMARY BRAIN-TUMORS ; hay fever ; LONG ; PHASE ; epilepsy ; ONSET ; population-based ; GLIOBLASTOMA ; ADULT GLIOMA ; SELECTION BIAS ; reporting ; ECZEMA ; INTERPHONE-STUDY-GROUP
    Abstract: The aim of the present analysis was to examine the association of a medical history of asthma, hay fever, eczema, or epilepsy with the risk of glioma and meningioma. Data of a German population-based case-control study included 381 meningioma cases, 366 glioma cases, and 1,494 controls. Participants' histories of asthma, hay fever, eczema, and epilepsy and the respective ages at onset were asked during a personal interview. A small inverse association between allergic condition and both glioma (odds ratio: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.70-1.22) and meningioma (odd ratio: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.66-1.14) was found. For glioma, this inverse association was more pronounced in persons reporting to have asthma compared to other allergic conditions. The positive association between epilepsy and particularly glioma suggests that epilepsy is an early symptom of the disease. As the association was seen also for epilepsies occurring more than a decade before the diagnosis of glioma, this might indicate either an aetiological role of epilepsy, or a relatively long preclinical phase. In conclusion our study confirms previous findings of case control studies but not those from cohort studies. However, possible selection bias in case control studies might not explain the different results in its entirety
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
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  • 5
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; EXPOSURE ; HISTORY ; POPULATION ; RISK ; WORKERS ; validation ; HEALTH ; NETHERLANDS ; SAFETY ; case-control studies ; sensitivity ; specificity ; VALIDITY ; case control study ; case-control study ; regulation ; RECALL ; bias ; AGREEMENT ; recall bias ; acoustic neuroma ; INVESTIGATE ; NOISE ; Data validity ; INTERPHONE ; Interphone study ; Job exposure matrix ; Occupational noise exposure ; PHONE USE
    Abstract: In all epidemiological studies the validity of self-reported questionnaire data is an important issue as the exposure assessment based on such data is a major source of bias in the risk estimation. A validation study was conducted based on a case-control study including 94 acoustic neuroma cases and 191 matched controls from the German Interphone Study to investigate the level of agreement between self-reported occupational noise exposure and a job-exposure-matrix (JEM) on noise exposure derived from a lifetime occupation calendar. The JEM was generated based on measurement data collected in the literature for various occupations. Level of agreement was investigated by using sensitivity, specificity, kappa coefficient and the Youden-Index. The receiver operating characteristics curve yielded an optimal cut point of 80 decibel(Acoustic) (dB(A)) to dichotomize noise exposure, displaying a moderate agreement between self-reported exposure and the JEM-based exposure (kappa of 0.53) that was slightly higher for cases than controls (kappas of 0.62 and 0.48). The agreement was only slightly lower if the longest held job or the last held job were used instead of the loudest job of the lifetime job history. The cut point of 80 dB(A) corresponds with regulations for workers safety with a recommendation to wear noise protection. The good levels of agreement between self-reported high occupational noise exposure compared with JEM-data, together with no substantial differences between cases and controls, suggest that self-reported data on occupational noise exposure is a valid exposure metric. Noise exposure appears to be appropriate if only exposure information on the last or the longest held job is available
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19543796
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; POPULATION ; TRIAL ; MUCOSA ; SEQUELAE ; HELICOBACTER-PYLORI INFECTION ; LONG ; ULCER ; OMEPRAZOLE ; REFLUX DISEASE
    Abstract: Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is an important precursor lesion of intestinal gastric cancer. As it is typically asymptomatic, epidemiological data on the incidence of CAG are sparse. We aimed to provide an overview of published data on CAG incidence (overall and according to risk factors) from follow-up studies. Articles with information on incidence of CAG published in English until 26th of July 2009 were identified through a systematic MEDLINE and EMBASE search. Data extracted include study characteristics and key findings regarding the incidence of CAG. A meta-analysis was performed on the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and CAG incidence. Overall, data on CAG incidence were available from 14 studies, in 7 studies incidence could be estimated according to H. pylori infection. Most studies were conducted in symptomatic or high risk populations and the maximum number of incident cases was 284. Incidence estimates ranged from 0 to 11% per year and were consistently below 1% in patients not infected with H. pylori. The highest incidence was observed in a special study conducted on ulcer patients treated by proximal gastric vagotomy. Rate ratios for the association between H. pylori infection and CAG incidence ranged from 2.4 to 7.6 with a summary estimate of 5.0 (95% confidence interval: 3.1-8.3). Incidence of CAG is very low in the absence of H. pylori infection. There is a need for more population-based studies to provide comparable estimates of incidence and the impact of risk factors in the development of CAG.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20585973
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  • 7
    Keywords: COHORT ; POPULATION ; POLYMORPHISMS ; HEALTH ; DIET ; TOBACCO ; exercise ; UPPER AERODIGESTIVE TRACT ; METAANALYSIS
    Abstract: Increasing evidence suggests that physical activity could prevent cancer, but scanty data is available on head and neck cancer (HNC). The aim of our study is to clarify the effect of recreational physical activity (rPA) on HNC. We analyzed data from four case-control studies, including 2,289 HNC cases and 5,580 controls. rPA was classified as: none/low (reference group), moderate and high. We calculated summary Odds Ratios (ORs) by pooling study-specific ORs. Overall, moderate rPA was associated with 22% lower risk of HNC compared to those with none or very low rPA levels [OR = 0.78, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 0.66, 0.91]. Moderate rPA is associated with reduced risk of oral (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.97) and pharyngeal cancer (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.53, 0.85), as well as high rPA levels (OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.32, 0.88 for oral cavity, OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.38, 0.89 for pharynx). High rPA levels, however, is associated with higher risk of laryngeal cancer (OR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.88). Stratified analyses showed that such inverse association between moderate rPA and HNC was more evident among males (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.62, 0.90), subjects a parts per thousand yen45 years (OR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.66, 0.93), and ever smokers and ever drinkers (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.88). High rPA significantly reduces HNC risk among subject a parts per thousand yen45 years (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.48, 0.91). Promoting rPA might be inversely associated with HNC.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21842237
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    Keywords: SURVIVAL ; POPULATION ; PATTERNS ; HEALTH ; nutrition ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; METAANALYSIS ; RECTAL CANCERS ; ADHERENCE ; EPIC cohort
    Abstract: The authors investigated the association of adherence to Mediterranean diet with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition study. Adherence to Mediterranean diet was expressed through two 10-unit scales, the Modified Mediterranean diet score (MMDS) and the Centre-Specific MMDS (CSMMDS). Both scales share the same dietary components but differ in the cut-off values that were used for these components in the construction of the scales. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for the associations of these scales with CRC incidence were estimated. After 5,296,617 person-years of follow-up, 4,355 incident CRC cases were identified. A decreased risk of CRC, of 8 and 11 % was estimated when comparing the highest (scores 6-9) with the lowest (scores 0-3) adherence to CSMMDS and MMDS respectively. For MMDS the HR was 0.89 (95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.80, 0.99). A 2-unit increment in either Mediterranean scale was associated with a borderline statistically significant 3 to 4 % reduction in CRC risk (HR for MMDS: 0.96; 95 % CI: 0.92, 1.00). These associations were somewhat more evident, among women, were mainly manifested for colon cancer risk and their magnitude was not altered when alcohol was excluded from MMDS. These findings suggest that following a Mediterranean diet may have a modest beneficial effect on CRC risk.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23579425
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  • 10
    Keywords: AGE ; TRENDS ; CONSERVING SURGERY ; Mastectomy ; HYSTERECTOMY
    Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the association between the introduction of the nationwide mammography screening program (MSP) and breast cancer surgery rates in Germany 2005-2009. We used nationwide DRG hospitalization files (2005-2009) and analyzed surgery rates for the treatment of invasive and in situ breast cancer in Germany. We used actual numbers of screened women to model the influence of the introduction of the MSP on surgery rates. During 2005 through 2009, the rate of breast-conserving surgery for invasive and in situ breast cancer increased among all age groups. However, rate increases for invasive and in situ breast surgery were largest among women aged 50-69 years (invasive: rate difference [per 100,000] 95.1, 95 % CI 90.7; 99.5; in situ: rate difference 34.4, 95 % CI 32.6; 36.2). Mastectomy rates generally showed little change over time. Conditional on a 70 % participation in the MSP, our model predicts that the estimated increase of mastectomy rates for invasive and in situ breast cancer among women aged 50-69 years during the introductory phase of the MSP would be 4.2 (95 % CI -0.2; 8.6) and 6.1 per 100,000 (95 % CI 5.0; 7.1), respectively. The introduction of the nationwide MSP shows markedly rising rates of breast conserving surgery for women aged 50-69 years with invasive and in situ breast cancer. This increase is expected as a consequence of the first screening round. The model-based estimate for the increase of mastectomy rates, assuming a 70 % MSP participation, is lower than the reported increases observed in MSP in other countries.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23775424
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