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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; BLOOD ; DISEASE ; RISK ; GENE ; PROTEIN ; SAMPLES ; PATIENT ; DNA ; FAMILY ; FREQUENCY ; BREAST ; BREAST-CANCER ; family history ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; WOMEN ; MUTATION ; MUTATIONS ; PREVALENCE ; BRCA1/2 ; BRCA2 MUTATIONS ; early-onset breast cancer ; German population ; germline mutations ; POPULATION-BASED SAMPLE
    Abstract: This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations in 91 German patients unselected for family history, who were diagnosed with breast cancer before the age of 41 years. Clinical information and blood samples were obtained from all patients. A comprehensive BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutational analysis was performed using the protein truncation assay and single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis followed by DNA sequencing of variant signals detected by these assays. Five different deleterious germline mutations including four frameshift mutations and one missense mutation were identified, three in BRCA1 (3.3%) and two mutations (2.2%) in BRCA2. Both BRCA2 mutations are novel and might be specific for the German population. An additional BRCA1 missense mutation previously described and classified as an unknown variant was found. This mutation was also detected in two breast cancer patients of family P 328 and not in 140 healthy controls suggesting that it is disease associated. In addition, one common polymorphism and five novel intronic sequence variants with unknown significance were found. Our findings show that mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 may contribute similarly to early-onset breast cancer in Germany. Given current constraints on health-care resources, these results support the notion that BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation screening may have the strongest impact on health-care when targeted to high- risk populations
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12774040
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; human ; RISK ; SWEDEN ; POPULATIONS ; SPOUSES ; LANGUAGE
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12673273
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  • 3
    Keywords: human ; GENE ; GENES ; GENOME ; COMPLEX ; COMPLEXES ; FAMILY ; BIOLOGY ; ASSOCIATION ; LINKAGE ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; SUSCEPTIBILITY LOCUS ; VARIANTS ; genetics ; SNP ; REGION ; heredity ; FAMILIES ; VARIANT ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; SNPs ; autism ; LOCUS ; single-nucleotide ; single-nucleotide polymorphism ; CANDIDATE ; E ; TRANSMISSION ; SCANS ; chromosome 2q ; CHROMOSOME-2 ; CMYA3 ; DISEQUILIBRIUM ; SLC25A12
    Abstract: Autism is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder with a complex genetic predisposition. Linkage findings from several genome scans suggest the presence of an autism susceptibility locus on chromosome 2q24-q33, making this region the focus of candidate gene and association studies. Recently, significant association with autism has been reported for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SLC25A12 and CMYA3 genes on chromosome 2q. We attempted to replicate these findings in the collection of families from the International Molecular Genetic Study of Autism Consortium (IMGSAC), using the transmission disequilibrium test and case-control comparison. Our study failed to reveal any significant association for the SNPs tested at either locus, suggesting that these variants are unlikely to play a major role in genetic susceptibility to autism in our sample
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16205742
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  • 4
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    Keywords: SPECTRA ; Germany ; DISTINCT ; GENE ; GENES ; GENOME ; COMPLEX ; COMPLEXES ; ASSOCIATION ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; SUSCEPTIBILITY LOCUS ; genetics ; CHROMOSOME 7Q ; PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS ; DISORDERS ; CANDIDATE GENES ; autism ; function ; LINKAGE-DISEQUILIBRIUM ; COMPULSIVE BEHAVIORS ; GENOME-WIDE SCAN ; NEUROLIGIN GENES ; REELIN GENE ; SAVANT SKILLS ; SEROTONIN TRANSPORTER ; susceptibility loci ; whole-genome screens
    Abstract: Autism is a highly heritable complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by distinct impairments of cognitive function in the field of social interaction and speech development. Different approaches have been undertaken worldwide to identify susceptibility loci or genes for autism spectrum disorders. No clear conclusions can be made today about genetic loci involved in these disorders. The review will focus on relevant results from the last decade of research with emphasis on whole genome screens and association studies
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16721407
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  • 5
    Keywords: CANCER ; GROWTH ; GROWTH-FACTOR ; CELL ; Germany ; SUPPORT ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; POPULATION ; RISK ; SAMPLE ; TISSUE ; INFECTION ; CARCINOGENESIS ; GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS ; BIOMARKERS ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; REPAIR ; REDUCED RISK ; cancer risk ; genetic polymorphism ; GASTRIC-CANCER ; HELICOBACTER-PYLORI ; TP53 ; review ; CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY ; gastric cancer ; METAANALYSIS ; LEVEL ; biomarker ; RISK STRATIFICATION ; GENETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY ; INCREASED RISK ; cancer research ; CANCER-RISK ; Sample Size ; DIVISION ; GROWTH-FACTORS ; growth factor ; Genetic ; WELL ; Lifestyle factors
    Abstract: Apart from Helicobacter pylori infection and lifestyle factors, host genetic susceptibility has been suggested to contribute to individual variation in gastric cancer risk as well. Aiming to evaluate the associations between host cell proliferation-related genetic polymorphisms and gastric cancer susceptibility, we reviewed the related studies published until 15 September 2008 and quantitatively summarized the associations of the most widely studied polymorphisms (TP53 Arg72Pro, L-myc EcoRI) using meta-analysis. Fifty-five eligible studies were included in this review. Twenty-three polymorphisms significantly related to gastric cancer risk in at least one study were identified. Polymorphisms determining higher levels of growth factors, which are important for tissue repair, were recently observed to be associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer. In the meta-analysis, TP53 72Pro was associated with increased risk of diffuse gastric cancer among Asians (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.04-1.99), but decreased risk of intestinal gastric cancer among Caucasians (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.36-0.89). This review suggests that cell proliferation-related genetic polymorphisms could be candidate biomarkers of gastric cancer risk, but current evidence for the use for risk stratification is still very limited. Modestly significant associations in meta-analyses stratified by population or type of gastric cancer may be observed by chance because of the limited number of studies and small sample size. Larger studies are warranted to clarify the effect of cell proliferation-related genetic polymorphisms on gastric carcinogenesis.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19536170
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  • 6
    Keywords: GENES ; GENOME ; ASSOCIATION ; HEALTH ; PHENOTYPE ; ARCHITECTURE ; THORACIC AORTIC-ANEURYSMS ; CONNECTIVE-TISSUE ABNORMALITIES
    Abstract: Cervical artery dissection (CeAD) occurs in healthy young individuals and often entails ischemic stroke. Skin biopsies from most CeAD-patients show minor connective tissue alterations. We search for rare genetic deletions and duplication that may predispose to CeAD. Forty-nine non-traumatic CeAD-patients with electron microscopic (EM) alterations of their dermal connective tissue (EM+ patients) and 21 patients with normal connective tissue in skin biopsies (EM- patients) were analyzed. Affymetrix 6.0 microarrays (Affymetrix) from all patients were screened for copy number variants (CNVs). CNVs absent from 403 control subjects and from 2402 published disease-free individuals were considered as CeAD-associated. The genetic content of undentified CNVs was analyzed by means of the Gene Ontology (GO) Term Mapper to detect associations with biological processes. In 49 EM+ patients we identified 13 CeAD-associated CNVs harboring 83 protein-coding genes. In 21 EM- patients we found five CeAD-associated CNVs containing only nine genes (comparison of CNV gene density between the groups: Mann-Whitney P=0.039). Patients' CNVs were enriched for genes involved in extracellular matrix organization (COL5A2, COL3A1, SNTA1, P=0.035), collagen fibril organization COL5A2, COL3A1, (P=0.0001) and possibly for genes involved in transforming growth factor beta (TGF)-beta receptor signaling pathway (COL3A1, DUPS22, P=0.068). We conclude that rare genetic variants may contribute to the pathogenesis of CeAD, in particular in patients with a microscopic connective tissue phenotype.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 23 May 2012; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2012.82.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22617347
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  • 7
    Abstract: The presence of multiple (5-100) colorectal adenomas suggests an inherited predisposition, but the genetic aetiology of this phenotype is undetermined if patients test negative for Mendelian polyposis syndromes such as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP). We investigated whether 18 common colorectal cancer (CRC) predisposition single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could help to explain some cases with multiple adenomas who phenocopied FAP or MAP, but had no pathogenic APC or MUTYH variant. No multiple adenoma case had an outlying number of CRC SNP risk alleles, but multiple adenoma patients did have a significantly higher number of risk alleles than population controls (P=5.7 x 10-7). The association was stronger in those with 〉/=10 adenomas. The CRC SNPs accounted for 4.3% of the variation in multiple adenoma risk, with three SNPs (rs6983267, rs10795668, rs3802842) explaining 3.0% of the variation. In FAP patients, the CRC risk score did not differ significantly from the controls, as we expected given the overwhelming effect of pathogenic germline APC variants on the phenotype of these cases. More unexpectedly, we found no evidence that the CRC SNPs act as modifier genes for the number of colorectal adenomas in FAP patients. In conclusion, common colorectal tumour risk alleles contribute to the development of multiple adenomas in patients without pathogenic germline APC or MUTYH variants. This phenotype may have 'polygenic' or monogenic origins. The risk of CRC in relatives of multiple adenoma cases is probably much lower for cases with polygenic disease, and this should be taken into account when counselling such patients.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 7 May 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.74.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24801760
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  • 8
    Abstract: Congenital cataract (CC) is one of the most important causes for blindness or visual impairment in infancy. A substantial proportion of isolated CCs has monogenic causes. The disease is genetically heterogeneous, and all Mendelian modes of inheritance have been reported. We mapped a locus for isolated CC on 19p13.1-q13.2 in a distantly consanguineous German family with two sisters affected by dense white cataracts. Whole-exome sequencing identified a homozygous nonsense variant c.4489C〉T (p.(R1497*)) in SIPA1L3 (signal-induced proliferation-associated 1 like 3) in both affected children. SIPA1L3 encodes a GTPase-activating protein (GAP), which interacts with small GTPases of the Rap family via its Rap-GAP-domain. The suggested role of Rap GTPases in cell growth, differentiation and organization of the cytoskeleton in the human lens, and lens-enriched expression of the murine ortholog gene Sipa1l3 in embryonic mice indicates that this gene is crucial for early lens development. Our results provide evidence that sequence variants in human SIPA1L3 cause autosomal recessive isolated CC and give new insight into the molecular pathogenesis underlying human cataracts.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25804400
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  • 9
    Keywords: DISEASE ; RISK ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; FAMILY-CANCER DATABASE ; COMPLEX TRAITS ; GENETIC-VARIATION ; WIDE ASSOCIATION ; MISSING HERITABILITY ; COMMON SNPS ; THRESHOLD-MODEL
    Abstract: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influencing the risk of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) and demonstrated the association of common genetic variation for this type of cancer. Such evidence for inherited genetic risk is also provided by the family history and the very high concordance between monozygotic twins. However, little is known about the genetic and environmental contributions. A common measure for describing the phenotypic variation due to genetics is the heritability. Using GWAS data on 906 HL cases by considering all typed SNPs simultaneously, we have calculated that the common variance explained by SNPs accounts for 〉35% of the total variation on the liability scale in HL (95% confidence interval 6-62%). These findings are consistent with similar heritability estimates of approximately 0.40 (95% confidence interval 0.17-0.58) based on Swedish population data. Our estimates support the underlying polygenic basis for susceptibility to HL, and show that heritability based on the population data is somehow larger than heritability based on the genomic data because of the possibility of some missing heritability in the GWAS data. Besides that there is still major evidence for multiple loci causing HL on chromosomes other than chromosome 6 that need to be detected. Because of limited findings in prior GWASs, it seems worth checking for more loci causing susceptibility to HL.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 17 September 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.184.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25227146
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  • 10
    Keywords: 16P11.2, ASSOCIATION, autism, BIOLOGY, CHROMOSOMES, CNV, COPY-NUMBER VARIATION, DISORDER, DUPLICATIO
    Abstract: Autism and mental retardation (MR) show high rates of comorbidity and potentially share genetic risk factors. In this study, a rare similar to 2Mb microdeletion involving chromosome band 15q13.3 was detected in a multiplex autism family. This genomic loss lies between distal break points of the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome locus and was first described in association with MR and epilepsy. Together with recent studies that have also implicated this genomic imbalance in schizophrenia, our data indicate that this CNV shows considerable phenotypic variability. Further studies should aim to characterise the precise phenotypic range of this CNV and may lead to the discovery of genetic or environmental modifiers
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19050728
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