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  • 1
    Keywords: MODEL ; MODELS ; NUCLEAR-MEDICINE ; TIME ; pharmacokinetic ; nuclear medicine ; Monte Carlo ; MONTE-CARLO
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1619-7089
    Keywords: Key words: Renography ; Renal transplantation ; Technetium-99m mercaptylacetyltriglycine ; Graft function
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Radionuclide renal diagnostic studies play an important role in assessing renal allograft function, especially in the early post-transplant period. In the past two decades various quantitative parameters have been derived from the radionuclide renogram to evaluate changes in perfusion and/or function of the kidney allograft. In this review article we discuss the quantitative parameters that have been used to assess graft condition, with emphasis on the early postoperative period. These quantitative methods are divided into parameters used for assessing renal graft perfusion and parameters used for evaluating parenchymal function. The blood flow in renal transplants can be quantified (a) by measuring the rate of activity appearance in the kidney graft, (b) by calculating the ratio of the integral activity under the transplanted kidney and arterial curves and (c) by calculating the renal vascular transit time. In this article we review a number of parenchymal uptake and excretion indices, such as the accumulation index, the graft uptake capacity at 2 and 10 min, the excretion index and the elimination index. The literature on these parameters shows that they have some practical disadvantages. In addition, values suffer from significant overlap when various graft pathologies coexist. A retrospective study was designed in our institution to evaluate the clinical usefulness of some of the frequently used previously published methods in which the graft function is quantitatively assessed in the early post-transplant period. The quantitative parameters studied which were reasonably reproducible in our hands included: global perfusion index (GPI), cortical perfusion index (CPI), vascular transit time, and the parenchymal parameters uptake capacity at 2 min (UC2) and elimination index (K3/20). The patient population in this study consisted of 43 patients with 157 technetium-99m mercaptylacetyltriglycine renograms. The perfusion indices GPI and CPI did not allow differentiation of the acute tubular necrosis (ATN) group from the acute rejection (AR) group; however, they were of value in monitoring the improvement in the condition of the graft dysfunction in both the AR and ATN groups. As for the parenchymal parameters, both UC2 and K3/20 were able to differentiate stable graft function (SGF) versus AR and ATN groups but were unable to separate AR from ATN dysfunction. The ability of these parenchymal parameters to detect improvement in the graft function was poor and statistically non-significant. From the literature data and our own findings it is concluded that radionuclide scintigraphy of renal transplants has assumed an important role, especially if performed serially, in monitoring graft function in the post-transplant period. Many quantitative parameters have been derived from the radionuclide renogram to evaluate changes in perfusion and/or function of the kidney allograft. It appears that these quantitative numerical values are unable to differentiate unequivocally between grafts with ATN and AR cases. The real value of these parameters lies in the follow-up of the dysfunction processes, which helps the clinician to determine the appropriate therapeutic regimen.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1619-7089
    Keywords: Key words: Technetium-99m Technegas ; Technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin ; Interstitial pulmonary disease ; Three-dimensional quantitative evaluation ; Single-photon emission tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. For quantitative evaluation of the regional lung function in patients with interstitial pulmonary disease (IP) in the sitting position, 99mTc-Technegas and 99mTc-macroaggregated albumin (MAA) single-photon emission tomography (SPET) studies were performed in 12 healthy controls (HC) and 42 IP patients. Four transverse images were prepared from the data obtained and designated as slices no. 1–4 from the top downward. Regions of interest (ROIs) were determined in the anterior and posterior parts of the lung in each slice, and the ratio of the count per voxel in the ROIs to the count in the entire lung was calculated as the regional Technegas index (T). The regional perfusion index (Q) was calculated by a similar procedure using the data of 99mTc-MAA SPET. The ratios between T and Q (T/Q) in the anterior and posterior regions of the lung, and the ratios of T and Q between the anterior and posterior regions of the lung (Tp/Ta and Qp/Qa) were examined. In the HC group, T/Q decreased but Tp/Ta and Qp/Qa increased from the upper to the lower lung fields. When IP patients were classified into (I) those in whom T/Q decreased from the upper to the lower lung fields, (II) those in whom it was similar in all slices, (III) those in whom it increased from slice 3 to slice 4, and (IV) those in whom it increased from slice 2 to slices 3 and 4, this classification was more closely correlated with %VC than with %DLCO or PaO2. When the patients were classified according to Tp/Ta and Qp/Qa into (A) those in whom the values were greater in the lower than the upper lung field, (B) those in whom the values were similar in all slices, and (C) those in whom the values were smaller in lower than in upper lung fields, categories B and C were observed frequently even in patients whose %VC was in the normal range. This method is considered to be an effective means to evaluate the progression and pathology of IP and to detect early impairment of lung function.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1619-7089
    Keywords: Key words: Technetium-99m diaminocyclohexane ; Cyclosporine nephrotoxicity ; Chromium-51 ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid ; Glomerular filtration rate ; Plasma clearance rate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Technetium-99m diaminocyclohexane (DACH) is a new tubular agent excreted via a cationic transport mechanism, like cyclosporine-A (CsA). It is expected that 99mTc-DACH will permit effective assessment of tubular function in CsA-treated patients. To establish the pharmacokinetic characteristics of 99mTc-DACH and to ascertain whether this new agent is useful in CsA-treated patients, 11 healthy volunteers and 15 CsA-treated patients underwent renal imaging and clearance studies using 99mTc-DACH and chromium-51 ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA). 99mTc-DACH yielded satisfactory dynamic renal images in all participants. The mean plasma clearance of 99mTc-DACH was significantly greater than that of 51Cr-EDTA in volunteers (109.4±19.7 ml/min versus 86.6±13.7 ml/min, P〈0.05). However, the urinary excretion of 99mTc-DACH at 90 min was significantly lower than that of 51Cr-EDTA (46.1%±9.3% versus 53.1%±8.6%, P〈0.05), most probably due to its partial parenchymal retention. The elimination half-life of 99mTc-DACH was significantly increased in CsA-treated patients in comparison to volunteers, and consequently the plasma clearance values were significantly suppressed in these patients, in contrast to 51Cr-EDTA and endogenous creatinine clearance values. In conclusion, our findings indicate that 99mTc-DACH, as a sensitive marker of cationic tubular function, could be used to monitor renal haemodynamics in patients receiving CsA treatment.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1619-7089
    Keywords: Key words: Iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine ; Myocardial scintigraphy ; Autonomic disorder ; Aldose reductase inhibitor ; Vitamin B12
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. This study was undertaken to examine the effects of aldose reductase inhibitor (ARI) and vitamin B12 (VB12) on myocardial uptake of iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) in patients with diabetic autonomic disorder. Myocardial scintigraphy using 123I-MIBG was performed on 20 healthy volunteers (controls) and 56 patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), in order to obtain the heart/mediastinum ratio in the initial (HMi) and the delayed images (HMd), and the washout rate (%WR). Thirty-four of the 56 NIDDM patients could be diagnosed as having diabetic autonomic disorder by evaluating their scintigraphic findings in comparison with the controls. Seventeen of these 34 patients received 150 mg/day of epalrestat (ARI group) in three divided doses before meals, and the other 17 received 1.5 mg/day of mecobalamin (VB12 group) in three divided doses after meals, for 3–5 months. According to the presence or absence of clinical symptoms of autonomic or peripheral somatic nerve disorder, the patients were subclassified into four groups. group 1=patients, with autonomic symptoms or somatosensory disorder in the ARI group; group 2=patients without autonomic symptoms or somatosensory disorder in the ARI group; group 3=patients with autonomic symptoms or somatosensory disorder in the VB12 group; and group 4=patients without autonomic symptoms or somatosensory disorder in the VB12 group. After completion of the treatment, myocardial scintigraphy was performed again. Comparing the results obtained before and after the treatment, it was seen that ARI improved only the HMi in group 1 (P=0.046), whereas VB12 significantly improved HMi in the group 3 (P=0.018) and HMi, HMd and %WR in group 4 (P=0.043, P=0.018 and P=0.043, respectively). We conclude that VB12 is more efficacious than ARI in the treatment of diabetic cardiovascular autonomic disorder.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1619-7089
    Keywords: Key words: STA-MCA bypass surgery ; Iodine-123 iodoamphetamine ; Brain single-photon emission tomography ; Acetazolamide ; Vasoreactivity ; Oxygen extraction fraction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Superficial temporal artery – middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass surgery might improve the cerebral blood flow (CBF) but fail to reduce the risk of post-surgical events such as ischaemic stroke. In this study, we studied retrospectively whether the risk of post-surgical events corresponded to the change in resting CBF and/or the change in vasoreactivity observed before and after STA-MCA surgery using N-isopropyl-I-123-p-iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP) brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET). 123I-IMP brain SPET images obtained at rest and following acetazolamide challenge both before and after STA-MCA surgery were studied in 30 patients. Resting CBF was estimated semiquantitatively using the resting count ratios of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) area to the cerebellum. Acetazolamide challenge was assumed to result in an average increase in flow of 40% in the cerebellum. The vasoreactive response was then estimated as the ratio of the change in counts (acetazolamide – rest) to the resting cerebellar counts multiplied by 1.4. We classified 14 patients (50.5±19.3 years) into group I, who had a change in their resting CBF from before to after surgery of 〉10%, and 16 patients (54.0±18.8 years) into group II, who had a change in their resting CBF from before to after surgery of ≤10%. Oxygen-15 positron emission tomography (PET) studies were performed in five patients from group I and five patients from group II. One post-surgical event occurred in group I while there were eight post-surgical events in group II (P〈0.05). Resting CBF improved by 20.4%±7.5% in group I and by 0.9%±6.9% in group II patients after surgery (P〈0.001). No significant difference in the improvement in vasoreactivity was observed between group I patients (32.6%±17.7%) and group II patients (24.6%±15.6%) following surgery. Patients in the group I PET subset showed normalization of oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) from 0.59±0.09 before surgery to 0.46±0.06 after surgery (P〈0.05), while patients in the group II PET subset showed no statistical difference in OEF before surgery (0.58±0.14) and after surgery (0.54± 0.05). We conclude that the outcome of STA-MCA bypass surgery can be predicted by the improvement in resting CBF but not by the improvement in vasoreactivity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1619-7089
    Keywords: Key words: Single-photon emission tomography ; Scatter correction ; Maximum likelihood reconstruction ; Monte Carlo simulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Definition of a simplified model of scatter which can be incorporated in maximum likelihood reconstruction for single-photon emission tomography (SPET) continues to be appealing; however, implementation must be efficient for it to be clinically applicable. In this paper an efficient algorithm for scatter estimation is described in which the spatial scatter distribution is implemented as a spatially invariant convolution for points of constant depth in tissue. The scatter estimate is weighted by a space-dependent build-up factor based on the measured attenuation in tissue. Monte Carlo simulation of a realistic thorax phantom was used to validate this approach. Further efficiency was introduced by estimating scatter once after a small number of iterations using the ordered subsets expectation maximisation (OSEM) reconstruction algorithm. The scatter estimate was incorporated as a constant term in subsequent iterations rather than modifying the scatter estimate each iteration. Monte Carlo simulation was used to demonstrate that the scatter estimate does not change significantly provided at least two iterations OSEM reconstruction, subset size 8, is used. Complete scatter-corrected reconstruction of 64 projections of 40×128 pixels was achieved in 38 min using a Sun Sparc20 computer.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1619-7089
    Keywords: Key words: Gliomas ; Tumour recurrence ; Radionecrosis - Technetium-99m sestamibi ; Brain single-photon emission tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Technetium-99m sestamibi (MIBI), an alternative radiopharmaceutical for myocardial perfusion imaging, has also been proposed for use as an imaging agent for various tumours, including breast cancer, lung cancer, lymphomas, melanomas and brain tumours. After routine radiation therapy, deteriorating clinical status or treatment failure may be due to either radiation-induced changes or recurrent tumour. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging offer imperfect discrimination of tumour viability and radionecrosis. Against this background we undertook a retrospective study of 35 malignant glioma patients in whom clinical deterioration had occurred, in order to clarify the value of 99mTc-MIBI SPET in identifying tumour recurrence. SPET was performed 15 min after intravenous injection of 1110 MBq 99mTc-MIBI. The images were obtained with a dual-headed gamma camera using a fan-beam collimator. Transverse, coronal and sagittal views were reconstructed. Intense MIBI uptake was found in 31 patients. This uptake was correlated with tumour recurrence as proved by histology and/or rapid, fatal evolution of these cases. The statistical analysis performed on this population of patients with MIBI uptake revealed a group of patients with a long mean survival and a group with a short mean survival. Two subgroups were found within each of these groups, according to the functional index ratio (tumour uptake/pituitary gland uptake ratio). No MIBI uptake was found in four patients who are still alive and can be considered to be disease-free. In those cases showing MIBI uptake, death occurred an average of 6.69 months following brain SPET. According to our results, the specificity and sensitivity of 99mTc-MIBI brain SPET seem to be high. Moreover, this technique is more accurate than computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging for discriminating between tumour recurrence and radionecrosis.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of nuclear medicine 25 (1998), S. 1687-1687 
    ISSN: 1619-7089
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1619-7089
    Keywords: Rhenium-188 ; Hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate ; Systemic radiotherapy ; Bone metastases ; Biodistribution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The search for an ideal radioisotope for systemic radiotherapy continues. As a generator-produced radioisotope emitting both beta and gamma rays and having a short physical half-life of 16.9 h, rhenium-188 is a very good potential candidate for systemic radiotherapy. In this study, we labeled hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate (HEDP) with188Re and analyzed the biodistribution and bone uptake following intravenous injection in rats to assess its potential for clinical use. The rats were injected with approximately 14.8 MBq (0.4 mCi)188Re-HEDP in a volume of 0.1 ml intravenously and then sacrificed at 1 h, 24 h, or 48 h (four rats at each time). Samples (about 0.1 g) of lung, liver, kidney, spleen, testis, muscle, stool, and bone (thoracic vertebra) were taken and weighed carefully. In addition, a 1-ml sample of blood was drawn from the heart and 1 ml of urine was taken from the urinary bladder immediately after killing. Tissue concentrations were calculated and expressed as percent injected dose per gram or per milliliter (% ID/g or ml). Bone lesions were created in the right tibial bone in three rabbits to calculate the lesion to normal uptake ratio (UN ratio). The biodistribution data showed that the radioactivity in the bone tissue was as high as 1.877% ID/g at 1 h and that it climbed to 2.017% ID/g at 4 h. The activity level in the kidney was highest at 1 h but declined rapidly throughout the study. The radioactivities in the lung, liver, muscle, spleen, testis, blood, and stool were all lower than 0.3% ID/g at I h and also declined rapidly. The biological half-life in bone was the longest (60.86 h). In contrast, the biological half-lives in muscle and blood were short (2.99 h and 6.21 h respectively). The concentrations of radioactivity in muscle, spleen, testis, and stool were quite low throughout the study. Most of the radiotracer was excreted by the urinary system. The L/N ratio was 4.23±0.21 in rabbits injected with188Re-HEDP and 4.25±0.23 in those injected with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate. In conclusion, we would suggest that188Re-HEDP is a very good potential candidate for the treatment of bone metastases because of the following characteristics: (1) it is generator produced; (2) it has a short half-life; (3) it emits gamma rays suitable for imaging; (4) there is highly selective uptake in the skeletal system and bone lesions; and (5) it has a low non-target uptake and rapid clearance in nonosseous tissue.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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