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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Vestibulo-ocular reflex ; Adaptation Neural integrator ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We investigated the effect of short-term vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) adaptation in normal human subjects on the dynamic properties of the velocity-to-position ocular motor integrator that holds positions of gaze. Subjects sat in a sinusoidally rotating chair surrounded by an optokinetic nystagmus drum. The movement of the visual surround (drum) was manipulated relative to the chair to produce an increase (× 1.7 viewing), decrease (× 0.5, × 0 viewing), or reversal (× (-2.5) viewing) of VOR gain. Before and after 1 h of training, VOR gain and gaze-holding after eccentric saccades in darkness were measured. Depending on the training paradigm, eccentric saccades could be followed by centrifugal drift (after × 0.5 viewing), implying an unstable integrator, or by centripetal drift [after × 1.7 or × (-2.5) viewing], implying a leaky integrator. The changes in the neural integrator appear to be context specific, so that when the VOR was tested in non-training head orientations, both the adaptive change in VOR gain and the changes in the neural integrator were much smaller. The changes in VOR gain were on the order of 10% and the induced drift velocities were several degrees per secend at 20 deg eccentric positions in the orbit. We propose that (1) the changes in the dynamic properties of the neural integrator reflect an attempt to modify the phase (timing) relationships of the VOR and (2) the relative directions of retinal slip and eye velocity during head rotation determine whether the integrator becomes unstable (and introduces more phase lag) or leaky (and introduces less phase lag).
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Motor unit ; Recruitment and decruitment threshold ; Muscle coordination Triceps brachii ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We studied motor-unit recruitment and decruitment thresholds in the three heads of the human elbow extensor, the triceps brachii muscle (caput mediale and laterale, both mono-articular heads, and caput longum, the bi-articular head) by means of intramuscular electromyographic-recordings. Two experiments were performed: an ‘isometric’ and a ‘movement’ experiment. In the isometric experiment, subjects were asked to increase the elbow extension torque isometrically to a specific level, keep the torque at the level for 10 s, and then decrease the torque again to zero. In the movement experimental subjects moved their forearm from 90° to 110° extension against an increasing flexion torque, kept the latter position for 10 s and then moved their forearm back while the torque decreased. Results for caput longum showed that recruitment thresholds were higher than decruitment thresholds, whereas in caput mediale and laterale no difference in thresholds was found. In caput longum recruitment thresholds were found to be lower in movement conditions than in isometric conditions. The reverse effect was observed in caput mediale, whereas no difference in recruitment thresholds was found in caput laterale. Our results point to a transfer of force from mono-articular muscles in isometric conditions to bi-articular muscles in movement conditions. A similar transfer is found when recruitment and decruitment are compared. This means that the transfer is not only a property of the elbow-flexor muscles, but is a more common trait. A qualitative analysis of firing frequencies at recruitment and at decruitment in both conditions supports our findings.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Voluntary movement ; Motor control Location programming ; Distance programming Equilibrium point hypothesis ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Predictions of two views on single-joint motor control, namely programming of muscle force patterns and equilibrium-point control, were compared with the results of experiments with reproduction of movement distance and final location during fast unidirectional elbow flexions. Two groups of subjects were tested. The first group practiced movements over a fixed distance (36°), starting from seven different initial positions (distance group, DG). The second group practiced movements from the same seven initial positions to a fixed final location (location group, LG). Later, all the subjects were tested at the practiced task with their eyes closed, and then, unexpectedly for the subjects, they were tested at the other, unpracticed task. In both groups, the task to reproduce final position had lower indices of final position variability than the task to reproduce movement distance. Analysis of the linear regression lines between initial position and final position (or movement distance) also demonstrated a better (more accurate) performance during final position reproduction than during distance reproduction. The data are in a good correspondence with the predictions of the equilibrium-point hypothesis, but not with the predictions of the force-pattern control approach.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Experimental brain research 100 (1994), S. 365-368 
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Perigeniculate nucleus ; Thalamic reticular nucleus ; IPSP ; Vision
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Feedback inhibition is generally believed to be a ubiquitous feature of brain circuitry, but few specific instances have been documented. An example in cats is the supposed feedback circuit involving relay cells of the lateral geniculate nucleus and cells of the perigeniculate nucleus (a part of the thalamic reticular nucleus): geniculate relay cells innervate the perigeniculate nucleus, which, in turn, provides an inhibitory, GABAergic projection back to the lateral geniculate nucleus. However, feedback inhibition at the single-cell level requires that a given perigeniculate cell project back onto the same geniculate relay cell that innervates it. We probed for this in an in vitro slice preparation of the cat's lateral geniculate nucleus. We evoked a single action potential in a geniculate cell via a brief, depolarizing pulse delivered through an intracellular recording electrode and looked for any evoked hyperpolarizations. For 6 of the 36 geniculate cells tested, we observed a long-lasting hyperpolarization after the action potential, and much of this was eliminated by application of bicuculline, suggesting synaptically activated inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. We interpreted this to be clear evidence that a given neuron may inhibit itself via circuitry mediating feedback inhibition in the cat's lateral geniculate nucleus.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Single units ; Head direction ; Behavior ; Neocortex ; Retrosplenial cortex
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We examined the behavioral modulation of head-directional information processing in neurons of the rat posterior cortices, including the medial prestriate (area Oc2M) and retrosplenial cortex (areas RSA and RSG). Single neurons were recorded in freely moving rats which were trained to perform a spatial working memory task on a radial-arm maze in a cue-controlled room. A dual-light-emitting diode (dual-LED) recording headstage, mounted on the animals' heads, was used to track head position and orientation. Planar modes of motion, such as turns, straight motion, and nonlocomotive states, were categorized using an objective scheme based upon the differential contributions of movement parameters, including linear and angular velocity of the head. Of 662 neurons recorded from the posterior cortices, 41 head-direction (HD) cells were identified based on the criterion of maintained directional bias in the absence of visual cues or in the dark. HD cells constituted 7 of 257 (2.7%) cells recorded in Oc2M, 26 of 311 (8.4%) cells in RSA, and 8 of 94 (8.5%) cells in RSG. Spatial tuning of HD cell firing was modulated by the animal's behaviors in some neurons. The behavioral modulation occurred either at the preferred direction or at all directions. Moreover, the behavioral selectivity was more robust for turns than straight motions, suggesting that the angular movements may significantly contribute to the head-directional processing. These behaviorally selective HD cells were observed most frequently in Oc2M (4/7, 57%), as only 5 of 26 (19%) of RSA cells and none of the RSG cells showed behavioral modulation. These data, taken together with the anatomical evidence for a cascade of projections from Oc2M to RSA and thence to RSG, suggest that there may be a simple association between movement and head-directionality that serves to transform the egocentric movement representation in the neocortex into an allocentric directional representation in the periallocortex.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Single units ; Vision ; Ideothetic cue ; Head direction ; Spatial navigation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This study investigated the effects of visual and ideothetica cues on the spatial tuning of head-direction (HD) cells recorded in the rat posterior cortices. Extracellular, single unit responses were recorded from animals performing each of two different tasks, a spatial working memory task on a radial-arm maze and a passive rotation task on a modified “lazy Susan” platform. The influence of visual cues was assessed by manipulating the position of one white and three black cue-cards placed around the maze. We found three major categories of HD cells based on their response to cue manipulations in the maze tasks. Type A cells (10/41) rotated their preferred directions along with the rotation of the cues. The majority (type B, 25/41) of the HD cells were unaffected by the rotation of visual cues, maintaining their established preferred direction. Type C cells (6/41) showed complex responses to cue rotation, with the preferred direction reflecting either a combination of both type A and type B responses or an unpredictable response. The results indicate that the internal representation of directionality can be calibrated by visual cues and that some mnemonic processes may have been involved in the registration of the previous cue locations. Eleven cells were tested in both the maze task and the passive rotation task. Most (9/11) showed a significant directionality in the former task, but showed either no or weak directionality in the latter task, suggesting that movement-related ideothetic cues may be used in supporting the directional firing of these cells. Only two cells showed significant directionality in both tasks. Their established preferred directions did not rotate along with the cues in the maze task, but did rotate with the cues in the passive rotation task. We conclude that the dynamic aspect of the directional tuning in these cortical HD cells may represent on-line calibration of an angular coordinate representation.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Spinal cord ; Synaptic transmission ; GABAB receptors ; Baclofen agonists and antagonists ; Rat ; Cat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The actions of a series of derivatives of 3-aminopropyl-phosphinic acid as baclofen agonists and antagonists have been examined on the synaptic excitation of neurones by impulses in primary afferent fibres in the lumbar spinal cords of pentobarbitone-anaesthetised cats and rats. Both the pre-and postsynaptic inhibitory actions of microelectrophoretic (-)-baclofen were reduced by similarly administered CGP 35 348, 36 742, 46 381, 52 432, 54 626 and 55 845, the latter being the most potent antagonist. None of these antagonists either decreased or increased the excitability of spinal neurones, and the inhibitory action of GABA was reduced only by local concentrations of antagonists which also reduced the action of piperidine-4-sulphonic acid, a GABAA agonist. Although the weak inhibitory effect of 3-aminopropylphosphinic acid in both the rat and the cat was not reduced by these baclofen antagonists, the pre-and postsynaptic inhibitory effects of 3-aminopropyl-methyl-osphinic acid (CGP 35 024), which was more potent than (-)-baclofen, were reduced by the antagonists. Like (-)-baclofen, CGP 35 024 was relatively ineffective in reducing transmitter release in the cord from the terminals of excitatory spinal interneurones, the terminals of excitatory tracts in the dorsolateral funiculus and the cholinergic terminals of motor axon collaterals. In both rat and cat cords, receptors for (-)-baclofen could not be demonstrated to be activated by microelectrophoretic GABA, possibly because of the predominantly dendritic location of GABAB receptors. Spinal pre-and postsynaptic baclofen receptors appeared to be pharmacologically similar but differed from those in the higher central nervous system of the rat, where 3-aminopropylphosphinic acid has been reported to be an effective baclofen agonist. The compounds tested, particularly CGP 55 845 and 46 381, will be of use in further investigations of the physiological relevance of baclofen receptors at central synapses where GABA may be the transmitter.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Hippocampal formation ; Parahippocampal cortex ; Perforant pathway ; Limbic system ; Neuroanatomy ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The relations between the inputs from the presubiculum and the parasubiculum and the cells in the entorhinal cortex that give rise to the perforant pathway have been studied in the rat at the light microscopical level. Projections from the presubiculum and the parasubiculum were labeled anterogradely, and, in the same animal, cells in the entorhinal cortex that project to the hippocampal formation were labeled by retrograde tracing and subsequent intracellular filling with Lucifer Yellow. The distribution and the number of appositions between the afferent fibers and hippocampal projection neurons in the various layers of the entorhinal cortex were analyzed. The results show that layers I–IV of the entorhinal cortex contain neurons that give rise to projections to the hippocampal formation. The morphology of these projection neurons is highly variable and afferents from the presubiculum and the parasubiculum do not show a preference for any specific morphological cell type. Both inputs preferentially innervate the dendrites of their target cells. However, presubicular and parasubicular projections differ with respect to the layer of entorhinal cortex they project to. The number of appositions of presubicular afferents with cells that have their cell bodies in layer III of the entorhinal cortex is 2–3 times higher than with cells in layer II. In contrast, afferents from the parasubiculum form at least 2–3 times as many synapses on the dendrites of cells located in layer II than on neurons that have their cell bodies in layer III. Cells in layers I and IV of the entorhinal cortex receive weak inputs from the presubiculum and parasubiculum. Not only is the presubiculum different from the parasubiculum with respect to the distribution of projections to the entorhinal cortex, they also differ in their afferent and efferent connections. In turn, cells in layer II of the entorhinal cortex differ in their electrophysiological characteristics from those in layer III. Moreover, layer II neurons give rise to the projections to the dentate gyrus and field CA3/CA2 of the hippocampus proper, and cells in layer III project to field CA1 and the subiculum. Therefore, we propose that the interactions of the entorhinal-hippocampal network with the presubiculum are different from those with the parasubiculum.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Eye movements ; Linear self-motion ; Somatosensory vestibular human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We studied the gain of smooth ocular tracking for visual, vestibular and arthrokinetic cues, in combination as well as separately, in order to examine how these multisensory cues influence tracking performance. By use of motion along a linear track (besides the self-evident visual influence) evidence was found for arthrokinetic and vestibular enhancement of smooth ocular tracking. These results were in close correspondence with the results of our former study about arthrokinetic influence on linear self-motion perception. Therefore, we conclude that information from the limbs about linear (self-)movement has analogous characteristics and generates analogous responses to the information about angular (self-)movement.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Posture ; Somatosensory ; Neuropathy EMG ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To clarify the role of somatosensory information from the lower limbs of humans in triggering and scaling the magnitude of automatic postural responses, patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy and agematched normal controls were exposed to posterior horizontal translations of their support surface. Translation velocity and amplitude were varied to test the patients' ability to scale their postural responses to the magnitude of the translation. Postural response timing was quantified by measuring the onset latencies of three shank, thigh, and trunk muscles and response magnitude was quantified by measuring torque at the support surface. Neuropathy patients showed the same distalto-proximal muscle activation pattern as normal subjects, but the electromyogram (EMG) onsets in patients were delayed by 20–30 ms at all segments, suggesting an important role for somatosensory information from the lower limb in triggering centrally organized postural synergies. Patients showed an impaired ability to scale torque magnitude to both the velocity and amplitude of surface translations, suggesting that somatosensory information from the legs may be utilized for both direct sensory feedback and use of prior experience in scaling the magnitude of automatic postural responses.
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