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  • 1
    Keywords: human ; GENOME ; ACCURACY ; TIME ; MARKER ; recombination ; ASSOCIATION ; FREQUENCY ; LINKAGE ; polymorphism ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; LINKAGE ANALYSIS ; genetics ; SNP ; statistics ; MARKERS ; HUMAN GENOME ; REGION ; REGIONS ; LINKAGE DISEQUILIBRIUM ; LENGTH ; INDIVIDUALS ; SELECTION ; Monte Carlo ; MONTE-CARLO ; MAPS ; SINGLE ; GENOME-WIDE ANALYSIS ; SNPs ; SOFTWARE ; TASK ; CANDIDATE GENES ; association analysis ; HAPLOTYPE ; LOCUS ; single-nucleotide ; single-nucleotide polymorphism ; haplotype sharing ; mantel statistics ; TESTS ; ASSOCIATION TEST ; BLOCKS ; GENOTYPE DATA ; haplotype-sharing ; haplotype-tagging ; multiple testing ; NEED ; SHARING ANALYSIS
    Abstract: Moderately dense maps of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers across the human genome for both the simulated data set and data from the Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Alcoholism were available at Genetic Analysis Workshop 14 for the first time. This allowed examination of various novel and existing methods for haplotype analyses. Three contributors applied Mantel statistics in different ways for both linkage and association analysis by using the shared length between two haplotypes at a marker locus as a measure of genetic similarity. The results indicate that haplotype-sharing based on Mantel statistics can be a powerful approach and needs further methodological evaluation. Four contributors investigated haplotype-tagging SNP (htSNP) selection procedures, two contributors examined the use of multilocus haplotypes compared to single loci in association tests, and two contributors compared the accuracy of various methods for reconstructing haplotypes and estimating haplotype frequencies for both pedigree data and data from unrelated individuals. For all three different tasks, software packages and procedures gave similar results in regions of high linkage disequilibrium (LD). However, they were not as consistent in regions of moderate to low LD. One coalescence-based approach for estimating haplotype frequencies, coupled with a Markov chain Monte Carlo technique, outperformed the other haplotype frequency estimation methods in regions of low LD. In conclusion, regardless of the task, results were similar in chromosomal regions of high LD. However, based on the differing results observed here, methodological improvements are required for chromosomal regions of low to moderate LD
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16342175
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  • 2
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  • 3
    Keywords: MODELS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY LOCUS ; VARIANTS ; DESIGNS ; INFERENCE ; SCAN ; INDEPENDENCE
    Abstract: The analysis of gene-environment (G x E) interactions remains one of the greatest challenges in the postgenome-wide association studies (GWASs) era. Recent methods constitute a compromise between the robust but underpowered case-control and powerful case-only methods. Inferences of the latter are biased when the assumption of gene-environment (G-E) independence in controls fails. We propose a novel empirical hierarchical Bayes approach to G x E interaction (EHB-GE), which benefits from greater rank power while accounting for population-based G-E correlation. Building on Lewinger et al.'s ([2007] Genet Epidemiol 31:871-882) hierarchical Bayes prioritization approach, the method first obtains posterior G-E correlation estimates in controls for each marker, borrowing strength from G-E information across the genome. These posterior estimates are then subtracted from the corresponding case-only G x E estimates. We compared EHB-GE with rival methods using simulation. EHB-GE has similar or greater rank power to detect G x E interactions in the presence of large numbers of G-E correlations with weak to strong effects or only a low number of such correlations with large effect. When there are no or only a few weak G-E correlations, Murcray et al.'s method ([2009] Am J Epidemiol 169:219-226) identifies markers with low G x E interaction effects better. We applied EHB-GE and competing methods to four lung cancer case-control GWAS from the Interdisciplinary Research in Cancer of the Lung/International Lung Cancer Consortium with smoking as environmental factor. A number of genes worth investigating were identified by the EHB-GE approach.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23893921
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  • 4
    Keywords: MAP ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION
    Abstract: The addition of sequence data from own-study individuals to genotypes from external data repositories, for example, the HapMap, has been shown to improve the accuracy of imputed genotypes. Early approaches for reference panel selection favored individuals who best reflect recombination patterns in the study population. By contrast, a maximization of genetic diversity in the reference panel has been recently proposed. We investigate here a novel strategy to select individuals for sequencing that relies on the characterization of the ancestral kernel of the study population. The simulated study scenarios consisted of several combinations of subpopulations from HapMap. HapMap individuals who did not belong to the study population constituted an external reference panel which was complemented with the sequences of study individuals selected according to different strategies. In addition to a random choice, individuals with the largest statistical depth according to the first genetic principal components were selected. In all simulated scenarios the integration of sequences from own-study individuals increased imputation accuracy. The selection of individuals based on the statistical depth resulted in the highest imputation accuracy for European and Asian study scenarios, whereas random selection performed best for an African-study scenario. Present findings indicate that there is no universal best strategy' to select individuals for sequencing. We propose to use the methodology described in the manuscript to assess the advantage of focusing on the ancestral kernel under own study characteristics (study size, genetic diversity, availability and properties of external reference panels, frequency of imputed variants...).
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25537753
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  • 5
  • 6
    Keywords: Germany ; ALGORITHM ; DISEASE ; DISEASES ; EXPOSURE ; GENE ; GENES ; SAMPLE ; MARKER ; ASSOCIATION ; VARIANTS ; HEALTH ; genetics ; MARKERS ; LINKAGE DISEQUILIBRIUM ; gene-environment interaction ; PREVALENCE ; heredity ; case-control study ; RE ; VARIANT ; interaction ; analysis ; POWER ; TECHNOLOGY ; USA ; VARIABLES ; genetic association ; association study ; interactions ; DETECT ; GENE-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS ; indirect association ; gene-environment interaction effect
    Abstract: Association studies accounting for gene-environment interactions (G x E) may be useful for detecting genetic effects. Although current technology enables very dense marker spacing in genetic association studies, the true disease variants may not be genotyped. Thus, causal genes are searched for by indirect association using genetic markers in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the true disease variants. Sample sizes needed to detect G x E effects in indirect case-control association studies depend on the true genetic main effects, disease allele frequencies, whether marker and disease allele frequencies match, LD between loci, main effects and prevalence of environmental exposures, and the magnitude of interactions. We explored variables influencing sample sizes needed to detect G x E, compared these sample sizes with those required to detect genetic marginal effects, and provide an algorithm for power and sample size estimations. Required sample sizes may be heavily, inflated if LD between marker and disease loci decreases. More than 10,000 case-control pairs may be required to detect G x E. However, given weak true genetic main effects, moderate prevalence of environmental exposures, as well as strong interactions, G x E effects may be detected with smaller sample sizes than those needed for the detection of genetic marginal effects. Moreover, in this scenario, rare disease variants may only be detectable when G x E is included in the analyses. Thus, the analysis of G x E appears to be an attractive option for the detection of weak genetic main effects of rare variants that may not be detectable in the analysis of genetic marginal effects only
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18163529
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  • 7
    Keywords: BLADDER-CANCER ; METAANALYSIS ; SCORE TEST ; MULTIPLE GENES ; COLORECTAL-CANCER RISK ; susceptibility loci ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; SCAN ; TRAIT SIMILARITY REGRESSION ; POWERFUL
    Abstract: Identification of gene-environment interaction (G x E) is important in understanding the etiology of complex diseases. However, partially due to the lack of power, there have been very few replicated G x E findings compared to the success in marginal association studies. The existing G x E testing methods mainly focus on improving the power for individual markers. In this paper, we took a different strategy and proposed a set-based gene-environment interaction test (SBERIA), which can improve the power by reducing the multiple testing burdens and aggregating signals within a set. The major challenge of the signal aggregation within a set is how to tell signals from noise and how to determine the direction of the signals. SBERIA takes advantage of the established correlation screening for G x E to guide the aggregation of genotypes within a marker set. The correlation screening has been shown to be an efficient way of selecting potential G x E candidate SNPs in case-control studies for complex diseases. Importantly, the correlation screening in case-control combined samples is independent of the interaction test. With this desirable feature, SBERIA maintains the correct type I error level and can be easily implemented in a regular logistic regression setting. We showed that SBERIA had higher power than benchmark methods in various simulation scenarios, both for common and rare variants. We also applied SBERIA to real genome-wide association studies (GWAS) data of 10,729 colorectal cancer cases and 13,328 controls and found evidence of interaction between the set of known colorectal cancer susceptibility loci and smoking.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23720162
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  • 8
    Keywords: COHORT ; FAMILY ; RISK-FACTORS ; VARIANTS ; WOMEN ; METAANALYSIS ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; HORMONE-THERAPY ; FGFR2 GENE
    Abstract: Genes that alter disease risk only in combination with certain environmental exposures may not be detected in genetic association analysis. By using methods accounting for gene-environment (G x E) interaction, we aimed to identify novel genetic loci associated with breast cancer risk. Up to 34,475 cases and 34,786 controls of European ancestry from up to 23 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium were included. Overall, 71,527 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), enriched for association with breast cancer, were tested for interaction with 10 environmental risk factors using three recently proposed hybrid methods and a joint test of association and interaction. Analyses were adjusted for age, study, population stratification, and confounding factors as applicable. Three SNPs in two independent loci showed statistically significant association: SNPs rs10483028 and rs2242714 in perfect linkage disequilibrium on chromosome 21 and rs12197388 in ARID1B on chromosome 6. While rs12197388 was identified using the joint test with parity and with age at menarche (P-values = 3 x 10(-07)), the variants on chromosome 21 q22.12, which showed interaction with adult body mass index (BMI) in 8,891 postmenopausal women, were identified by all methods applied. SNP rs10483028 was associated with breast cancer in women with a BMI below 25 kg/m(2) (OR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.15-1.38) but not in women with a BMI of 30 kg/m(2) or higher (OR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.72-1.11, P for interaction = 3.2 x 10(-05)). Our findings confirm comparable power of the recent methods for detecting G x E interaction and the utility of using G x E interaction analyses to identify new susceptibility loci.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24248812
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  • 9
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; carcinoma ; RISK ; PROTEIN ; SUSCEPTIBILITY LOCUS ; VARIANTS ; METAANALYSIS ; 5P15.33 ; CEP57
    Abstract: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Although several genetic variants associated with lung cancer have been identified in the past, stringent selection criteria of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) can lead to missed variants. The objective of this study was to uncover missed variants by using the known association between lung cancer and first-degree family history of lung cancer to enrich the variant prioritization for lung cancer susceptibility regions. In this two-stage GWAS study, we first selected a list of variants associated with both lung cancer and family history of lung cancer in four GWAS (3,953 cases, 4,730 controls), then replicated our findings for 30 variants in a meta-analysis of four additional studies (7,510 cases, 7,476 controls). The top ranked genetic variant rs12415204 in chr10q23.33 encoding FFAR4 in the Discovery set was validated in the Replication set with an overall OR of 1.09 (95% CI = 1.04, 1.14, P = 1.63 x 10(-4) ). When combining the two stages of the study, the strongest association was found in rs1158970 at Ch4p15.2 encoding KCNIP4 with an OR of 0.89 (95% CI = 0.85, 0.94, P = 9.64 x 10(-6) ). We performed a stratified analysis of rs12415204 and rs1158970 across all eight studies by age, gender, smoking status, and histology, and found consistent results across strata. Four of the 30 replicated variants act as expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) sites in 1,111 nontumor lung tissues and meet the genome-wide 10% FDR threshold.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25644374
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  • 10
    Abstract: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process whereby epithelial cells assume mesenchymal characteristics to facilitate cancer metastasis. However, EMT also contributes to the initiation and development of primary tumors. Prior studies that explored the hypothesis that EMT gene variants contribute to epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) risk have been based on small sample sizes and none have sought replication in an independent population. We screened 15,816 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 296 genes in a discovery phase using data from a genome-wide association study of EOC among women of European ancestry (1,947 cases and 2,009 controls) and identified 793 variants in 278 EMT-related genes that were nominally (P 〈 0.05) associated with invasive EOC. These SNPs were then genotyped in a larger study of 14,525 invasive-cancer patients and 23,447 controls. A P-value 〈0.05 and a false discovery rate (FDR) 〈0.2 were considered statistically significant. In the larger dataset, GPC6/GPC5 rs17702471 was associated with the endometrioid subtype among Caucasians (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.07-1.25, P = 0.0003, FDR = 0.19), whereas F8 rs7053448 (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.27-2.24, P = 0.0003, FDR = 0.12), F8 rs7058826 (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.27-2.24, P = 0.0003, FDR = 0.12), and CAPN13 rs1983383 (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.69-0.90, P = 0.0005, FDR = 0.12) were associated with combined invasive EOC among Asians. In silico functional analyses revealed that GPC6/GPC5 rs17702471 coincided with DNA regulatory elements. These results suggest that EMT gene variants do not appear to play a significant role in the susceptibility to EOC.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26399219
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