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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2478
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: A sensitivity study of elastic parameters in amplitude-variation-with-slowness (AVS) for small- and large-offset seismic data is presented. In order to handle the non-linearity associated with waveform or amplitude beyond the critical slowness, an inversion algorithm based on Bayes' theory is used. A genetic algorithm was used to obtain the a posteriori probability density (PPD) function. The sensitivity analysis is performed on synthetic data containing P-wave as well as converted S-wave reflections. Four different two-layer models, which represent the typical range of AVS responses associated with the gas-sands normally encountered in exploration, were used to examine how well the elastic parameters can be inverted for different parametrizations by comparing the PPD functions. The sensitivity study results suggest that including wide-angle data in the inversion can greatly enhance the quality of inversion. The converted S-wave reflections can provide valuable extra information that can be used to extract elastic parameters. The results with noisy data demonstrate that the contrast of density and three velocity ratios can be estimated robustly with wide-angle reflection data.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Geophysical prospecting 48 (2000), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2478
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: The problem of imaging sedimentary structure obscured by high-velocity layers, such as carbonate, basalt or salt, using conventional seismic techniques is well known. When this problem is encountered in offshore areas, marine electromagnetic data can provide valuable, alternative and complementary constraints on the structure. We concentrate on the use of marine controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) sounding in the frequency domain. The feasibility of mapping sub-basalt sedimentary structure using this technique is explored by means of modelling studies which mimic a type of survey which could readily be employed in practice. As a starting point the problem is addressed in terms of 1D resistivity structure. We show that sub-basalt sediments can be detected and their depth of burial quantified to within 200 m in the examples shown. The presence of small-scale inhomogeneities in the basalt (which cause much of the scattering in seismic data) is shown to have no appreciable effect on the ability of the CSEM data to detect the sediments. The modelling is then extended to 2.5 dimensions. Again the presence of sub-basalt sediments can be readily detected and their properties and geometry quantified, especially if the electromagnetic data are combined with constraints from complementary geophysical techniques.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Geophysical prospecting 48 (2000), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2478
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Transient electromagnetic measurements with short time-delays of transients are used for solving different problems within the upper part of a geoelectric section. However, it is necessary to take into consideration distortions connected with self-transients within the transmitter–receiver system. From the practical point of view, it is important to estimate the minimum time-delay after which these distortions may be neglected. We present such an estimation which uses a simple approximation method for a single-loop (or coincident-loop) configuration. For common values of the loop size (10 m × 10 m to 40 m × 40 m) and of the resistivity of a homogeneous half-space (1–100 Ωm), the minimum time-delay beyond which we can use a standard interpretation is in the range of 2–10 µs. This is equivalent to a minimum depth of investigation in the range of 1–30 m.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Geophysical prospecting 48 (2000), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2478
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: An analysis of the generalized reciprocal method (GRM), developed by Palmer for the interpretation of seismic refraction investigations, has been carried out. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the usefulness of the method for geotechnical investigations in connection with engineering projects. Practical application of the GRM is the main object of this study rather than the theoretical/mathematical aspects of the method.The studies are partly based on the models and field examples presented by Palmer. For comparison, some other refraction interpretation methods and techniques have been employed, namely the ABC method, the ABEM correction method, the mean-minus-T method and Hales' method. The comparisons showed that the results, i.e. the depths and velocities determined by Palmer, are partly incorrect due to some errors and misinterpretations when analysing the data from field examples.Due to the limitations of the GRM, some of which are mentioned here, stated by Palmer in his various publications, and other shortcomings of the method (e.g. the erasing of valuable information), the GRM must be regarded as being of limited use for detailed and accurate interpretations of refraction seismics for engineering purposes.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2478
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: The processing of multicomponent seismic data, carried out individually on the different wavetypes (P-, S- and converted waves), should result in an improved image of the subsurface. We examine the wavefield-separation method proposed by Cho and Spencer. We discuss practical aspects related to the separation of interfering waves on two-component surface seismic data and illustrate these using synthetic data. A sliding spatial window is used for analysis. The choice of its width represents a trade-off between stabilizing the method in the presence of random noise and ensuring a good spatial resolution. No a priori knowledge of the subsurface is required, but locally, the characteristic parameters of the waves, i.e. horizontal slowness and polarization, are assumed to be constant inside the analysis window. These parameters are estimated at each frequency, but a statistical analysis provides a more robust estimate, especially in the presence of random noise. This approach also solves the problem of eigenvalue sharing and switching. Additional smoothing of the estimates according to a model may further improve the results. The width of the analysis window may be decreased if the waves inside the data window differ significantly in amplitude. The dominant wave in each case is separated from the lower-amplitude waves and subtracted from the data. This novel iterative approach thereby allows for the isolation of low-amplitude events.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Geophysical prospecting 48 (2000), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2478
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Conventional approximations of reflection traveltimes assume a small offset-to-depth ratio, and their accuracy decreases with increasing offset-to-depth ratio. Hence, they are not suitable for velocity analysis and stacking of long-offset reflection seismic data. Assuming that the offset is large, rather than small, we present a new traveltime approximation which is exact at infinite offset and has a decreasing accuracy with decreasing offset-to-depth ratio. This approximation has the form of a series containing powers of the offset from 1 to −∞. It is particularly accurate in the presence of a thin high-velocity layer above the reflector, i.e. in a situation where the accuracy of the Taner and Koehler series is poor. This new series can be used to gain insight into the velocity information contained in reflection traveltimes at large offsets, and possibly to improve velocity analysis and stacking of long-offset reflection seismic data.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford BSL : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Geophysical prospecting 48 (2000), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2478
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Soundings achieved with the electrostatic method cannot be interpreted correctly with 1D electrical programs if the extension of the array or the conductivity of the ground are too large. A complete calculation taking into account the induction effect due to the frequency must be performed. This paper presents the solutions for overcoming the difficulties encountered in this calculation: the iterative processes which make it possible to determine the kernel functions of the Hankel transforms and the analytic integration of the terms of the electric field. Application to practical cases first illustrates the distortion of the electrostatic curves by reference to DC sounding curves. The limitation in depth of investigation is then emphasized: in practice, the investigation is limited by the skin depth corresponding to the frequency used. The examples of the soundings obtained in the city of Alexandria (Egypt) demonstrate the importance of using the complete calculation for very conductive grounds.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford BSL : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Geophysical prospecting 48 (2000), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2478
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: We introduce a processing technique which minimizes the ‘stretching effects’ of conventional NMO correction. Unlike conventional NMO, the technique implies constant normal moveout (CNMO) for a finite time interval of a seismic trace. The benefits of the proposed method include preservation of higher frequencies and reduction of spectral distortions at far offsets. The need for severe muting after the correction is reduced, allowing longer spreads for stack, velocity and AVO analysis. The proposed technique has been tested on model and real data. The method may improve the resolution of CMP stack and AVO attribute analysis. The only assumptions for this stretch-free NMO correction are (i) all time samples of a digital reflected wavelet at a particular offset have the same normal moveout, and (ii) reflection records have an interference nature.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2478
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: The use of parallel computers makes simulation of elastic waves feasible throughout large structures by means of recent advances in domain decomposition methods. We introduce a competitive parallel algorithm for the propagation of elastic waves in complex heterogeneous media using finite-element discretization. This parallel method, called the multiblock method, performs more efficiently than classical domain decomposition techniques based on substructuration, such as the Schur complement technique. It reduces considerably the amount of communication amongst processors because the interface problem between subdomains is solved by taking advantage of Huygens' principle for wave propagation. We provide some numerical examples and detailed studies on the efficiency and performance of the algorithm, proving that it is competitive and less costly, from the computational viewpoint, than algorithms based on the Schur technique.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-2478
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Two successive transient electromagnetic surveys were carried out over an underground gas storage site in France. The idea was to monitor changes in the gas bubble from the differences in the data. If successful, the new methodology could help to reduce the number of monitoring wells and finally reduce costs. Preliminary 3D modelling indicated that the resistivity changes caused by movements of the gas/water contact should be detectable in the electric field transients provided that the signal-to-noise ratio is at least 100:1. The surveys were performed with the TEAMEX multichannel acquisition system, adapted from a seismics system. The highly redundant data were analysed by calculating the relative differences in the electric field transients. The differences were common-midpoint-sorted and spatially stacked. Another approach was the calculation of electric field time derivatives in a log–log domain, to eliminate static shift effects which are present in the data. Even though the data quality is excellent from a classical point of view, neither of the two approaches reveals changes in the data which might be caused by changes in the gas reservoir. In future applications to monitoring, transmitters and receivers should be installed permanently, and the transmitter input waveform should be monitored continuously, to avoid some of the problems encountered here. Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratio will have to be further increased by at least one order of magnitude.
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