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  • 1
    Keywords: NEUTRALIZING ANTIBODIES ; VIRUS-LIKE PARTICLES ; HUMAN-PAPILLOMAVIRUS TYPE-16 ; INVASIVE CERVICAL-CANCER ; CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES ; SUSTAINED EFFICACY ; Transplastomic tobacco ; 2ND-GENERATION VACCINES ; TRANSGENE CONTAINMENT ; HIGHER-PLANTS
    Abstract: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer, which is the second most severe cancer of women worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Although vaccines against HPV infection are commercially available, they are neither affordable nor accessible to women in low income countries e.g. Africa. Thus, alternative cost-effective vaccine production approaches need to be developed. This study uses tobacco plants to express pentameric capsomeres of HPV that have been reported to generate elevated immune responses against HPV. A modified HPV-16 L1 (L1_2xCysM) protein has been expressed as a fusion protein with glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in tobacco chloroplasts following biolistic transformation. In total 7 transplastomic lines with healthy phenotypes were generated. Site specific integration of the GST-L1_2xCysM and aadA genes was confirmed by PCR. Southern blot analysis verified homogenous transformation of all transplastomic lines. Antigen capture ELISA with the conformation-specific antibody Ritti01, showed protein expression as well as the retention of immunogenic epitopes of L1 protein. In their morphology, GST-L1 expressing tobacco plants were identical to wild type plants and yielded fertile flowers. Taken together, these data enrich knowledge for future development of cost-effective plant-made vaccines against HPV.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25483463
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  • 2
    Keywords: DISEASE ; WOMEN ; SAFETY ; INVASIVE CERVICAL-CANCER ; METAANALYSIS ; PARTICLE VACCINE ; RECOMBINANT VACCINE ; HPV-16/18 AS04-ADJUVANTED VACCINE ; CROSS-PROTECTIVE EFFICACY ; AGED 16-26 YEARS
    Abstract: Individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have excess risk of developing human papillomavirus (HPV)-related disease. A substantial fraction of HPV-associated cancers is caused by HPV serotypes not included in the currently available vaccines. Among healthy women, both Cervarix (R) (HPV-16/18, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, GSK) and Gardasil (R) (HPV-6/11/16/18, Merck) have demonstrated partial cross-protection against certain oncogenic non-vaccine HPV-types. Currently, there are no available data on vaccine-induced cross-protection in men and little is known about cross-reactive immunity after HPV-vaccination of HIV-infected individuals. In an investigator-initiated trial, we randomized 91 HIV-positive men and women to receive vaccination with Cervarix (R) or Gardasil (R). The HPV-DNA status of the participants was determined with pcr before and after immunization. Cross-reactive antibody responses against HPV-31, HPV-33, and HPV-45 were evaluated for up to 12 months using a pseudovirion-based neutralization assay (PBNA). Geometric mean antibody titers (GMTs) were compared among vaccine groups and genders at 7 and 12 months. Both vaccines induced anti-HPV-31, -33, and -45 neutralizing antibodies in participants who were seronegative and HPV-DNA negative for those types at study entry. Geometric mean antibody titers were comparable between vaccine groups. Interestingly, anti-HPV-31 and -33 antibody titers were higher among women compared with men at 7 and 12 months. In conclusion, both licensed HPV-vaccines induced cross-neutralizing antibodies against frequent oncogenic non-vaccine serotypes HPV-31, HPV-33, and HPV-45 in HIV-infected adults, and women had greater serological responses against HPV-31 and -33 compared with men.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24553190
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  • 3
    Keywords: TRIAL ; EFFICACY ; VIRUS-LIKE PARTICLES ; ANTIBODY-RESPONSES ; IMMUNIZATION ; HUMAN-PAPILLOMAVIRUS TYPES ; TYPE-18 ; COSTA-RICA ; NEUTRALIZING EPITOPES ; HPV-16/18 AS04-ADJUVANTED VACCINE
    Abstract: The glutathione S-transferase (GST)-L1 multiplex serology assay has favorable properties for use in clinical trials and epidemiologic studies, including low cost, high throughput capacity, and low serum volume requirement. Therefore, we evaluated the GST-L1 assay as a measure of HPV16/18 vaccine immunogenicity. Our study population included 65 women selected from the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial who received the bivalent HPV16/18 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine at the recommended 0/1/6-month schedule. We tested replicate serum samples from months 0/1/12 (i.e., after 0/1/3 doses) by GST-L1 and 3 other commonly used serology assays, VLP-ELISA, SEAP-NA, and cLIA. We calculated the percentage of women seropositive by GST-L1 by time point and HPV type (14 HPV types), and compared GST-L1 to other assays using Spearman rank correlation coefficients. After 1 vaccine dose, seropositivity by GST-L1 was 40% each for HPV16 and HPV18, increasing to 100% and 98%, respectively, after 3 doses. Seropositivity after 3 doses ranged from 32% to 69% for HPV types 31/33/45, for which partial vaccine efficacy is reported, though increases also occurred for types with no evidence for cross-protection (e.g., HPV77). GST-L1 correlated best after 3 doses with VLP-ELISA (HPV16 and HPV18 each rho = 0.72) and SEAP-NA (HPV16 rho = 0.65, HPV18 rho = 0.71) (all P 〈 0.001); correlation was lower with cLIA. The GST-L1 is suitable for evaluating HPV16/18 vaccine immunogenicity after 3 vaccine doses, although in contrast to other assays it may classify some samples as HPV16/18 seronegative. The assay's utility is limited for lower antibody levels such as after receipt of 1 dose.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25483632
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  • 4
    Keywords: SACCHAROMYCES-CEREVISIAE ; MICE ; RESPONSES ; INFECTION ; CANCER-IMMUNOTHERAPY ; IMMUNIZATION ; DELIVERY-SYSTEM ; TARENTOLAE EXPRESSION SYSTEM ; KILLED LEISHMANIA-MAJOR ; CELL-MEDIATED-IMMUNITY
    Abstract: Our previous study has demonstrated that Yersinia pestis Microtus 201 is a low virulent strain to the Chinese-origin rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, and can protect it against high dose of virulent Y. pestis challenge by subcutaneous route. To investigate whether the Y. pestis Microtus 201 can be used as a live attenuated vaccine candidate, in this study its intravenous virulence was determined and compared with the live attenuated vaccine strain EV in the Chinese-origin rhesus macaque model. The results showed that the Chinese-origin rhesus macaques can survive intravenous infection with approximately 10(9) CFU of the Y. pestis Microtus 201, but all the animals succumbed to 10(10) CFU of intravenous infection. By contrast, all the animals survive intravenous infection with 10(10) CFU of the vaccine EV. Post-mortem examination showed multiple areas of severe abscess in the lungs of the dead animals infected with 10(10) CFU of the Y. pestis Microtus 201, whereas histopathology observation, microbiological examination and immunohistochemistry staining showed that the Y. pestis Microtus 201 also invaded hearts, livers, spleens, kidneys and lymph nodes and caused different degrees of pathological changes in these organs. These results indicated that the Y. pestis Microtus 201 is indeed low virulent to monkeys, but it is more virulent than the vaccine EV when administered by intravenous route. The Y. pestis Microtus 201 mainly attack the lungs when administered by intravenous infection, which may be the leading cause of animal death.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25668661
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  • 5
    Keywords: CD8(+) T-CELLS ; IMMUNE-RESPONSES ; RECOGNITION ; IMMUNOTHERAPY ; RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY ; STEM-CELL ANTIGEN ; PHASE-I TRIAL ; PSA ; 6-TRANSMEMBRANE EPITHELIAL ANTIGEN ; ACID-PHOSPHATASE
    Abstract: Among currently available vaccine strategies for cancer, nucleotide-based vaccination is an appealing treatment modality. Curevacs' mRNA containing vaccines (RNActive(R)) combine the beneficial properties of sufficient antigen-expression, autologous immune-stimulation and a high flexibility with respect to production and application. CV9103 and CV9104 are novel RNActive(R)-derived anticancer vaccines for the treatment of patients with prostate cancer. After successful phase I/II studies with documentation of good tolerability and favorable immune-activation of CV9103, the vaccine CV9104 is currently undergoing clinical testing in specific clinical settings such as castration resistant prostate cancer and as a neoadjuvant agent in men with high risk prostate cancer prior to surgery. This review discusses the available preclinical and clinical data on the anticancer vaccination treatment with RNActive(R)-derived anticancer-vaccines CV9103 and CV9104.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25483661
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  • 6
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    Keywords: VIRUS-LIKE PARTICLES ; SQUAMOUS-CELL CARCINOMA ; GENOMIC INSTABILITY ; EPIDERMODYSPLASIA-VERRUCIFORMIS ; ACTINIC KERATOSES ; E6 PROTEINS ; organ transplant recipients ; CROSS-NEUTRALIZING EPITOPE ; HUMAN-PAPILLOMAVIRUS VACCINES ; HPV-16/18 AS04-ADJUVANTED VACCINE
    Abstract: Cutaneous papillomaviruses are associated with specific skin diseases, such as extensive wart formation and the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), especially in immunosuppressed patients. Hence, clinical approaches are required that prevent such lesions. Licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines confer type-restricted protection against HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18, responsible of 90% of genital warts and 70% of cervical cancers, respectively. However, they do not protect against less prevalent high-risk types or cutaneous HPVs. Over the past few years, several studies explored the potential of developing vaccines targeting cutaneous papillomaviruses. These vaccines showed to be immunogenic and prevent skin tumor formation in certain animal models. Furthermore, under conditions mimicking the ones found in the intended target population (i.e., immunosuppression and in the presence of an already established infection before vaccination), recent preclinical data shows that immunization can still be effective. Strategies are currently focused on finding vaccine formulations that can confer protection against a broad range of papillomavirus-associated diseases. The state-of-the-art of these approaches and the future directions in the field will be presented.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25692212
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  • 7
    Keywords: CANCER ; SURVIVAL ; DENDRITIC CELLS ; TRIAL ; ANTITUMOR IMMUNITY ; PHASE-III ; BLOCKADE ; ADVANCED MELANOMA ; CTLA-4 ; DOSE INTERLEUKIN-2
    Abstract: Recombinant VLP-based vaccines have been successfully used against 3 diseases caused by viral infections: Hepatitis B, cervical cancer and hepatitis E. The VLP approach is attracting increasing attention in vaccine design and development for human and veterinary use. This review summarizes the clinically relevant epitopes on the VLP antigens in successful human vaccines. These virion-like epitopes, which can be delineated with molecular biology, cryo-electron microscopy and x-ray crystallographic methods, are the prerequisites for these efficacious vaccines to elicit functional antibodies. The critical epitopes and key factors influencing these epitopes are discussed for the HEV, HPV and HBV vaccines. A pentamer (for HPV) or a dimer (for HEV and HBV), rather than a monomer, is the basic building block harboring critical epitopes for the assembly of VLP antigen. The processing and formulation of VLP-based vaccines need to be developed to promote the formation and stabilization of these epitopes in the recombinant antigens. Delineating the critical epitopes is essential for antigen design in the early phase of vaccine development and for critical quality attribute analysis in the commercial phase of vaccine manufacturing.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25751641
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