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  • 1
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A European project started at the end of 1992, in which, in addition to current methods, trained sensory panels were used to investigate office buildings all over Europe. The main aim of this EC-Audit was to develop assessment procedures and guidance on ventilation and source control, to help optimize energy use in buildings while assuring good indoor air quality.In each of nine countries, six or more office buildings were selected. Measurements were performed at five selected locations in each building. The buildings were studied while normally occupied and ventilated to identify the pollution sources in the spaces and to quantify the total pollution load caused by the occupants and their activities, as well as the ventilation systems. The investigation included physical and chemical measurements, assessment of the perceived air quality in the spaces by a trained sensory panel, and measurement of the outdoor air supply to the spaces. A questionnaire for evaluating retrospective and immediate symptoms and perceptions was given to the occupants of the buildings. The building characteristics were described by use of a check-list. The annual energy consumption of the buildings and the weather conditions were registered.This paper presents results and conclusions of the audit in 56 buildings in Europe. However, the analysis and discussions of the results are a summary of the work done, and are focused mainly on comparison between sensory assessments and the other measurements performed.Furthermore, this paper brings the results of the study based on a two-factor analysis. A paper dealing with results on a multifactorial analysis is in preparation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 6 (1996), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Building characteristics of dwelling units in the metropolitan Boston area were statistically sorted on the basis of observed associations between the variables. First, associations between categories of house characteristics were determined by cross-table analyses with a pair-wise chi-square test. The key characteristics, which have a significant relationship with many other characteristics, were used to classify the dwelling units into several groups. Two key characteristics, i.e. building type and size of building, were determined. Houses were divided into three groups: single-unit building, small multi-unit (2 to 4 units) building, and large multi-unit (5+ units) building. The building type was not associated with indoor source, but was significantly associated with volume of dwelling unit, air exchange rate, and indoor and outdoor NO2 concentrations. Lower airflow, smaller volume units, and higher outdoor NC2 concentrations, in combination with other factors, result in higher indoor NO2 concentrations in multi-dwelling residential units (apartments and condominiums).
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 6 (1996), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 6 (1996), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Personal exposure in a displacement ventilated room is examined. The stratified flow and the considerable concentration gradients necessitate an improvement of the widely used fully mixing compartmental approach. The exposure of a seated and a standing person in proportion to the stratification height is examined by means of full-scale measurements. A breathing thermal manikin is used to simulate a person. It is found that the flow in the boundary layer around a person is able to a great extent to entrain and transport air from below the breathing zone. In the case of non-passive, heated contaminant sources, this entrainment improves the indoor air quality. Measurements of exposure due to a passive contaminant source show a significant dependence on the flow field as well as on the contaminant source location. Poor system performance is found in the case of a passive contaminant released in the lower part of the room close to the occupant. A personal exposure model for displacement ventilated rooms is proposed. The model takes the influence of gradients and the human thermal boundary layer into account. Two new quantities describing the interaction between a person and the ventilation are defined.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 6 (1996), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Thermal comfort and air quality were studied in three multi-family buildings located in urban environments. Measurements of air velocities close to the supply devices are presented along with measurements of CO, TVOC, NO and NO2. In addition, particle measurements were carried out to check the filter efficiency in one of the buildings (SI) which is specially designed for people with allergy problems. The total air change rate for this building is higher than for normal residential buildings and three different types of air filter are installed in the ventilation system. The results of the thermal comfort measurements in the buildings vary considerably. For two of the buildings thermal comfort can be regarded as acceptable, but can be further improved. The selection and location of the air inlet devices in the third building are not acceptable. The monitoring of the contaminants outdoors and indoors was carried out for diurnal periods. The measured contaminants outside building S1 show good correlation between each other, and the concentrations of gases and particles were considerably lower in the supply air than in the outdoor air outside the apartment where the measurements were made. The importance of not taking samples over too short a period of time is also shown.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Many factors affect the airflow patterns, contaminant removal efficiency and the indoor air quality at individual workstations in office buildings. The effects of office furniture design and workstation layouts on ventilation performance, contaminant removal efficiency and thermal comfort conditions at workstations were studied. The range of furniture configurations and environmental parameters investigated included: 1) partition heights, 2) partition gap size, 3) diffuser types, 4) supply air diffuser location relative to the workstation, 5) return air grill location relative to the workstation, 6) heat source locations, 7) presence of furniture, 8) supply air temperatures, 9) adjacent workstations, 10) contaminant source locations, 11) supply air flow rates, and 12) outdoor air flow rates. The tracer gas technique was used to study experimentally the relative impact of these parameters on the air distribution and ventilation performance, as well as contaminant removal efficiency. Thermal environmental parameters such as air velocity and temperature were monitored at several locations to characterize the impact of these parameters on the thermal comfort conditions.The results showed that the outdoor air flow rate had a significant influence on the mean age of air. The air distributions at all the workstations were good even when the supply air flow rate was relatively low (i.e 5 L/s). At the same time, most of the parameters tested had a significant influence on contaminant removal efficiency when there was a contaminant source present somewhere in the office.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 6 (1996), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A study was undertaken to investigate the use of mass balance modeling techniques to predict air pollution concentrations in residential settings where the source is evaporative emissions of alternative fuels emitted in the attached garage. Field study measurements of the spatial and temporal distribution of evaporative emissions in an attached garage were used to conduct this investigation. In this field study, known quantities of methanol were allowed to evaporate in the garage. Methanol concentrations were then measured and simulated in the garage. Because chemical and physical properties of this contaminant are clearly understood, it was possible to simulate the concentrations inside the remainder of the house.A multi-zonal mass balance model (CONTAM88) was used to predict the across-residence spatial and temporal distribution of concentrations of evaporative emissions from a methanol source inside the attached garage. The model's input data include physical characteristics of the house; parameters characterizing the leakiness of the house; heat, ventilation and air-conditioning system characteristics; fixed airflow data from vent registers; on-site meteorological measurements; and information on the contaminant source.Before using the model to simulate methanol dispersions, the model's performance was tested. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) measurements were taken throughout the residence and garage. The model was used to predict interzonal airflow rates and SF6 concentration distributions within the garage and the house, as well as to investigate the well-mixed zone assumption for the garage. Modeling results show that predicted garage SF6 concentrations agreed reasonably well with the measured concentrations under mixed conditions, but the model underpredicted the SF6 concentrations within rooms of the house where mixing was probably incomplete. Methanol simulation results showed that the model underpredicted by approximately 15 percent the garage methanol concentration after methanol emissions stopped.This study found that evaporative emissions in an attached garage have a tendency to infiltrate the house, with rooms adjacent to the garage showing the highest levels of methanol concentrations. Thus automotive evaporative emissions may represent a source of indoor pollution and human exposure in a residential attached garage and also in other critical locations of the residence.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Fiberglass duct materials are commonly used in both residential and commercial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems to provide the needed thermal insulation and noise control. Many building investigations have documented biocontamination of these materials, and the appropriateness of their use in high humidity locations has come into question. A series of experiments, each lasting 6 weeks, was conducted in static environmental chambers to assess some of the conditions that may impact the ability of a variety of fiberglass materials to support the growth of a fungus, Penicillium chrysogenum.Three different fiberglass duct liners (FDL), one fiberglass duct board, and fiberglass insulation, all newly purchased, were obtained as were samples of used (〉5 years old) materials. Samples of these materials were tested to evaluate the effects of moisture, soil, use, and temperature on their ability to support the growth of P. chrysogenum. These studies demonstrated that P. chrysogenum could amplify under conditions of low (12°C) and room (23°C) temperature and high relative humidity on samples of one of the newly purchased materials, and that either wetting and/or soiling increased the materials’ susceptibility. P. chrysogenum was able to grow on all the used material samples. While the results of this study apply directly only to fiberglass duct materials, they suggest that dust accumulation and/or high humidity should be properly controlled in any HVAC duct to prevent the growth of P. chrysogenum.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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