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  • 1
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Neurocognition is a very important aspect of a brain tumor patient's quality of life following radiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to assess neurocognitive functions of patients diagnosed with high-grade gliomas undergoing radiotherapy by using the NeuroCogFx((R)) test and to examine relevant dose/volume parameters as well as patient characteristics potentially influencing the neurological baseline status and subsequent outcome. METHODS: The cohort consisted of 44 astrocytoma World Health Organization grade III/IV patients. The NeuroCogFx((R)) test was carried out on patients during (N = 44) and after (N = 21) irradiation. The test examines verbal/figural/short-term/working memory, psychomotorical speed, selective attention and verbal speed. The results were compared with regular patient and treatment data with an emphasis on the dose applied to the hippocampus. RESULTS: Overall there were only slight changes in the median test results when comparing the baseline to the follow-up tests. In the 'verbal memory test' lower percentile ranks were achieved in left-sided tumors compared to right-sided tumors (p = 0.034). Dexamethasone intake during radiotherapy was significantly correlated with the difference between the two test batteries. Concerning figural memory, a correlation was detected between decreased figural recognition and the radiation dose to the left hippocampus (p = 0.045). CONCLUSION: We conclude that tumor infiltration of the hippocampus has an impact on neurocognitive function. However, treatment with radiotherapy seems to have less influence on cognitive outcome than expected.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26694815
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1437-7772
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1437-7772
    Keywords: radiation oncology ; radiation physics ; radiation biology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1437-7772
    Keywords: non-small cell lung cancer ; radiation therapy ; clinical nodal staging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background From 1976 through 1989, 46 patients with stage IIIB non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) without malignant effusion were treated with definitive radiation therapy (RT) at Gunma University Hospital. Methods All patients were treated with 10 MV x-rays using antero posterior parallel opposed fields. The total dose ranged from 60 Gy to 70 Gy (mean dose; 66 Gy) with once daily standard fractionation. Results The actuarial two and five-year survival rates of the entire group were 22% and 10% respectively with a median survival time (MST) of 10 months. The survival of 18 patients with stage NO-2 disease was significantly better than the 28 patients with stage N3 disease (MST 21 versus 9 months;P〈0.05). There were no significant differences in survival based on age and sex. However, there was a borderline difference in survival rates between patients with a performance status of 0–1 and those with a status of 2–3 (P=0.06). Three patients with squamous cell carcinoma were alive after 5 years and were without disease progression. No patients with non-squamous cell carcinoma were free of disease after 5 years. Conclusion These results provide support for the use of definitive RT to manage those patients with limited stage IIIB squamous cell carcinoma not extending to N3 stage.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1437-7772
    Keywords: predeposit autologous blood transfusion ; bone pain ; erythropoietin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A 62-year-old female patient was hospitalized prior to undergoing an operation for endometrial cancer. She received erythropoietin in doses of 6,000 IU every other day in preparation for predeposit autologous blood donation. About 4 hours after the injection, the patient felt a back pain in the pelvic region. This is the first report of bone pain caused by erythropoietin.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1437-7772
    Keywords: granisetron ; prevention ; nausea ; vomiting ; cancer chemotherapy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background We investigated the efficacy and safety of granisetron in 40 pediatric oncology patients who received identical chemotherapy regimens for three courses. Methods During the first course, the emetogenicity of each chemotherapy regimen was evaluated without granisetron. Next patients received one of two doses of intravenous granisetron, i.e. 20 or 40 mcg/kg during the second and third course of chemotherapy in a cross-over fashion. Results Out of the 40 patients, two children had no emetic episode during the 24 hour period following commencement of the first course of chemotherapy. Whereas, 23 patients receiving 20 μ/kg granisetron, and 22 patients receiving 40 μ/kg, obtained complete response (no emetic episode during the 24 hour period following commencement of chemotherapy) in the second or third course. When patients received 20 or 40 μ/kg of granisetron, all measured efficacy parameters were superior in comparison to the period when they were receiving no granisetron. There was no significant difference in the antiemetic effect between the two doses of granisetron. However, a dose-related improvement in efficacy was observed with granisetron in a certain subset of patients; that is, 4 of the 10 patients receiving 20 μ/kg, who had responded poorly with respect to nausea and vomiting, showed a complete or major response when the dose was increased to 40 μ/kg. One child developed somnolence. No other adverse events were observed. Conclusion Granisetron is an effective and safe antiemetic for children receiving intensive chemotherapy regimens containing cisplatin, cyclophosphamide or methotrexate. When comparing the two doses of 20 and 40 μ/kg, 40 μ/kg appeared more effective; although the difference was not statistically significant.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1437-7772
    Keywords: molecular diagnosis ; gastrointestinal cancer ; genetic instability ; CD 44
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1437-7772
    Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma ; urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) ; u-PA receptor (u-PAR) ; invasion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background Tumor invasiveness is a factor that influences the prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) and its receptor (u-PAR) play an important role in malignant invasion. This study estimated the invasion potential of u-PA and u-PAR by hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro. Methods Human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines, HLE, HLF and HC-4 were used. The Invasion Index (II) was determined with the Transwell insert, which was coated with extracellular matrix (Matrigel) in vitro. Results The HLE II was the highest of the 3 cell lines. The second was HLF cell line, and the third was HC-4 cell line. The greater the production of u-PA and u-PAR, the stronger the cell line's invasiveness. The invasiveness of HLF and HC-4 was augmented by the addition of exogenous u-PA. However, this addition did not increase the HLE II, which produced the highest amount of u-PA. This may be due to the full occupation of its receptors with endogenous u-PA. Conclusion These data suggested that the production of u-PAR and u-PA, are linked with invasion of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1437-7772
    Keywords: taxotere ; microtubule ; K562 promyelocytic leukemia line
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background Taxotere, a semisynthetic derivative of Taxol, is known to possess cytotoxic effects on various animal cells. Methods To better understand the precise mechanism of this drug action, the human promyelocytic leukemia cell line, K562, and its adriamycin and vincristine resistant sublines, respectively termed K562/ADM and K562/VCR, were used as targets. Results The IC50 for taxotere was almost equal to that for VCR. Due to cross-resistance in the K562/ADM cells, the IC50 value was 42.3 times greater with taxotere, although it was still lower than with ADM and VCR. A much lower cross-resistance was noted with the K562/VCR cells. Assessment of MDR-1 mRNA indicated that expression of the multidrug resistance gene product p-glycoprotein in the cell membrane was partly responsible for the resistance. K562 cells treated with taxotere accumulated in G2M of the cell cycle, and morphologically, cells in metaphase were found to be remarkably increased. This indicates inhibition of mitosis. Unlike vincristine or vinblastine, taxotere enhanced the assembly of tubulin into microtubules in the absence of guanosine triphosphate (GTP). Moreover, microtubule disassembly was inhibited even in the presence of calcium ions. Conclusion These results suggest that the tubulin equilibrium was shifted towards formation and away from degradation of microtubules that lead to metaphase arrest and eventual cell death. Syntheses of DNA, RNA and protein were not inhibited, and topoisomerases I and II were unaffected. Thus taxotere is an analogue of Taxol, showing a similar mechanism of cytotoxic effect to Taxol on the human K562 leukemia cell line as well as on rodent tumor cell lines.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1437-7772
    Keywords: Key words Apoptosis ; SN-38 (an active form of CPT-11) ; Pentoxifylline ; ICE ; CPP-32
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background. Pentoxifylline (PENT) is a theophylline derivative that enhances cytotoxic effects against tumor cells pretreated with antitumor agents. It has also been reported that chemotherapy can induce apoptosis in some carcinoma cells. We investigated the effects of PENT on human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells pretreated with SN-38, an active form of CPT-11 (a camptothecin analogue) and we also examined the participation of CPP-32, a member of the interleukin 1β-converting enzyme (ICE) family proteases, in chemotherapeutic agent-induced apoptosis. Methods. Human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells (PK-1, PK-8) were cultured in RPMI 1640. Lethal effects were examined by MTT assay; DNA fragmentation was analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis; and Western blot analysis was performed with anti-CPP-32 monoclonal antibody. Results. Pretreatment with SN-38 followed by PENT increased the cytotoxic effect compared with that seen for treatment with SN-38 alone. Isobologram analysis of the IC50 value revealed that PENT had supra-additive effects when administed after SN-38, but not when administered prior to or simultaneously with SN-38. Agarose gel electrophoresis showed typical DNA ladders in the DNA of cells treated with SN-38 and PENT. The acridine orange (AO) staining method was used to observe the morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis. Western blot analysis verified that activation of CPP-32 accompanied the development of apoptosis. In addition, SN-38-induced apoptosis was prevented by pretreatment with Ac-DEVD-CHO (DEVD), an inhibitor of CPP-32. Conclusions. These results indicate that the antitumor activity of SN-38 is attributable to apoptosis through the activation of CPP-32, and that combined treatment with PENT enhances the induction of apoptosis by SN-38. Accordingly, the use of PENT may provide a combined modality treatment for pancreatic cancer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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