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  • 1
  • 2
    ISSN: 1442-2042
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We investigated the effective mechanisms of donor–specific hlood transfusion (DST) using a sponge matrix allograft animal model. Sponges were harvested on various days postgrafting, and both the sponge infiltrating cells and sponge exudate fluid (SEF) were collected. DST completely suppressed cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity throughout the postgrafting period. SEF *N = O concentration (measured as nitrite) in DST mice was significantly lower than in ST mice. Conversely, the amount of PGE2 in the SEF from DST mice was higher than in ST mice. L)ST may induce intragraft suppressor factors (such as PCE2), resulting in reduced immune activation with suppression of local immune response.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1442-2042
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We investigated the effect of sodium chloride intake on oxalate and calcium metabolism in the human body. In healthy subjects with a simultaneous intake of sodium oxalate (4 μmoles/kg body weight) and sodium chloride (1.2 mmoles/kg body weight), the change in oxalate–creatinine ratio was 2.04 ± 0.74, and 3.25 ± 1.29 (means ± SD), respectively, after 2 and 4 hours of oxalate intake (n= 8). The magnitude of the change in the ratio was significantly greater in the case with simultaneous intake of sodium chloride and sodium oxalate in comparison to the case with an intake of sodium oxalate alone (P 〈 0.05 and P 〈 0.01 after 2 and 4 hours of intake of oxalate, respectively). In subjects with an intake of sodium chloride alone, the change in calcium–creatinine ratio was 49.07 ± 29.96 and 0.363 ± 0.309 (means ± SD), respectively, after 2 and 4 hours of sodium chloride intake (n= 3). The results suggest that high sodium intake can be one of the risk factors for urolithiasis.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1442-2042
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Residual microfragments after ESWL were studied for their presence and for possibility of dissolution with citrate therapy. Among 123 patients with renal stones who became stone–free following ESWL, a computed tomogram (CT) identified remaining microfragments within the treated kidney in 31.7% of the patients, even though stone fragments were not detectable on ordinary x–ray (KUU). The experiments, in which calcium oxalate stone fragments collected after ESWL were incubated in buffer solutions with citrate 0 to 4 mmol/L, showed that citrate dissolved the stone fragments. Using human urine as a solution, the dissolving effect was greater in spot urines after alkali citrate administration than in control urines. Eighteen patients with microfragments underwent a follow–up CT 3 months later. The results showed that the microfragments had disappeared in 6 of 11 (54.5%) patients who had been taking alkali citrate, whereas microfragments remained unchanged in all 5 patients without medication. Our results suggest that citrate therapy would be advisable as a prophylaxis for stone recurrence especially after ESWL treatment.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1442-2042
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Twenty–two patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) were investigated. The patients were mainly administered decoctions of rhubarb (〈inlineGraphic alt="inline image" href="urn:x-wiley:09198172:IJUS95:IJU_s95_fu1" location="image_n/IJU_s95_fu1.gif"/〉) for 4 weeks. After that, traditional Chinese (Kampo) prescriptions, most of them involving Wen–Pi–Tang (〈inlineGraphic alt="inline image" href="urn:x-wiley:09198172:IJUS95:IJU_s95_fu2" location="image_n/IJU_s95_fu2.gif"/〉), were given for another 4 weeks.Following administration of these prescriptions, the levels of serum methylguanidine (MG), blood urea nitrogen and serum inorganic phosphorus improved significantly, although the values of serum creatinine (Cr) were not changed remarkably. The fact that the serum MG/Cr ratio was reduced after the therapy suggested that rhubarb possessed the potential to scavenge hydroxyl radicals by which MG was produced from Cr through creatol, as reported recently.The serum Cr concentration was determined over an observation period of more than 40 weeks in each of the 7 cases. Evaluation of the progression rate of CRF was made from the slopes of the regression lines. After analysis, 5 of the 7 cases showed significant retardation of progression after the administration of Kampo prescriptions during 106 ± 32 (mean ± SD) weeks. Of the 5 cases, 2 were prescribed Wen–Pi–Tang, another 2 cases were treated with Wen–Pi–Tang and Bu–Zhong–Yi–Qi–Tang (〈inlineGraphic alt="inline image" href="urn:x-wiley:09198172:IJUS95:IJU_s95_fu3" location="image_n/IJU_s95_fu3.gif"/〉) and the last was treated with Ba–Wei–Di–Huang–Wan (〈inlineGraphic alt="inline image" href="urn:x-wiley:09198172:IJUS95:IJU_s95_fu4" location="image_n/IJU_s95_fu4.gif"/〉).This study demonstrated that the traditional Chinese prescriptions, most of them comprising Wen–Pi–Tang and/or Bu–Zhong–Yi–Qi–Tang, retarded the progression of CRF.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1442-2042
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: To determine the immunosuppressive effect of surgery for urologic cancers, multiple variables of immune function were measured serially before and after operation in patients with urologic cancer. Methods: Peripheral blood was obtained before operation and at postoperative day 7 and 14 from 20 patients with bladder cancer, renal pelvic, or ureteral cancer, or renal cell carcinoma. Results: In patients with bladder cancer who were undergoing radical cystectomy with use of intestine for urinary diversion, the serum level of immunosuppressive acidic protein (IAP) increased, and serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)A, IgG, and IgM decreased after operation. In contrast, the number of CD25+ lymphocytes significantly increased. Transurethral resection of bladder cancer also resulted in an increase in serum IAP level, however, the number of CD4+ and human leukocyte-associated HLA-DR+ lymphocytes increased. In patients with renal pelvic or ureteral cancer undergoing nephroureterectomy with cuff, the level of serum IAP increased and serum IgG level decreased after operation. By contrast, the number of CD3+ lymphocytes increased. In patients with renal cell carcinoma, radical nephrectomy led to a significant increase in the number of CD8+ lymphocytes. Conclusions: These findings suggest that surgical stress in patients with urologic cancer may result in both suppression and stimulation of host immunity.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1442-2042
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: This study evaluated the long-term efficacy of transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT) in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and determined whether the indices obtained with transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) can predict the clinical response to TUMT.Method: Between November 1991 and June 1992, 43 patients with symptomatic BPH were treated with TUMT using the Prostcare device. The therapy consisted of a 1 -hour treatment under topical anesthesia. The findings of uroflowmetry and AUA symptom score before treatment were compared with those obtained dt each visit after the therapy. As the indices, the transition zone (TZ) volume, transition zone ratio (TZ ratio = TZ volume/total prostate volume), total prostate volume, and presumed circle area ratio (PCAR) were calculated. Results: There was a significant correlation between pretreatment TZ ratio and residual urine volume (r= 0.472, P= 0.0022). The efficacy rates calculated by response criteria on the 3 point scale at 2 months, 12 months, and 30 months were 44.2%, 30.2%, and 25%, respectively. The significant prognostic factors that predicted the clinical effect 1 year after treatment were the TZ ratio and intraprostatic temperature. After controlling for the treatment temperature, the multivariate logistic regression model demonstrated that the TZ ratio was the significant predictor (p= 0.049) of 1 year efficacy of treatment.Conclusion: The present study showed that the efficacy rate of TUMT at 30 months was 25%, and that TKUS provides a simple parameter, the TZ ratio, which predicts the efficacy of TUMT.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1442-2042
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: The clinical significance of pretreatment serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values was studied to determine the ability to predict clinical stage and prognosis using a relatively large number of patients with prostate cancer. Methods: Serum PSA values at diagnosis were analyzed from 749 patients with newly-diagnosed prostate cancer and registered in the Tokai Urological Cancer Registry. Correlations between the PSA value, the clinical stage and prognosis of the patients were evaluated. Results: Serum PSA values at each stage of diagnosis showed positivity (≥ 3.6 ng/mL) in 23% (stage A1) to 91.2% (stage D2) of patients, and it was possible to obtain statistical differences between the stages, even between A1 and A2. Based on a cumulative study of PSA distribution, stages greater than A2 could be diagnosed using a cut-off of 7.2 ng/mL, with a 99.2% positive predictive value (PPV), and a 16.2% negative predictive value (NPV). At a PSA level of 1 0.8 ng/mL, stages greater than B2 could be predicted with a PPV of 95.3% but an NPV of 40.3%. Pretreatment PSA values were a significant prognostic indicator in stage D2 patients using 100 to 150ng/mL as the cut-off values. These differences were primarily found in the poorly differentiated group, which showed a statistical difference using cut-off PSA values from 75 to 150 ng/mL. Conclusions: Serum PSA levels from a large number of patients can be used to predict the stage and prognosis of prostate cancer patients.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1442-2042
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: Various physiologic systems maintain the ionic equilibrium essential tor normal neuron and smooth muscle function. These systems are impaired by nonphysiologic concentrations of extracellular cations. This study investigated the effects of altered extracellular concentrations of potassium and calcium on the in vitro pressure generation in the whole bladder of rats. Methods: Pressure increases in response to field stimulation, as well as low and high doses of bethanechol, were determined in a Krebs solution containing a normal amount of potassium, and in excess of 10mmol/L and 20mmol/L of potassium. Each of these solutions had calcium concentrations, that were low (0.8mmol/L), normal (2.5mmol/L), or high (7.5mmol/L). Results: The response to field stimulation was significantly decreased at the 20-mmol/L concentration of potassium in the presence of the different concentrations of calcium. The response to field stimulation increased as the extracellular concentration of calcium increased. The pressure increase caused by a low dose of bethanechol was significantly enhanced by elevations in the concentrations of both potassium and calcium. There was no difference in the response to a high dose of bethanechol in the presence of the various concentrations of potassium and calcium. Conclusion: These findings indicated that changes in the cationic equilibrium that result in blocking of the neuronal sodium channels, as well as increasing the level of intracellular bound calcium in smooth muscle, alter bladder function in vitro.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1442-2042
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: We aimed to develop a new simplified method to determine the urinary calcium-oxalate saturation.Methods: The ion-activity product (AP) of urinary calcium oxalate was estimated in 345 clinical urine specimens (all 2.5 hour collections) using the Equil2 computer program and several other methods, and the results were compared. A new index using 4 parameters was created using multiple regression analysis.Results: Our new simplified method (the AP(CaOx) index EQ2) provided a better approximation to the Equil2 method (r= 0.9897) than other conventional methods.Conclusion: This new method requiring 4 factors (urinary calcium, magnesium, oxalate, and citrate concentrations) is simple and clinically usable.
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