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  • 1
    ISSN: 1862-0760
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The dielectric relaxation of the two faujasite zeolites NaX and NaY as a function of their hydration state, has been studied. The technique of thermally stimulated current (TSC) has been used. Two distinct processes of cationic relaxation have been identified. They correspond to local hops of cations of sites III' and II of the supercage. Analysis of the observed TSC peaks has been performed by the thermal windowing method (TSC/RMA). The activation energies of the two relaxations have been determined as a function of the adsorbed water molecules. The influence of the water molecules on the movement of the cations in the considered sites was explained.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1862-0760
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract CuCr1−xVxS2 (0 ≤ × ≤ 0.3) is isostructural with CuCrS2. The substitution of Cr by V results in the partial transition of Cu atoms into the disordered state and in an increasing Cu+ ion conductivity.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Ionics 3 (1997), S. 296-298 
    ISSN: 1862-0760
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The temperature disorder of copper ions in the CuCrS2 superionic conductor was studied by X-ray analysis. It is shown that the average square deviations of atoms sharply increase and become comparable with the distance between neighbouring tetrahedral sites when CuCrS2 transforms into the superionic phase. It is also established that the direction of maximum deviation of atoms is close to the direction connecting the tetrahedral positions.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1862-0760
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Polycrystalline samples of the oxygen ion conductor Bi2V0.9Cu0.1−xNixO5.35 with various contents of nickel (0 ≤ × ≤ 0.1) were investigated. The X-ray powder diffraction revealed the tetragonal structure of all compositions. DTA curves exhibit effects due to phase transition, one endothermic effect during heating and one exothermic one during cooling. The impedance of the ceramics with Pt electrodes was measured in the frequency range 10−1–107 Hz at constant temperatures between 350 and 920 K. The conductivity was determined by nonlinear least-squares analysis of the impedance spectra. Separation of the total resistance into grain interior and grain boundary components was feasible at temperatures below 580 K. The transition temperatures observed in DTA coincide with those observed in conductivity measurements. A phase transition, involving a reordering process of the oxygen ions is considered to be responsible for this phenomenon. The frequency dependent part of the intragrain conductivity was modeled by a constant phase admittance. The effective hopping rate was estimated by comparing the frequency dependent part and the dc limit of the intragrain conductivity.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Ionics 3 (1997), S. 161-169 
    ISSN: 1862-0760
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Solid electrolytes have received considerable scientific attention and assumed important technological significance in recent years, due to potential practical applications in fuel cells, batteries, electrochromics, process control, sensors and environmental protection. Use of solid electrolytes for developing electrochemical gas sensors is a well established field with successful commercial applications related mainly to oxygen measurements. Discovery of new solid electrolytes have led to new areas of development and applications such as hydrogen monitoring. Applicability of solid electrolytes have also been extended to species which are not ionically mobile in the electrolyte by use of auxiliary phases. More recently, significant progress in sensing of molecular species such as CO2, SO2, SO3, NO, NO2, HCl, H2O and HF have been achieved by interfacing 2 or more electrolytes in electrochemical chains and/or by using auxiliary phases, semi-permeable coatings or in-situ catalysts to promote the desired electrode reactions.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1862-0760
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The anchoring of polyoxometalates in conducting organic polymers provides an opportunity to form hybrid materials where the chemical and electrochemical properties of the inorganic molecules can be harnessed into useful physical properties. The incorporation of phosphomolybdate ([PMo12O40]3−) as the only doping counterion in Polyaniline is shown to stand reduction cycles without deinsertion of the bulky anion and with insertion of lithium ions into the hybrid. This material represents a model of a novel kind of insertion electrodes for energy storage applications.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1862-0760
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Diffusion of lithium cations in C60 single crystals driven by an electric field has been studied. It was found that the stoichiometry of C60 single crystals can be changed with respect to lithium by injection of Li+ ions through the heterojunction Li7SiPO8|C60 and electrons through the heterojunction C60| Graphite. The double charge injection changes the stoichiometry of lithium in a C60 single crystal and increases both the lithium ionic and electronic conductivity. The electronic conductivity in LixC60 crystals is non-metallic in nature. The temperature dependence of the electronic conductivity lithium doped C60 single crystals was investigated. It was found that electrons occupied the lowest singlet exited states (LUMO) and that this leads to the appearance of an intensive EPR signal. The temperature dependence of the concentration of paramagnetic centers was investigated.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1862-0760
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Rechargeable lithium ion cells operate at voltages of ∼4.5 V, which is far beyond the thermodynamic stability window of the battery electrolyte. Strong electrolyte reduction and corrosion of the negative electrode has to be anticipated, which leads to irreversible loss of electroactive material and electrolyte, and thus strongly deteriorates cell performance. To minimize these reactions, negative electrode and electrolyte components have to be combined bringing about the electrolyte reduction products to form an effectively protecting film at the anode/electrolyte interface. This film hinders further electrolyte decomposition reactions and acts as membrane for the lithium cations, i.e., behaves as asolidelectrolytei2nt erphase (SEI). The present paper gives a review of our recent work in the field of negative electrodes in lithium ion batteries. The effects of the graphite anode surface and graphite anode surface modification on the formation of the SEI are discussed in detail by using the example: modification with carbon dioxide.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Ionics 6 (2000), S. 203-209 
    ISSN: 1862-0760
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The superionic system AgI-PbI2-Ag2O-B2O3 with two compositions has been prepared. The pelletised samples were investigated with regard to conductivity, modulus and dielectric analysis at various temperatures and frequencies. The activation energy determined for the samples was found to be varying between 0.09 to 0.10 eV. The effect of polarization at the electrode has been analyzed from conductivity spectra. From the impedance and modulus analysis it has been found that the system is non-ideal and there exists a distribution of relaxation times which is independent of temperature.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1862-0760
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The electrochemical properties of nickel hydroxide, produced via an electrodialysis process are studied by means of cyclic voltametry and in-situ ellipsometry methods. The Ni(OH)2 electrodes are thin layers of nickel hydroxide powder deposited on a polished platinum substrate. Electrochemical and optical properties are investigated in a voltage domain including the so-called “second discharge process”. The reduction of nickel hydroxide proceeds at two successive potentials with a recovering of the initial optical data only after the second discharge step. The first discharge step leads to a nickel hydroxide not fully discharged while the second discharge step is coupled both to a sudden change in the nickel hydroxide properties and an agglomeration of particles phenomenon.
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