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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1126-5442
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1126-5442
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1126-5442
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1126-5442
    Keywords: Key words Consciousness ; Vigilance ; Attention ; Selective consciousness ; Historical aspects ; Sleep ; Initiation ; Coma ; Epilepsy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The term “consciousness” so widely used in clinical settings, is considered extremely complex and practically undefinable. Historically, consciousness was ignored by the great classical philosophers, and was regarded as a basic condition of “being”. This changed with Descartes and during the ensuing centuries. A simplified, reductionistic and easily definable concept of consciousness is proposed; consciousness is proposed to consist of three main components: vigilance, mental contents, and selective attention. These three components can be investigated with modern neuroscientific methods – vigilance being the most readily explorable function. The striking differences between sleep and coma are pointed out (along with some observations on sleep initiation). Special attention is paid to epileptic impairment of consciousness and, in particular, to the spike-wave absence which is thought to be due to a temporary suspension of the “working memory circuits” within the frontal lobe.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1126-5442
    Keywords: Key words Prosopagnosia ; Face recognition ; Connectionism ; Neural networks ; Artificial vision
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We show that particular features of prosopagnosic impairment can be simulated by a connectionist model trained with an unsupervised learning procedure. In particular we describe a Kohonen's neural network which is able to correctly recognize and categorize a series of digitized pictures of faces when learning is characterized by certain parameter values, but which shows a prosopagnosic behavior when lateral connections are leasioned. We discuss the relationship between this result and some neurophysiological hypotheses about prosopagnosia.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1126-5442
    Keywords: Key words EEG ; Photic driving response ; Headache ; Discriminant analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The aim of this study was to discriminate migraine patients (MWoA) from tension-type headache (TTH) patients and normals in order to confirm that the photic driv-ing response in the medium frequency range is a marker of migraine and to test the hypothesis that MWoA and TTH are separate disorders based on electrophysiological pattern. We recruited 120 MWoA patients, 64 TTH patients, and 51 healthy controls without any history of headache or of migraine inheritance, according to International Headache Society (IHS) criteria. The classification method was discriminant analysis using both linear discriminant analysis with a stepwise selection of predictors and an artificial neural network classifier (NNs). The mean amplitude of the first harmonic elicited by flash stimulation in the 15–27 Hz range was significantly increased over Fp1, C3, C4, P4, O2, and O1 electrodes in MWoA and TTH patients in comparison with normal subjects. Using both classification methods, only the control subjects were correctly distinguished. When only the patient groups were matched, no significant difference was detectable. The increased brain response to visual stimulation detected in both migraine and TTH suggests a common neuronal dysfunction in the two headache subtypes.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1126-5442
    Keywords: Key words AIDS dementia complex ; Human immunodeficiency type-1 infection ; Primitive reflexes ; , Case-control study
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To prove that primitive reflexes are independent markers of symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection, a case-control study was carried out in a tertiary care, university teaching hospital. Thirty HIV-1-positive symptomatic cases, 30 seropositive asymptomatic controls and 30 HIV-1 seronegative controls consented to participate and were selected consecutively. A single examiner blinded to serostatus administered the Mini-Mental State Exam and a structured neurological exam to each participant. Up to 45% of cases had cognitive impairment. The occurrence of neurologic signs between seropositive cases and seropositive controls was similar, but the number of primitive reflexes was significantly higher in cases (P 〈 0.001). By multivariate discriminant analysis, all primitive reflexes but two correctly classified 83.3% of all participants (P = 0.0013). The model had a positive predictive value of 97% when motor, mood, and cognitive symptoms were added (P = 0.0001). Primitive reflexes were independent predictors of HIV-1 serostatus, especially for those with cognitive dysfunction. Primitive reflexes should be included in future case definitions of HIV-1-related neurocognitive disorders.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1126-5442
    Keywords: Key words Imagery ; Locked-in syndrome ; Transcranial magnetic stimulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) to transcranial magnetic stimulation were evaluated in a case of locked-in syndrome due to a large pontine infarction. In this patient, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and somatosensory evoked potentials demonstrated a tegmental involvement. One month after the attack, no MEP could be recorded from the right abductor digiti minimi (ADM) or either tibialis anterior muscle. On the contrary, MEPs were obtained from the left ADM, although with a prolonged latency and a reduced amplitude. When the patient was requested to think about the abduction of her paralyzed left little finger, the latency and the elicitability of these responses improved as compared with the relaxed condition. These severe MEP alterations correctly predicted a poor recovery of motor function in the chronic stage. However, although the tegmental involvement raises the question of an insufficient cortical motor arousal, preserved motor imagery suggested a normal cortical motor area activation.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1126-5442
    Keywords: Key words Glioblastoma ; Mitoxantrone ; Locoregional chemotherapy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We treated 54 patients, newly diagnosed for glioblastoma, with systemic chemotherapy (carmustine (BCNU) 100 mg/m2 and cisplatin 90 mg/2 every 6 weeks) and radiotherapy soon after surgery. In 10 cases the treatment was combined with locoregional chemotherapy (1 mg bleomycin on days 1–2, and 3 mg mitoxantrone on day 3, repeated every 20 days) administered from an Ommaya reservoir. At tumor recurrence, all patients were treated with procarbazine, lomustine and vincristine (PCV); 15 of 54 were operated and treated with locoregional chemotherapy. The median time to disease progression (TTP) and overall survival time (ST) for the whole group were 10.8 and 23.1 months, respectively. The ST of the 15 reoperated patients who also received locoregional treatment at disease recurrence was 27.6 months; this was significantly longer than that of patients not reoperated and not treated locally (log-rank p=0.04). The results in our reoperated subgroup support the opinion that a second operation could be suitable if it is part of the whole program of treatment.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1126-5442
    Keywords: Key words Rhombencephalopathy ; Radionecrosis ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Hyperbaric oxygen ; Heparin ; Buspirone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We report the case of a patient who underwent radiotherapy of the neck because of an epidermoid carcinoma in Rosenmüller's fossa. Eleven months later, T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a bulbo-pontine lesion, and the clinical course and sequential MRI results led to a diagnosis of radionecrosis-induced rhombencephalopathy. At a distance of more than three years, the lesion is no longer visible on MRI images but the severe neurological deficits remain. The clinical picture has not been improved by treatment with prednisone, hyperbaric oxygen, symptomatic therapies or anticoagulants.
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