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  • 1
    Keywords: RISK ; mechanisms ; ALZHEIMERS-DISEASE ; HUNTINGTONS-DISEASE ; human brain ; AGE-RELATED-CHANGES ; OLDER-ADULTS ; VOXEL-BASED MORPHOMETRY ; FRACTIONAL ANISOTROPY ; Longitudinal study ; Cortical connectivity ; HUMAN CORPUS-CALLOSUM ; TENSOR-BASED MORPHOMETRY ; WHITE-MATTER DAMAGE
    Abstract: Cross-sectional studies using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) suggest decline of the integrity of intracortically projecting fiber tracts with aging and in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Longitudinal studies on the change of fiber tract integrity in normal and pathological aging are still rare. Here, we prospectively studied 11 healthy elderly subjects and 14 subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a clinical risk group for AD, using high-resolution DTI and MRI at baseline and after 13 to 16 months follow-up. Fractional anisotropy (FA), a DTI measure of fiber tract integrity, was compared across time points and groups using a repeated measures linear model and tract based spatial statistics. Additionally, we determined rates of grey matter and white matter atrophy using automated deformation based morphometry. Healthy elderly subjects showed decline of FA in intracortical projecting fiber tracts, such as corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and cingulate bundle (p 〈 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons). MCI subjects showed significant FA decline predominantly in the anterior corpus callosum (p 〈 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons). Grey and white matter atrophy involved prefrontal, parietal, and temporal lobe areas in controls and prefrontal, cingulate, and parietal lobe areas in MCI subjects and agreed with the pattern of fiber tract changes. Our findings indicate that DTI allows detection of microstructural changes in subcortical fiber tracts over time that are related to aging as well as to early stages of AD type neurodegeneration. The underlying mechanisms for these changes are unknown.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20847446
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  • 2
    Abstract: For studying rare hereditary Alzheimer's disease (AD), transgenic (Tg) animal models overexpressing amyloid-beta protein precursor (AbetaPP) followed by increased amyloid-beta (Abeta) formation are used. In contrast, sporadic AD has been proposed to start with an insulin-resistant brain state (IRBS).We investigated the effect of IRBS induced by intracerebroventricularly (icv) administered streptozotocin (STZ) on behavior, glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK) alpha/beta content, and the formation of AD-like morphological hallmarks Abeta and tau protein in AbetaPP Tg2576 mice. Nine-month-old Tg mice were investigated 6 months after a single icv injection of STZ or placebo. Spatial cognition was analyzed using the Morris water maze test. Soluble and aggregated Abeta40/42 fragments, total and phosphorylated tau protein, and GSK-3alpha/beta were determined by ELISA. Cerebral (immuno)histological analyses were performed. In Tg mice, STZ treatment increased mortality, reduced spatial cognition, and increased cerebral aggregated Abeta fragments, total tau protein, and congophilic amyloid deposits. These changes were associated with decreased GSK-3alpha/beta ratio (phosphorylated/total). A linear negative correlation was detected between Abeta42 and cognition, and between GSK-3alpha/beta ratio and aggregated Abeta40+42. No marked necrotic and apoptotic changes were observed. In conclusion, IRBS may aggravate AD-like changes such as behavioral and increase the formation of pathomorphological AD hallmarks via GSK-3alpha/beta pathway in AbetaPP-overexpressing mice.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20110613
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  • 3
    Keywords: NF-KAPPA-B ; NECROSIS-FACTOR-ALPHA ; GLYCATION END-PRODUCTS ; CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM ; MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT ; AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN ; GROWTH-FACTOR-I ; GLYCOGEN-SYNTHASE KINASE-3 ; INSULIN-DEGRADING ENZYME ; PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED-RECEPTOR
    Abstract: Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies have established a strong connection between type 2 diabetes and the risk of the development of Alzheimer's disease. Indeed, several pathological features have been identified as common denominators of diabetic and Alzheimer's patients, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and inflammation, suggesting a close connection between the two disorders. Here we review common metabolic and inflammatory processes implicated in the pathogenesis of both disorders. In particular, the role of critical transcriptional checkpoints in the control of cellular metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and inflammation will be emphasized in this context. These transcriptional regulators hold great promise as new therapeutic targets in the potentially combined treatment of type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease in the future
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19387113
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  • 4
    Keywords: NETWORK ; SITE ; ASSOCIATION ; magnetic resonance imaging ; DEMENTIA ; ATROPHY ; MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT ; PREVALENCE ; DECLINE ; ENTORHINAL CORTEX ; Alzheimer's disease ; EPISODIC MEMORY ; VOXEL-BASED MORPHOMETRY ; voxel based morphometry ; CERAD ; HIPPOCAMPAL-FORMATION ; NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL MEASURES ; TEST BATTERY
    Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between structural cerebral changes and neuropsychological deficits in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sixty patients with MCI, 34 patients with mild to moderate AD, and 32 healthy controls underwent both extensive neuropsychological assessment (CERAD test battery) and high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging. We used optimized voxel based morphometry to investigate (i) differences in gray matter density between the three aforementioned groups and (ii) the putative relations of CERAD test performance with atrophic brain changes. When compared to the healthy controls, the AD patients and, to a lesser extent, patients with MCI showed significant density losses predominantly in the medial temporal lobe. Deficits in verbal fluency and word finding were significantly correlated with left fronto-temporal and left temporal (including hippocampal) changes, respectively. Decreased scores in immediate and delayed recall and in delayed recognition were associated with several cortical and subcortical sites including the parahippocampal and posterior cinguli gyri, the right thalamus, and the right hippocampus, whereas deficits in constructional praxis and constructional praxis recall referred to sites in the left thalamus and cerebellum, and the temporal cortices (bilaterally), respectively. Our findings lend further support for medial temporal lobe degeneration in MCI and AD and demonstrate that cognitive deficits as assessed on the CERAD do not simply refer to specific changes in discrete cerebral sites but rather reflect morphological alterations in widespread networks
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21116054
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  • 5
    Keywords: AD, Alzheimer's disease, ASSOCIATION, ATROPHY, brain, DEFICITS, DEMENTIA, DISEASE, ENTORHINAL CORTEX
    Abstract: There is increasing histopathological evidence that the olfactory bulb and tract (OBT) is a primary focus of neurodegenerative changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Correspondingly, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging revealed significant atrophy of the OBT in manifest AD. Whether these alterations are already present in mild cognitive impairment, the assumed preclinical stage of AD, has not been investigated yet. OBT volumes were assessed by manual tracing in 29 patients with mild cognitive impairment, 27 patients with probable AD, and 30 healthy controls. In a second step, voxel based morphometry was used to investigate the potential association between OBT atrophy and morphological changes in other brain regions. Patients had significantly lower OBT volumes when compared to controls, with atrophy being most prominent in the AD group. In addition, OBT atrophy was associated with a decreased medial temporal lobe (MTL) gray matter density bilaterally. Our findings indicate that neurodegeneration in OBT and MTL regions is linked and suggest that OBT volume might be a surrogate marker in AD
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19494444
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