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  • 1
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; GROWTH-FACTOR ; INHIBITOR ; IRRADIATION ; radiotherapy ; SURVIVAL ; FACTOR RECEPTOR ; Germany ; KINASE ; LUNG ; TYROSINE KINASE ; DISEASE ; MICE ; radiation ; PHOSPHORYLATION ; TYROSINE KINASE INHIBITOR ; MOUSE ; EFFICACY ; chemotherapy ; COMPUTED-TOMOGRAPHY ; imatinib ; inflammation ; FACTOR-BETA ; TGF-BETA ; lung fibrosis ; MOUSE LUNG ; STRAIN-DEPENDENT DIFFERENCES ; IMATINIB MESYLATE ; KINASE INHIBITORS ; PDGF
    Abstract: Pulmonary fibrosis is the consequence of a variety of diseases with no satisfying treatment option. Therapy-induced fibrosis also limits the efficacy of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in numerous cancers. Here, we studied the potential of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (RTKIs) to attenuate radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Thoraces of C57BL/6 mice were irradiated (20 Gy), and mice were treated with three distinct PDGF RTKIs (SU9518, SU11657, or Imatinib). Irradiation was found to induce severe lung fibrosis resulting in dramatically reduced mouse survival. Treatment with PDGF RTKIs markedly attenuated the development of pulmonary fibrosis in excellent correlation with clinical, histological, and computed tomography results. Importantly, RTKIs also prolonged the life span of irradiated mice. We found that radiation up-regulated expression of PDGF (A-D) isoforms leading to phosphorylation of PDGF receptor, which was strongly inhibited by RTKIs. Our findings suggest a pivotal role of PDGF signaling in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis and indicate that inhibition of fibrogenesis, rather than inflammation, is critical to antifibrotic treatment. This study points the way to a potential new approach for treating idiopathic or therapy-related forms of lung fibrosis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15781583
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  • 2
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; APOPTOSIS ; CELLS ; Germany ; KINASE ; PATHWAY ; DEATH ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; NF-KAPPA-B ; ACTIVATION ; COMPLEX ; COMPLEXES ; MECHANISM ; DENDRITIC CELLS ; T-CELLS ; BINDING ; CLEAVAGE ; CELL-DEATH ; INDUCED APOPTOSIS ; LYMPHOCYTES ; B-CELLS ; SIGNALING COMPLEX ; signaling ; MALIGNANT-CELLS ; RE ; FAS ; CASPASE ACTIVATION ; C-FLIP ; IKK ; death receptor ; FLICE-INHIBITORY PROTEINS ; LONG FORM ; RECEPTOR-INDUCED APOPTOSIS
    Abstract: c-FLIP proteins (isoforms: c-FLIPL, c-FLIPS, and c-FLIPR) play an essential role in the regulation of death receptor - induced apoptosis. Here, we demonstrate that the cytoplasmic NH2-terminal procaspase-8 cleavage product of c-FLIP (p22-FLIP) found in nonapoptotic malignant cells, primary T and B cells, and mature dendritic cells (DCs) strongly induces nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) activity by interacting with the I kappa B kinase (IKK) complex via the IKK gamma subunit. Thus, in addition to inhibiting apoptosis by binding to the death-inducing signaling complex, our data demonstrate a novel mechanism by which c-FLIP controls NF-kappa B activation and life/death decisions in lymphocytes and DCs
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16682493
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  • 3
    Keywords: CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; tumor ; CELL ; Germany ; VIVO ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; TISSUE ; COMPLEX ; COMPLEXES ; INDUCTION ; ANTIGEN ; ANTIGENS ; DENDRITIC CELLS ; SELF-ANTIGENS ; T cells ; T-CELL ; T-CELLS ; TOLERANCE ; SIGNAL ; DELETION ; IN-SITU ; EPITHELIAL-CELLS ; ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS ; CROSS-PRESENTATION ; THYMOCYTES ; REPERTOIRE ; CLASS-II ; STROMAL CELLS ; REGULATORY T-CELLS ; USA ; immunology ; central tolerance ; thymic epithelial cells ; SELF-ANTIGEN ; WELL ; CLONAL DELETION ; PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE
    Abstract: Central tolerance is shaped by the array of self-antigens expressed and presented by various types of thymic antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Depending on the overall signal quality and/or quantity delivered in these interactions, self-reactive thymocytes either apoptose or commit to the T regulatory cell lineage. The cellular and molecular complexity underlying these events has only recently been appreciated. We analyzed the ex vivo presentation of ubiquitous or tissue-restricted self-antigens by medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) and thymic dendritic cells (DCs), the two major APC types present in the medulla. We found that the ubiquitously expressed nuclear neo-self-antigen ovalbumin (OVA) was efficiently presented via major histocompatibility complex class II by mTECs and thymic DCs. However, presentation by DCs was highly dependent on antigen expression by TECs, and hemopoietic cells did not substitute for this antigen source. Accordingly, efficient deletion of OVA-specific T cells correlated with OVA expression by TECs. Notably, OVA was only presented by thymic but not peripheral DCs. We further demonstrate that thymic DCs are constitutively provided in situ with cytosolic as well as membrane-bound mTEC-derived proteins. The subset of DCs displaying transferred proteins was enriched in activated DCs, with these cells being most efficient in presenting TEC-derived antigens. These data provide evidence for a unique, constitutive, and unidirectional transfer of self-antigens within the thymic microenvironment, thus broadening the cellular base for tolerance induction toward promiscuously expressed tissue antigens
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19564355
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; TISSUE ; BREAST-CANCER ; THERAPEUTIC TARGET ; SMALL-MOLECULE INHIBITORS ; LUNG CANCERS ; RAS ONCOGENES ; MEK INHIBITORS ; SYNTHETIC LETHAL INTERACTION ; TANESPIMYCIN 17-AAG
    Abstract: Previous efforts to develop drugs that directly inhibit the activity of mutant KRAS, the most commonly mutated human oncogene, have not been successful. Cancer cells driven by mutant KRAS require expression of the serine/threonine kinase STK33 for their viability and proliferation, identifying STK33 as a context-dependent therapeutic target. However, specific strategies for interfering with the critical functions of STK33 are not yet available. Here, using a mass spectrometry-based screen for STK33 protein interaction partners, we report that the HSP90/CDC37 chaperone complex binds to and stabilizes STK33 in human cancer cells. Pharmacologic inhibition of HSP90, using structurally divergent small molecules currently in clinical development, induced proteasome-mediated degradation of STK33 in human cancer cells of various tissue origin in vitro and in vivo, and triggered apoptosis preferentially in KRAS mutant cells in an STK33-dependent manner. Furthermore, HSP90 inhibitor treatment impaired sphere formation and viability of primary human colon tumor-initiating cells harboring mutant KRAS. These findings provide mechanistic insight into the activity of HSP90 inhibitors in KRAS mutant cancer cells, indicate that the enhanced requirement for STK33 can be exploited to target mutant KRAS-driven tumors, and identify STK33 depletion through HSP90 inhibition as a biomarker-guided therapeutic strategy with immediate translational potential.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22451720
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  • 5
    Abstract: Experimental colitis in mice is characterized by infiltration of activated T helper (Th) cells and macrophages into the lamina propria. Particularly, these cells expressed CD44 variant exon 7 (CD44v7)-containing isoforms. Upregulation of CD44v7 isoforms was induced by CD40 ligation, an inflammation-driving interaction between activated Th cells and macrophages. To define the role of CD44v7 in colitis, mice bearing a targeted deletion for exon v7 were generated. In trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis, wild-type mice developed severe signs of persistent inflammation. Mice lacking CD44v7 initially showed unspecific inflammation, then recovered completely. The pathogenic origin was shown to reside in bone marrow-derived CD44v7(+) cells, because adoptive transfer experiments demonstrated an absolute requirement for CD44v7 on hematopoietic cells for maintenance of colitis. Interleukin (IL)-10-deficient mice, which develop a chronic Th1-driven enterocolitis, were crossbred with CD44v6/v7 null mice. In IL-10 x CD44v6/v7 double deficient mice, intestinal inflammation developed only weakly and at an older age. Analysis of cell death in the inflamed lesions revealed that mononuclear cells in the CD44v7 null infiltrates had higher rates of apoptosis than those from wild-type mice. Thus, the region encoded by CD44v7 appears to be essential for survival of effector lymphocytes, resulting in persistence of inflammation.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 10859330
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  • 6
    Keywords: GENE-EXPRESSION ; SKIN ; RECOGNITION ; CERVICAL-CANCER ; MOUSE MODEL ; ESTROGEN ; HISTONE DEACETYLASE INHIBITORS ; immune functions ; PLASMACYTOID DENDRITIC CELLS ; TLR9
    Abstract: Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) and other oncogenic viruses have been reported to deregulate immunity by suppressing the function of the double-stranded DNA innate sensor TLR9. However, the mechanisms leading to these events remain to be elucidated. We show that infection of human epithelial cells with HPV16 promotes the formation of an inhibitory transcriptional complex containing NF-kappaBp50-p65 and ERalpha induced by the E7 oncoprotein. The E7-mediated transcriptional complex also recruited the histone demethylase JARID1B and histone deacetylase HDAC1. The entire complex bound to a specific region on the TLR9 promoter, which resulted in decreased methylation and acetylation of histones upstream of the TLR9 transcriptional start site. The involvement of NF-kappaB and ERalpha in the TLR9 down-regulation by HPV16 E7 was fully confirmed in cervical tissues from human patients. Importantly, we present evidence that the HPV16-induced TLR9 down-regulation affects the interferon response which negatively regulates viral infection. Our studies highlight a novel HPV16-mediated mechanism that combines epigenetic and transcriptional events to suppress a key innate immune sensor.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23752229
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  • 7
    Keywords: IN-VIVO ; MICE ; leukemia ; PROGENITOR CELLS ; HEMATOPOIETIC STEM-CELLS ; HOMEOSTASIS ; SELF-RENEWAL ; TUMOR-DEVELOPMENT ; QUIESCENCE ; Niche
    Abstract: The phosphatase and tumor suppressor PTEN inhibits the phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway and plays a key role in cell growth, proliferation, survival, and migration. Pten conditional deletion using MxCre or Scl-CreER(T) leads to splenomegaly and leukemia formation, which occurs after the relocation of normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from the bone marrow to the spleen. Unexpectedly, dormant HSCs in the bone marrow do not enter the cell cycle upon Pten loss, they do not lose self-renewal activity, and they are not exhausted. Instead, Pten deficiency causes an up-regulation of the PI3K pathway in myeloid cells, but not in HSCs. Strikingly, myeloid cells secrete high levels of G-CSF upon Pten loss, leading to the mobilization of HSCs from the bone marrow and accumulation in the spleen. After deletion of Pten in mice lacking G-CSF, the splenomegaly, myeloproliferative disease, and splenic HSC accumulation are rescued. Our data show that although PTEN has little if any role in normal HSCs, it is essential to prevent overt G-CSF production by myeloid and stromal cells which otherwise causes HSCs to relocate to the spleen followed by lethal leukemia initiation.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24127490
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  • 8
    Keywords: IN-VIVO ; GENE ; INFECTION ; CLEAVAGE ; C-MYC ; HEMATOPOIETIC STEM-CELLS ; VERSUS-HOST-DISEASE ; KNOCKOUT MICE ; SELF-RENEWAL ; CYTOLYTIC LEUKOCYTES
    Abstract: The serine protease granzyme B (GzmB) is stored in the granules of cytotoxic T and NK cells and facilitates immune-mediated destruction of virus-infected cells. In this study, we use genetic tools to report novel roles for GzmB as an important regulator of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function in response to stress. HSCs lacking the GzmB gene show improved bone marrow (BM) reconstitution associated with increased HSC proliferation and mitochondrial activity. In addition, recipients deficient in GzmB support superior engraftment of wild-type HSCs compared with hosts with normal BM niches. Stimulation of mice with lipopolysaccharide strongly induced GzmB protein expression in HSCs, which was mediated by the TLR4-TRIF-p65 NF-kappa B pathway. This is associated with increased cell death and GzmB secretion into the BM environment, suggesting an extracellular role of GzmB in modulating HSC niches. Moreover, treatment with the chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) also induces GzmB production in HSCs. In this situation GzmB is not secreted, but instead causes cell-autonomous apoptosis. Accordingly, GzmB-deficient mice are more resistant to serial 5-FU treatments. Collectively, these results identify GzmB as a negative regulator of HSC function that is induced by stress and chemotherapy in both HSCs and their niches. Blockade of GzmB production may help to improve hematopoiesis in various situations of BM stress.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24752302
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  • 9
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; IN-VIVO ; NF-KAPPA-B ; ACTIVATION ; p38 MAPK ; SELF-RENEWAL ; TUMOR-SUPPRESSOR CYLD ; MULTIPLE FAMILIAL TRICHOEPITHELIOMA ; BROOKE-SPIEGLER-SYNDROME ; CYLINDROMATOSIS
    Abstract: The status of long-term quiescence and dormancy guarantees the integrity of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) during adult homeostasis. However the molecular mechanisms regulating HSC dormancy remain poorly understood. Here we show that cylindromatosis (CYLD), a tumor suppressor gene and negative regulator of NF-kappaB signaling with deubiquitinase activity, is highly expressed in label-retaining dormant HSCs (dHSCs). Moreover, Cre-mediated conditional elimination of the catalytic domain of CYLD induced dHSCs to exit quiescence and abrogated their repopulation and self-renewal potential. This phenotype is dependent on the interactions between CYLD and its substrate TRAF2 (tumor necrosis factor-associated factor 2). HSCs expressing a mutant CYLD with an intact catalytic domain, but unable to bind TRAF2, showed the same HSC phenotype. Unexpectedly, the robust cycling of HSCs lacking functional CYLD-TRAF2 interactions was not elicited by increased NF-kappaB signaling, but instead by increased activation of the p38MAPK pathway. Pharmacological inhibition of p38MAPK rescued the phenotype of CYLD loss, identifying the CYLD-TRAF2-p38MAPK pathway as a novel important regulator of HSC function restricting HSC cycling and promoting dormancy.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25824820
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  • 10
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; EXPRESSION ; MODEL ; DIFFERENTIATION ; PHOSPHORYLATION ; acetylation ; SKYLINE
    Abstract: The balance of effector and regulatory T cell function, dependent on multiple signals and epigenetic regulators, is critical to immune self-tolerance. Dysregulation of T helper 17 (Th17) effector cells is associated with multiple autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis. Here, we report that Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a protein deacetylase previously reported to have an antiinflammatory function, in fact promotes autoimmunity by deacetylating RORgammat, the signature transcription factor of Th17 cells. SIRT1 increases RORgammat transcriptional activity, enhancing Th17 cell generation and function. Both T cell-specific Sirt1 deletion and treatment with pharmacologic SIRT1 inhibitors suppress Th17 differentiation and are protective in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Moreover, analysis of infiltrating cell populations during disease induction in mixed hematopoietic chimeras shows a marked bias against Sirt1-deficient Th17 cells. These findings reveal an unexpected proinflammatory role of SIRT1 and, importantly, support the possible therapeutic use of SIRT1 inhibitors against autoimmunity.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25918343
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