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  • 1
    Keywords: GROWTH ; tumor ; Germany ; MORTALITY ; NEW-YORK ; RISK ; PROTEIN ; PATIENT ; TUMOR-NECROSIS-FACTOR ; INTERVENTION ; treatment ; PLASMA ; DECREASE ; AGE ; MUSCLE ; AMINO-ACIDS ; OXIDATIVE STRESS ; ANTIOXIDANT ; aging-related wasting ; ALPHA-LIPOIC ACID ; antioxidants and aging ; cysteine ; ELDERLY HUMANS ; INJURIOUS FALLS ; MUSCLE PROTEIN-SYNTHESIS ; muscular aging ; P70 S6 KINASE ; PLASMA REDOX STATE ; RAT SKELETAL-MUSCLE ; RESISTANCE EXERCISE ; role in aging ; tumor necrosis factor in aging
    Abstract: Aging-related loss of muscle function is a predictor of mortality and a surrogate parameter of the aging process. Its consequences include a high risk for falls, hip fractures, and loss of autonomy. Aging is associated with changes in the oxidant/antioxidant balance including a decrease in plasma thiol (cysteine) concentration. To assess the importance of cysteine, we determined in a double-blind study the effects of N-acetylcysteine on the functional capacity of frail geriatric patients and their response to physical exercise. The subjects on placebo showed only a relatively weak response, and 31% showed even a decrease in more than one parameter during the observation period. Low plasma arginine levels were correlated with a weak overall performance before exercise and a poor response to exercise. N-Acetyl-cysteine strongly enhanced the increase in knee extensor strength and significantly increased the sum of all strength parameters if adjusted for baseline arginine level as a confounding parameter. N-acetylcysteine had no significant effect on growth hormone and IGF-1 levels but caused a significant decrease in plasma TNF-alpha. These findings may provide a basis for therapeutic intervention and suggest that the loss of function involves limitations in cysteine and one or more other amino acids which may compromise muscular protein synthesis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12601528
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  • 2
    Keywords: brain ; RECEPTOR ; CELL ; Germany ; KINASE ; EXPOSURE ; NEW-YORK ; PATIENT ; INDEX ; treatment ; cell culture ; culture ; TRIAL ; PLASMA ; DECREASE ; ATP ; SKELETAL-MUSCLE ; GLUCOSE ; DOUBLE-BLIND ; OXIDATIVE STRESS ; SMOKERS ; OXYGEN ; insulin ; INSULIN-RECEPTOR ; 3T3-L1 ADIPOCYTES ; CREATINE SUPPLEMENTATION ; HYDROGEN-PEROXIDE PRODUCTION ; LOW-CARBOHYDRATE ; obesity,hyperlipidemia,body fat,insulin reactivity,thiol antioxidant treatment ; REDOX STATE ; REVERSES ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION ; STRESS IMPAIRS INSULIN ; SUPPLEMENTATION ; TYROSINE KINASE DOMAIN
    Abstract: Insulin signaling is enhanced by moderate concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and suppressed by persistent exposure to ROS. Diabetic patients show abnormally high ROS levels and a decrease in insulin reactivity which is ameliorated by antioxidants, such as N-acetylcysteine (NAC). A similar effect of NAC has not been reported for non-diabetic subjects. We now show that the insulin receptor (IR) kinase is inhibited in cell culture by physiologic concentrations of cysteine. In two double-blind trials involving a total of 140 non-diabetic subjects we found furthermore that NAC increased the HOMA-R index (derived from the fasting insulin and glucose concentrations) in smokers and obese patients, but not in nonobese non-smokers. In obese patients NAC also caused a decrease in glucose tolerance and body fat mass. Simultaneous treatment with creatine, a metabolite utilized by skeletal muscle and brain for the interconversion of ADP and ATP, reversed the NAC-mediated increase in HOMA-R index and the decrease in glucose tolerance without preventing the decrease in body fat. As the obese and hyperlipidemic patients had lower plasma thiol concentrations than the normolipidemic subjects, our results suggest that low thiol levels facilitate the development of obesity. Supplementation of thiols plus creatine may reduce body fat without compromising glucose tolerance
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15007512
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  • 3
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; EXPRESSION ; proliferation ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; MODEL ; DISEASE ; NEW-YORK ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; MESSENGER-RNA ; INDEX ; renal ; RAT ; RATS ; treatment ; ACID ; gene expression ; DAMAGE ; EXTRACELLULAR-MATRIX ; SMOOTH-MUSCLE ; HUMAN-DISEASE ; inflammation ; INJURY ; LEUKEMIA-CELLS ; MATRIX ; VITAMIN-A ; 2 CONSECUTIVE INJECTIONS ; chronic glomerulonephritis,retinoids,retinoid receptor expression ; GLOMERULAR DAMAGE ; MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODY 1-22-3 ; RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM ; TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-BETA(1)
    Abstract: Retinoids, derivatives of vitamin A, inhibit mesangial cell proliferation, glomerular inflammation, and extracellular matrix deposition in acute anti-Thy1.1 glomerulonephritis (Thy-GN) of the rat. We examined a model, chronic mesangioproliferative Thy-GN (MoAb 1-22-3), which is more akin to human disease. Treatment started on day 23 when Thy-GN had already been established. Nonnephritic control and Thy-GN rats were treated orally for 67 days with vehicle or with two doses of either the retinoic acid receptor alpha-specific agonist AGN 195183 (RARalpha agonist) or the retinoid X receptor specific agonist AGN 194204 (RXR agonist). Doses of either the RARalpha or the RXR agonist significantly reduced albuminuria and normalized blood pressure during the course of treatment. The glomerulosclerosis index, glomerular cell and interstitial cell counts, and area of the interstitial space were significantly lower in nephritic rats treated with the RARalpha agonist or RXR agonist than with vehicle. The RARalpha and RXR agonist significantly reduced the infiltration of the glomerulus by macrophages. The increase in glomerular TGFbeta1 and prepro-ET1 gene expression in vehicle-treated nephritic rats was significantly attenuated by RARalpha or RXR agonists. Glomerular expression of RXRalpha and RARalpha receptor mRNA was significantly greater in vehicle-treated nephritic rats than in nonnephritic controls. Treatment with RARalpha or RXR agonists tended to normalize retinoid-receptor gene expression. Our data indicate that both RARalpha agonists and RXR agonists reduce renal damage in rats with established chronic glomerulonephritis. Receptor-specific retinoids may provide a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of chronic glomerulonephritis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 14712350
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  • 4
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; IRRADIATION ; SURVIVAL ; tumor ; TUMOR-CELLS ; Germany ; INHIBITION ; LUNG-CANCER ; GENE ; PROTEIN ; TUMOR-NECROSIS-FACTOR ; ACTIVATION ; FAMILY ; PROTEIN FAMILY ; CLEAVAGE ; virus ; ASSAY ; resistance ; NECROSIS-FACTOR-ALPHA ; MAMMALIAN-CELLS ; PROGNOSTIC-SIGNIFICANCE ; POSITIVE CANCER-CELLS ; AUTOANTIBODIES ; FACTOR-ALPHA ; VARIANT ; HELA-CELLS ; SURVIVIN ; ASSAYS ; Livin ; ML-IAP ; SPLICING VARIANTS
    Abstract: Livin (alternatively called ML-IAP or KIAP) is a cancer-associated member of the antiapoptotic inhibitor of apoptosis protein family. Two splicing variants of Livin, designated Livin alpha and Livin beta, have been identified. The significance of these isoforms for Livin-mediated apoptosis inhibition is largely unclear. Using an isoform-specific RNA interference (RNAi) strategy, we silenced endogenous Livin expression in HeLa cells. We found that the targeted inhibition of Livin beta, but not of Livin alpha, blocked the growth of HeLa cells in clonogenic survival assays. In addition, silencing of Livin beta, but not of Livin alpha, sensitized HeLa cells to different proapoptotic stimuli such as UV irradiation, tumor necrosis factor alpha, or etoposide. These events were linked to activation of caspase-3 and increased poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, specifically upon silencing of Livin beta. The proapoptotic sensitization of HeLa cells upon RNAi-mediated silencing of the endogenous livin gene was specifically reverted by ectopic expression of Livin beta but not of Livin alpha. We conclude that the Livin beta isoform plays the key role for the antiapoptotic protection of HeLa cells by the livin gene. Our results show that the Livin isoforms can strongly differ in their functional significance for the antiapoptotic resistance of tumor cells. Studies evaluating Livin as a novel diagnostic and prognostic tumor marker should benefit from isoform-specific expression analyses
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16437214
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  • 5
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; SURVIVAL ; CELL ; Germany ; KINASE ; imaging ; NEW-YORK ; PATIENT ; ACTIVATION ; MARKER ; prognosis ; QUALITY ; TYPE-1 ; MAGNETIC-RESONANCE ; magnetic resonance imaging ; FIBER COMPOSITION ; BREAST-CANCER ; NO ; PERFORMANCE ; PLASMA ; AGE ; genetics ; FIBER ; MUSCLE ; PARAMETERS ; MORPHOLOGY ; SKELETAL-MUSCLE ; PREDICTION ; BODY ; POOR-PROGNOSIS ; heredity ; OXYGEN ; BIOPSY ; exercise ; MASSES ; BODIES ; REGRESSION ; INCREASE ; WEIGHT ; LIFE ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; HEIGHT ; QUALITY-OF-LIFE ; LEVEL ; MYOPATHY ; PLASMA-LEVELS ; technique ; USA ; LOSSES ; uptake ; correlation ; cachexia ; myopathies ; PREDICT ; BIOPSIES ; INCREASES ; - ; RESONANCE ; CANCER DIAGNOSIS ; TRACK ; FOXO TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS ; cancer cachexia ; muscle biopsy ; muscle morphology ; muscle wasting
    Abstract: Progressive muscle wasting is a central feature of cancer-related cachexia and has been recognized as a determinant of poor prognosis and quality of life. However, until now, no easily assessable clinical marker exists that allows to predict or to track muscle wasting. The present study evaluated the potential of myoglobin (MG) plasma levels to indicate wasting of large locomotor muscles and, moreover, to reflect the loss of MG-rich fiber types, which are most relevant for daily performance. In 17 cancer-cachectic patients (weight loss 22%) and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls, we determined plasma levels of MG and creatine kinase (CK), maximal quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) by magnetic resonance imaging, muscle morphology and fiber composition in biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle, body cell mass (BCM) by impedance technique as well as maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max). In cachectic patients, plasma MG, muscle CSA, BCM, and VO(2)max were 30-35% below control levels. MG showed a significant positive correlation to total muscle CSA (r=0.65, p 〈 0.001) and to the CSA fraction formed by type 1 and 2a fibers (r=0.80, p 〈 0.001). However, when adjusted for body height and age by multiple regression, MG yielded a largely improved prediction of total CSA (multiple r=0.83, p 〈 0.001) and of fiber type 1 and 2a CSA (multiple r=0.89, p 〈 0.001). The correlations between CK and these muscle parameters were weaker, and elevated CK values were observed in 20% of control subjects despite a prior abstinence from exercise for 5 days. In conclusion, plasma MG, when adjusted for anthropometric parameters unaffected by weight, may be considered as a novel marker of muscle mass (CSA) indicating best the mass of MG-rich type 1 and 2a fibers as well as VO(2)max as an important functional readout. CK plasma levels appear to be less reliable because prolonged increases are observed in even subclinical myopathies or after exercise. Notably, cancer-related muscle wasting was not associated with increases in plasma MG or CK in this study
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17605115
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  • 6
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; carcinoma ; Germany ; human ; KINASE ; MODEL ; MODELS ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; liver ; NEW-YORK ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; SAMPLE ; SAMPLES ; transcription ; TISSUE ; TRANSDUCTION ; PATIENT ; ACTIVATION ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ; CONTRAST ; PHOSPHORYLATION ; protein kinase ; PROTEIN-KINASE ; signal transduction ; SIGNAL ; antibodies ; antibody ; FORM ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS ; DECREASE ; genetics ; SIGNAL-TRANSDUCTION ; MUSCLE ; Jun ; DEGRADATION ; SKELETAL-MUSCLE ; ATROPHY ; pancreatic cancer ; heredity ; REGULATOR ; REGULATORS ; BIOPSY ; ANIMAL-MODELS ; CHAIN ; pancreas ; RE ; PANCREATIC-CANCER ; INCREASE ; TUMORIGENESIS ; HEAVY ; PROTEIN-SYNTHESIS ; WEIGHT ; LEVEL ; PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL 3-KINASE ; ANIMAL-MODEL ; USA ; LOSSES ; cachexia ; animal ; ACTIN ; animal model ; BIOPSIES ; comparison ; HYPERTROPHY ; FOXO TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS ; Skeletal muscle ; UBIQUITIN LIGASES
    Abstract: In animal models of cachexia, alterations in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt pathway have been demonstrated in atrophying skeletal muscles. Therefore, we assessed the activity of proteins in this pathway in muscle and liver biopsies from 16 patients undergoing pancreatectomy for suspect of carcinoma. Patients were divided in a non-cachectic or cachectic group according to their weight loss before operation. Extracts of skeletal muscle and liver tissue from eight cachectic patients with pancreas carcinoma and eight non-cachectic patients were analysed by Western blotting using pan- and phospho-specific antibodies directed against eight important signal transduction proteins of the PI3-K/Akt pathway. Muscle samples from cachectic patients revealed significantly decreased levels of myosin heavy chain (-45%) and actin (-18%) in comparison to non-cachectic samples. Akt protein level was decreased by -55%. The abundance and/or phosphorylation of the transcription factors Foxo1 and Foxo3a were reduced by up to fourfold in muscle biopsies from cachectic patients. Various decreases of the phosphorylated forms of the protein kinases mTOR (-82%) and p70S6K (-39%) were found. In contrast to skeletal muscle, cachexia is associated with a significant increase in phosphorylated Akt level in the liver samples with a general activation of the PI3-K/Akt cascade. Our study demonstrates a cachexia-associated loss of Akt-dependent signalling in human skeletal muscle with decreased activity of regulators of protein synthesis and a disinhibition of protein degradation
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17333095
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  • 7
  • 8
    Keywords: IN-VITRO ; BONE-MARROW ; HEMATOPOIETIC STEM-CELLS ; ADIPOSE-TISSUE ; VERSUS-HOST-DISEASE ; UMBILICAL-CORD BLOOD ; HEART-MUSCLE CELLS ; fetal bovine serum ; AREA-COMPOSITA ; HUMAN SOMATIC-CELLS
    Abstract: Due to their multi-lineage differentiation capacity, support of haematopoiesis, immunomodulation and secretion of proregenerative factors, mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are in the focus of intense research since decades. The literature is replete with reports on their potential in preclinical model systems. However, the heterogeneity of the primary cell population as starting material and the diverse protocols for isolation and cultivation are hampering progress in their clinical application. Consensus on common standards and harmonised isolation and characterisation protocols are important to ensure safety and efficacy. This review focuses on the recent scientific evidence of clinically relevant properties and on the speculative cardiomyogenic and hepatic differentiation potential of MSCs. Special emphasis is put on the importance of standardisation and harmonisation in clinical-scale manufacturing.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22648521
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  • 9
    Keywords: CANCER ; PROTEINS ; ACTIVATION ; p53 ; CELL-GROWTH ; FACTOR TIF-IA ; POLYMERASE-I TRANSCRIPTION ; RIBOSOMAL-RNA SYNTHESIS ; ENDOPLASMIC-RETICULUM STRESS ; DOPAMINERGIC-NEURONS
    Abstract: Nucleoli are the sites where synthesis of rRNA and ribosomal assembly take place. Along with these "traditional" roles, the nucleolus controls cellular physiology and homeostasis. The cellular and molecular alterations associated with impaired nucleolar activity ("nucleolar stress") have just started to be systematically explored in the nervous system taking advantage of newly available animal models lacking rRNA synthesis in specific neurons. These studies showed that nucleolar function is necessary for neuronal survival and that its modality of action differs between and within cell types. Nucleolar function is also crucial in pathology as it controls mitochondrial activity and critical stress signaling pathways mimicking hallmarks of human neurodegenerative diseases. This mini-review will focus on the modes of action of nucleolar stress and discuss how the manipulation of nucleolar activity might underscore novel strategies to extend neuronal function and survival.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23179684
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  • 10
    Keywords: CELL LUNG-CANCER ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; PROTEINS ; BREAST-CANCER ; METASTASIS ; WIDE ANALYSIS ; HISTONE H3 ; nuclear speckles ; SPLICING REGULATION ; TDP-43
    Abstract: The metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is a bona fide long noncoding RNA (lncRNA). MALAT1, also known as nuclear-enriched transcript 2 (NEAT2), was discovered as a prognostic marker for lung cancer metastasis but also has been linked to several other human tumor entities. Recent work established a critical regulatory function of this lncRNA in lung cancer metastasis and cell migration. Moreover, MALAT1 is an interesting target for antimetastatic therapy in non-small cell lung carcinoma. Two alternative modes of action have been proposed for MALAT1: regulation of gene expression or alternative splicing. Although the exact mechanism of action in different physiological and pathological conditions still needs to be elucidated, MALAT1 acts as a regulator of gene expression. Although MALAT1 is highly evolutionary conserved in mammals and plays an important role in cancer and metastasis, MALAT1 is not essential for development in a knockout mouse model under normal physiological conditions. Hence, one central question for the future is finding the right stressor and the pathological or environmental condition which requires MALAT1 expression in vivo and entailing its strong evolutionary conservation. Here, we summarize the current knowledge about this important lncRNA. We introduce its discovery, biogenesis, and regulation and describe its known functions, mechanisms of action, and interaction partners.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23529762
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