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  • 1
    ISSN: 0449-2978
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The standard methods of measuring the elastic properties of polymer melts are briefly reviewed and a method of measuring another combination of viscoelastic properties, the melt strength, is described. Data are presented on the melt strength of various types of polyethylene resins and on ionomer resins. The effects on various viscoelastic properties of branching or of the addition of fine fibrils of Teflon perfluorocarbon resin are reported.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0449-2978
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The orientation behavior of stereoregular poly(vinyl alcohols) was investigated during stretching and after releasing the stress on the bulk polymers at relatively high humidity (80% R. H.) A structural model, differing from polyethylene, was proposed in which the crystallites were embedded in a considerably swollen amorphous matrix without any definite physical interaction so as to form an aggregation of crystallites, a superstructure. The crystal orientation followed, in principle, “the first borderline case” of Kratky, but with some difference from theory in orientation, while the noncrystalline orientation was represented by the freely jointed equivalent chain model of Kuhn and Grün with a value of N/γ as small as around 5. The difference between crystal orientation found and the theorietical orientation is discussed and some factors which prevented the crystal orientation are considered.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0449-2978
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Mechanical damping measurements were carried out in the range of 103-105 cps and between 60°K. and the softening point on some substituted Polystyrenes and poly(vinyl benzoates) containing different substituents (methyl groups, methoxy groups, and halogen atoms) either in the ring or in the main chain. The ortho and meta ring-substituted polystyrenes do not show any secondary mechanical relaxation in the glassy state, although all the other substituted polystyrenes, exhibit a low-temperature damping peak (δ process) (which is in some way connected with ring motions) whose height and temperature location depend on nature, position, and number of substituents. Substituents in the para position of the ring or in the α position in the backbone chain shift the δ peak of the unsubstituted polystyrene towards higher temperatures; this shift is accompanied by an increase of the apparent activation energy E*. Substitution in the β position, on the contrary, does not affect the δ peak. Analogous results are obtained for substituted poly(vinyl benzoates), which exhibit, in addition, a β relaxation effect, associated with carboxyl group motions. A very good correlation is found between the values of E* and the limiting relaxation time τ for the δ relaxation of polystyrenes and poly(vinyl benzoates), similarly substituted in the ring, indicating that the δ relaxation leads to absorption curves in the mechanical relaxation spectrum which are characteristic of the structure of the aromatic side chain.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0449-2978
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Polyethylene networks were prepared by γ-irradiation of linear polyethylene, both molten and crystalline. The elastic and photoelastic properties of the networks were studied at high temperatures, i.e., in the molten state. The equilibrium swelling was also measured in several solvents. Values of the crosslinking efficiency G of γ-radiation, the molecular, weight Me between entanglements, the optical anisotropy α of the equivalent random link, and the polymer-solvent interaction parameter μ are deduced. Samples prepared by irradiation in the amorphous state showed markedly non-Gaussian elastic behavior. The presence of a large non-Gaussian term in the optical anisotropy is also deduced. The value of α obtained for swollen samples, which showed substantially Gaussian elastic behavior, was 3.9 × 10-24 cm.3, about one-half of that obtained for dry samples. It corresponds to an equivalent random link of only about 5 CH2 units, on the basis of Denbigh's values for bond polarizabilities. The samples prepared by irradiation in the crystalline state showed lower values for α, which also depended upon the degree of crosslinking. This is attributed to the nonrandom chain configurations prevailing at the time of crosslinking. The same samples were found to show more nearly Gaussian elastic behavior, which is attributed to the same cause.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0449-2978
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Detailed structure analysis of the polyoxymethylene molecule was carried out by the method of three-dimensional Fourier synthesis. The diffraction data were measured on a highly ordered polyoxymethylene sample prepared from a single crystal of tetraoxane by solid-state radiation polymerization. By assuming the anisotropic thermal factors for the oxygen and carbon atoms and taking into account the contribution of the hydrogen atoms, good agreement between the observed and calculated structure factors was obtained; the R factor is 8.8%. The distance between the oxygen atom and the helix axis r(O) = 0.671 A. is slightly shorter than r(C) = 0.691 A. The bond distance C—O = 1.421 A., the angle ∠COC = 112°24′, and ∠OCO = 110°49′. All the internal rotation angles of the skeletal bonds are 78°13′. It is deduced from the experimental results that each crystallite of polyoxymethylene is composed of only one type of helix, right-handed or left-handed.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0449-2978
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The relation of the high-frequency elastic moduli of semicrystalline polymers to volume fraction crystallinity is correctly described by the Hashin-Shtrikman theory, without any disposable constants, as a function of the ratio of the modulus of the amorphous to that of the crystalline phase. Hence the (high-frequency) reduced modulus of semicrystalline polymers is largely a function of the temperature T/Tg. The importance of T/Tm for the modulus of the crystalline phase precludes the existence of a single universal reduced modulus versus temperature curve.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0449-2978
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The crystallization kinetics and morphology of poly(tetramethyl-p-silphenylene)siloxane spherulites have been investigated over a temperature range of 25-130°C. The effect of molecular weight on the spherulitic growth rates, ranging from the monomer to molecular weights about 106, is discussed in terms of conventional rate theory. Surface free energies of crystal growth are computed on the basis of a spherulitic model in which the polymer chains are presumed to be incorporated within the lamellar crystallites which are comprised in the spherulites. Mention is made of the change in mechanical properties with molecular weight.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0449-2978
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The depolarized light intensity (DLI) technique detec's transitions in birefringent materials by simultaneously measuring sample temperature and intensity of polarized light roatated by the sample. Most polyolefins in the solid state rotate 30-40% of the polarized light. At any temperature at which the sample exhibits an ordered state, some rotation occurs. Temperatures of transitions and changes in refractive index can be determined in this way. Many of these transitions can also be followed by the well-known method of differential thermal analysis (DTA). A comparison of DLI and DTA curves of polyethylene, polypropylene, mixtures of these polymers, and block copolymers of ethylene and propylene shows the two techniques to be complementary and of use in determining the physical behavior of these polymers. Instrumentation and system variables of the DLI technique are discussed.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0449-2978
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The product of the thermal polymerization of ß-carboxymethyl caprolactam has been identified as a poly[(2,6-dioxo-1,4-piperidinediyl)trimethylene]. An indication of various chain conformations has been explained by the possible existence of two different conformations of the dioxopiperidine moiety. One conformation pertains to an equatorial position of the trimethylene moiety with respect to the plane of the imide group. The other is derived from a structural unit in which the trimethylene group is positioned axially to the plane of the ring. While the former conformation has been ascribed to the crystalline modification the latter appears to be the predominant structure of the polymer in formic acid solution as indicated by NMR analysis. In the glassy state the macromolecule is assumed to be composed of segments of either conformation. The unoriented linear polymer crystallizes upon annealing in positively birefringent spherulites. A triclinic unit cell with the following parameters: a = 9.64 A., b = 11.32 A., c = 15.80 A., α = 98°, β = 96°, γ = 114° has been found to contain eight structural units. The calculated density, 1.30 g./cm.3, agrees with experimental data. A crystal structure is proposed on the basis of the x-ray data.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0449-2978
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The temperature dependence of the intrinsic viscosity [η] for the system polystyrene-cyclohexane in the interval -20 〈 (T - ψ) ≤ 0 near the ideal temperature ψ has been investigated. The observed diminution in size of the molecular coil with decreasing temperature is attributable to attractive net polymer-solvent interactions, denoted by negative values for the excluded volume parameter z. The data thus comprise an interesting selection for comparison with the predictions of various excluded volume theories. Among the approximate, closed-form expressions the functional relationship of Flory (x5 - α3 ∼ z) appears to describe best the variation of [η] with temperature in the region examined. The behavior of the Huggins constant k′ derived from the intrinsic viscosity plots is also examined, in accordance with the Peterson-Fixman model, suitably extended to the temperature region below ψ.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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