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  • 1
    ISSN: 0091-7419
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Molecular Cell Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Surface glycopeptides derived from vertebrate cells have been separated into 4 classes by chromatography on DEAE cellulose columns. Among different cell types tested, significant differences were observed in the relative amounts of these 4 glycopeptide classes present on the cell surface. This type of heterogeneity is consistent with the expected biological role of cell surface glycoproteins. One glycopeptide, as revealed by the DEAE column analysis, was found to have a characteristic metabolic pattern in mouse LS cells. New accumulation of this structure, called glycopeptide 4, on the cell surface was detected only around the period of cell division (M phase) and not at other times during the cell cycle.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0091-7419
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Molecular Cell Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The lipid-containing membrane of Rauscher murine leukemia virus was studied using stearic acid spin labels with the nitroxide ring on the C5 and C16 positions. The environment of the C5 spin label was found to be much more rigid than that of the C16 spin label. This result, which parallels similar observations in red cell membranes and influenza virus, suggests that the lipid phase of Rauscher murine leukemia virus is arranged in a bilayer.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, N.Y. : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0091-7419
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Molecular Cell Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: As a first step in the study of chorion composition, biochemical development and morphogenesis, we have studied the proteins of moth chorions (eggshells). We draw attention to the extensive similarities of these proteins in a variety of species. We also report that the eggshell proteins are deposited in succession, each with its characteristic time table. This phenomenon may be related to the morphogenesis of chorion.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0091-7419
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Molecular Cell Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Membrane proteins were fractionated electrophoretically in polyacrylamide gels containing either anionic or cationic detergent at either pH 2.4 or 8.3. In all four systems, polypeptides migrated as monomers bearing the charge of the detergent ion and semi-logarithmic molecular weight-mobility relationships pertained. Electrophoresis of erythrocyte membrane proteins in these systems yielded very similar protein staining patterns but revealed significant differences in sialoglycoprotein migration.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, N.Y. : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Supramolecular Structure 1 (1972), S. 125-134 
    ISSN: 0091-7419
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Molecular Cell Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Phytanic acid (3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadecanoic acid), an unusual branched chain fatty acid thought to disrupt the hydrophobic regions of membranes, can be incorporated into the lipids of growing Neurospora cultures. The phytanic acid must be supplied in a water soluble form, esterified to a Tween detergent (Tween-Phytanic). This fatty acid and its oxidation product, pristanic acid, were found in both the phospholipid and neutral lipid fractions of Neurospora. In phospholipids of the wild-type strain, phytanic acid was present to the extent of 4 to 5 moles percent of the fatty acids and pristanic acid, about 41 moles percent. The neutral lipids contained 42 and 4 moles percent of phytanic and pristanic acids respectively. By employing a fatty acid-requiring mutant strain (cel-), the phytanic acid level was raised to a maximum of 16 moles percent in the phospholipids and to 63 moles percent in the neutral lipids. Under this condition, the level of pristanic acid was reduced to about 6 moles percent in phospholipids and 1 mole percent in the neutral lipids. The phytanic acid levels could not be further elevated by increased supplementation with phytanic acid or by a change in the growth temperature. In strains with a high phytanic acid content, the complete fatty acid distribution of the phospholipids and neutral lipids was determined. In the neutral lipids, phytanic acid appeared to replace the 18 carbon fatty acids, particularly linoleic acid.The presence of phytanic acid in the phospholipids was confirmed by mass spectrometry, and by the isolation of a phospholipid fraction containing this fatty acid via silicic acid column chromatography. Most of the phytanic acid in phospholipids appeared to be in phosphatidylethanolamine, and 2 lines of evidence suggest that it was esterified to both positions of this molecule. In the fatty acid-requiring mutant strain (cel-), the replacement by phytanic acid of 10 to 15% of the fatty acids in the phospholipid produced an aberrant morphological change in the growth pattern of Neurospora and caused this organism to be osmotically more fragile than the wild-type strain. The lack of noticeable effect of the high levels of pristanic acid in the phospholipids suggests that it is not just the presence of the methyl groups in a branched chain fatty acid which leads to the altered membrane function in this organism.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, N.Y. : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Supramolecular Structure 1 (1972), S. 145-152 
    ISSN: 0091-7419
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Molecular Cell Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: When haploid yeast strains containing mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of different buoyant densities are mated, the resulting zygotes contain a mixed population of mitochondria and mitochondrial DNAs. During vegetative growth of diploid cells formed from such a cross between a petite strain with mtDNA of density 1.677 g cm-3 and a respiratory competent strain with mtDNA of density 1.684 g cm-3, mtDNAs with intermediate buoyant densities are obtained. Virtually all newly synthesized mtDNA in diploid ρ- progeny has the intermediate buoyant density. Therefore, within 2 generations of growth of the diploid cells, the intermediate buoyant density species predominate. In crosses between a respiratory competent strain and other petite strains with different values of genetic suppressiveness, it was found that the amount of recombination yielding mtDNAs of intermediate buoyant densities roughly parallels the degree of suppressiveness. Individual clones of respiratory deficient cells from such crosses were also isolated to confirm that stable mtDNAs with intermediate buoyant densities were obtained. Thus, it is apparent that some form of recombination takes place within the mtDNAs of yeast cells that results in stable mtDNA species.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0091-7419
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Molecular Cell Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The addition of the nonionic detergent Triton X-100 to aqueous phosphatidyl-choline dispersions converts the bilayer structures to mixed micellar structures containing Triton X-100. High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 220 MHz was used to follow this conversion, and the general spectral characteristics of the mixed micelles are presented. The results are discussed in terms of the precise change in structure which occurs as Triton is mixed with the phospholipid bilayers, and it is concluded that, above a molar ratio of about 2:1 Triton to phospholipid, most or all of the phospholipid is in mixed micelles. The relevance of these results to the study of enzymes which require substrate in the form of micelles is discussed.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, N.Y. : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0091-7419
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Molecular Cell Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0091-7419
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Molecular Cell Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0091-7419
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Molecular Cell Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The rate of sugar transport as a function of temperature has been compared in two unsaturated fatty acid auxotrophs. One of these, the parent strain 30E, can β-oxidize the unsaturated fatty acid supplements, whereas the β-oxidation defective progeny strain 30Eβox- cannot. In a previous study, Arrhenius plots for transport of β-glucosides and β-galactosides by strain 30Eβox- revealed striking departures from linearity at both a lower and an upper characteristic temperatures. By electron spin resonance (esr) these temperatures were shown to correlate with the temperatures where the membrane lipids undergo a transition from a totally solid state to a solid-liquid equilibrium and from a solid-liquid equilibrium to a totally liquid state, respectively (1). In the present study with strain 30E we have made the following observations:1Arrhenius plots for transport rate are usually more complex, often revealing three characteristic temperatures. Two of these correlate with the upper and lower characteristic temperatures observed in strain 30Eβox-. The third characteristic temperature falls between the previously described upper and lower ones.2In cells supplemented during growth with elaidate, the third characteristic temperature was identical within experimental limits for both β-glucoside and β-galactoside transport. indicating that it is likely to arise from some interaction in the bulk lipid phase. This conclusion is supported by the fact that the boundary of a change in physical state is also observed at this temperature by electron spin resonance.3In cells supplemented during growth with oleate, two or three characteristic temperatures were observed depending upon the transport system studied. Although glucoside and galactoside transport had the same lower characteristic temperature, these systems had no common upper characteristic temperature.4In cells supplemented during growth with the lipid density label, bromostearic acid, three characteristic temperatures were observed for β-glucoside transport in both strains 30E and 30Eβox-.
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