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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of advanced nursing 27 (1998), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2648
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Privacy during hospitalization can be jeopardized as caring situations are often intimate. The aims of the current study were to explore patients’ and nurses’ attitudes towards privacy and to study whether nurses’ perceptions of patients’ privacy needs corresponded with the patients’ own reported needs. Two questionnaires were used for the data collection, which included 120 consecutive patients and 42 nurses responsible for the participating patients’ individual care. The main findings indicated that patients and nurses agree in the ratings of the major components of privacy in general, but privacy in hospital was estimated more highly by the nurses than by the patients themselves. Being allowed to talk to the physician in private was given the highest preference. Patients in long-term care had higher privacy preferences than those in acute care. An explanatory approach is needed to study the need for privacy in different caring situations and how privacy needs could be recognized and met by nurses.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd.
    Journal of advanced nursing 27 (1998), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2648
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The need for synthesis in nursing knowledge development has been attested to by many authors. It is consistent with nursing’s holistic focus and is the mark of a mature discipline. This paper examines two approaches to synthesis: the use of multiple paradigms and the possible emergence of a new paradigm based on chaos theory. It argues that in their current form both approaches have flaws and neither achieves synthesis as it is here defined. However, both may make significant contributions to the development of nursing knowledge.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-2648
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In response to the British government’s Review of Mental Health Nursing this paper reports on a study which examined nursing practice in two inner city acute admission wards. Eight nursing staff maintained a record of their activities over a 7-day period according to four operationalized variables. Qualitative detail was also collected to enable the specification of activities. The amount of time available for patient contact work is calculated and those activities which currently restrict opportunities for experienced nursing staff to have therapeutic interactions with their patients are identified. The findings do not differ markedly from earlier studies and some tentative conclusions are drawn concerning the therapeutic milieu within an inner city psychiatric in-patient facility.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2648
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Patient and staff ratings of the importance of caring behaviours (Caring Assessment Instrument, CARE-Q) were studied and related to ratings of patient levels of anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) in 53 cancer patient–staff dyads. Both groups perceived anticipatory and comforting behaviours to be among the three most important. Patients considered staff explanation and facilitation as well as anticipation to be more important than did staff. Staff rated accessibility and comforting as more important than did patients. Patient and staff ratings of the importance of staff accessibility were negatively correlated. Thus, patient and staff did not agree strongly on the importance of several types of caring behaviours. Neither patient nor staff ratings of the importance of caring behaviours were associated with their ratings of the levels of anxiety or depression of specific patients. The results suggest that patient–staff communication requires specific knowledge and skills to make staff accurately judge what is important in making patients feel cared for.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd.
    Journal of advanced nursing 27 (1998), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2648
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A nursing model is a framework upon which nurses can base their approach to care. A model may expand a philosophy into the abstract as it encompasses the nurses’ beliefs about their role, the patient’s involvement and the meaning of the interactions between the two. On Tredgold ward we decided to write our own model as established frameworks did not entirely reflect our approach. We used the elements of British nursing models as described by Brown (1989) as the basis for our work and in doing so additionally wrote our own definition of nursing. The process has led to a more cohesive and confident team with a clearer sense of direction. This has increased our standing with colleagues and educationalists.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd.
    Journal of advanced nursing 27 (1998), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2648
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The later work of Wittgenstein (1953) takes language and meaning as arising in use. A local ‘grammar’ is created. Ethical/research awarding committees have developed, and clashing, meanings about what constitutes ‘good’ research. The fixed rule language game of the committee is implicitly powerful because it is part of well-rehearsed societal narratives which equate science and knowledge. This creates a force on the qualitative researcher to conform to the authoritative grammar which it is difficult to counter. In these circumstances, qualitative researchers may choose to inhabit two, parallel research universes by ‘storying’ their research proposal according to the audience. But a question arises as to whether ethical approval has been gained when a ‘Trojan horse’ approach is used. Moving between worlds involves the researcher living with a dual identity. The postmodernist movement away from structure, form and singular truth is seen as setting a context for a new archaeology of knowledge which transcends good/bad dichotomies in relation to research. The qualitative researcher is encouraged to enter into dialogical communication with committees with the hope that a shared grammar may emerge.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd.
    Journal of advanced nursing 27 (1998), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2648
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The term ‘loss’ is used frequently in the nursing literature and by nurses in the clinical setting. However, loss as a concept has not been defined comprehensively. In this paper, an attempt will be made to analyse the concept. The paper will begin with an overview of approaches to concept analysis. Subsequent sections include a literature review examining current and classic usage of the concept. General and specific definitions of loss provide a template for discussion. The paper will conclude with the identification of critical attributes for the concept which will form the basis for an exploration of explicit empirical referents.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd.
    Journal of advanced nursing 27 (1998), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2648
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: This paper examines the logic of generalizing from case studies and other non-representative samples. It is argued that the generalizability of such research is often underestimated, because of a fundamental confusion about two quite distinct logical bases upon which generalizations can be made: empirical and theoretical. It is suggested that once it is accepted that theoretical generalizations do not depend upon representativeness for their validity, the full value of case study, and other small-scale qualitative research to nursing and other health care disciplines, can be appreciated.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd.
    Journal of advanced nursing 27 (1998), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2648
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: This paper argues that Heidegger’s phenomenology does not have the methodological implications usually ascribed to it in nursing literature. The Heidegger of Being and Time is not in any sense antagonistic to science, nor does he think that everydayness is more authentic, more genuine, than scientific enquiry or theoretical cognition. It is true that social science must rest on interpretive foundations, acknowledging the self-interpreting nature of human beings, but it does not follow from this that hermeneutics exhausts all the possibilities. Positivist approaches to social science are certainly inconsistent with Heidegger’s ontology, but realist approaches are not and structuration theory, in particular, can be seen as a sociological translation of his ideas. Social enquiry in nursing is not therefore confined to studies of lived experience. Indeed, lived experience research constitutes not a realization, but rather a betrayal, of Heidegger’s phenomenology, being thoroughly Cartesian in spirit.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-2648
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Guidelines for universal blood and body fluid precautions (UBBFP) designed to protect health care workers from occupational exposure to blood borne pathogens have been developed by the US Centers for Disease Control. These guidelines have been adopted by the New South Wales Department of Health and all major Australian hospitals. To determine the degree of understanding and utilization of UBBFP by Australian nurses, 192 nurses were asked about UBBFP, recent occupational exposures and understanding of hepatitis B transmission. Seventy-three per cent of nurses stated they ‘used UBBFP at all times’, yet only 58% of these nurses stated they always used gloves when ‘handling blood or blood equipment’ and just 85% reported always using ‘gloves to clean up urine and faeces’. Overall 146 (76%) nurses experienced 230 occupational exposures (168 mucocutaneous, 48 percutaneous) in the previous 6 months. These were more common in men (P=0·024) and in operating theatres (95% of nurses) and high dependency units (88%). Percutaneous exposures were significantly more frequent in nurses who stated they did not wear gloves when handling blood/blood equipment (P=0·036), whereas mucocutaneous exposures were significantly more frequent among nurses who stated they do not adhere to UBBFP at all times (P=0·005). Eighty-three per cent of nurses experiencing exposures did not report all of them. In this study knowledge and adoption of UBBFP translated directly into lower risk for an occupational exposure. It is concluded that educational strategies to improve understanding and adoption of UBBFP by nurses are required.
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