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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Rainbow trout were fed diets contaminated with either PCB (Aroclor 1254, 500 μg/g dry food) or Mirex (500 μg/g dry food). There was no apparent effect of PCB on thyroid histology or on serum thyroid hormone levels. Mire effected significant reductions in serum T4 (P〈0.05) and T3 levels (P〈0.01) without apparent change om the histological appearance of the thyroi. Liver weights and total liver lipid content were significantly (P〈0.001) greater in PCB fed fish compared with controls as was the carcass lipid content (P〈0.01). Mirex had no apparent effect on liver size or liver lipid content but there was a decline in carcass lipid content (P〈0.02) which persisted 25 days after returning Mirex-fed fish to the control diet (P〈0.05).
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Examination of the digestive tract of rainbow trout fry infected with Hexamita salmonis revealed no pathological changes in the epithelial cells of the pyloric caeca or upper intestine even where the parasites were closely apposed to the brush border of these cells. No invasion of the epithelium by the parasites was observed, although examples of shrinkage necrosis (apoptotic bodies) of epithelial cells were often found. The ultrastructure of the parasite resembled that of the closely related Giardia lamblia. Despite the lack of pathological changes to the intestinal epithelium, treatment of the fish to remove the parasites greatly reduced mortalities.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of fish diseases 2 (1979), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Book reviewed in this article: Fishes of the World. By JOSEPH S. NELSON. Wiley-Interscience Farming the Cupped Oysters of the Genus Crassostrea. BY P. Korringa. The Pituitary Gland - a Comparative Account. By R. L. HOLMES & J. N. BALL Physiology of Nematodes, 2nd edn. By D. L EE & H. J. Atkinson.C.I.H. Keys to the Nematode parasites of Vertebrates Nos 1, 2, 3 (1) (2) (3), 4. Ed. by R. C. Anderson, A.G. Chabaud & S. Wbllmott.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Serum samples were obtained from rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), from a commercial fish farm. Creatine kinase (CK; EC 2.7.3.2) isoenzymes and sub-bands (isoforms) were studied using agarose gel electrophoresis and polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing. Creatine kinase isoenzymes and isoforms (sub-bands) were found to display disparate electrophoretic mobility and isoelectric points, respectively, when compared with CK patterns of human origin. The CK-BB isoenzyme, rarely detected in human serum, was detected in all trout samples assayed. Up to eight CKMM isoforms were detected by the polyacrylamide gel IEF method described.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Anterior kidney leucocytes obtained from Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., 2 days after administration of laminaran, were assayed for their capacity to reduce nitroblue tetrazolium to formazan, and for their activity of lysosomal acid phosphatase after intraperitoneal (15 mgkg−1), peroral (150 mg kg−1) or peranal (150 mg kg−1) administration. Leucocytes obtained from salmon treated by an intraperitoneal injection of laminaran produced significantly more superoxide anion than cells obtained from fish treated with dextran or sodium chloride immediately after cell isolation. Immediately after extraction, the activity of acid phosphatase in anterior kidney leucocytes obtained from salmon injected with laminaran was significantly higher than in cells harvested from fish treated with dextran or sodium chloride. Furthermore, cells obtained from salmon treated by peroral instillation of laminaran showed significantly enhanced production of superoxide anion compared with leucocytes from fish treated with either sodium chloride or dextran. The acid phosphatase activity in anterior kidney leucocytes from salmon treated by peroral and peranal instillation of laminaran was significantly higher than in cells from fish treated either with sodium chloride or dextran. Finally, fluorescence microscopic examination of tissue sections from fish treated peranally by intubation with fluorescein labelled laminaran revealed fluorescent vesicles in intestinal epithelial cells and in anterior kidney macrophages.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: There has been an increasing number of reports on cataracts in Norwegian and international salmon farming. The present study was undertaken to examine physiological and nutritional conditions during an outbreak of cataracts observed in rapidly growing Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., smolt with emphasis on zinc status. During this study, the cataracts were classified as irreversible. The outbreak of cataracts was positively related to fish growth and negatively related to the condition factor of the fish. Zinc concentrations in liver, eye and plasma were recorded in fish with cataract and in healthy fish from December to May. Lower zinc status (around 20%) was found in fish with cataracts compared to healthy fish, both over time and with regard to severity of the cataract. The decline in organ zinc concentrations seems to be explained by increased relative liver size, lower dry matters in liver and eye, and lower plasma protein. From the present data, the incidence of cataracts could not be directly related to zinc or any of the other nutrients (vitamin A, iron) examined, although relative deficiencies caused by other unknown rearing factors cannot be excluded. The lower condition factor and differences in organ water composition in fish with cataracts indicate that the cataracts may be related to the smoltification processes. Smoltification in the fish population was most probably accelerated by elevated water temperatures.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Problems of temporary immunosuppression following vaccination against Aeromonas salmonicida infection had to be overcome in the development of a furunculosis vaccine. Empirical observations have indicated that immunosuppression persists for some time after vaccination, rendering fish, especially subclinical carriers of A. salmonicida, highly vulnerable to bacterial invasion. The efficacy of simultaneous application of furunculosis vaccine and a long-lasting amoxycillin preparation to a population of Atlantic salmon smolts was evaluated. Control groups were treated with either vaccine alone, amoxycillin alone or were untreated. Moderate stress, simulating smolt transfer with a 5°C temperature rise, resulted in a rapid outbreak in mortalities reaching 100% in the vaccinates. Losses among the untreated controls were more gradual and rose to about 50%. Both amoxycillin-treated groups survived well. Further severe stress resulted in total mortalities among the untreated fish but no further losses in the amoxycillin groups. Four months after vaccination, evidence of a specific immune response was confirmed by ELISA, demonstrating circulating antibodies in the blood of vaccinates. In a severe and in a moderate challenge with A. salmonicida., the relative specific protection was 63 and 86%, respectively. Thus, effective protection against furunculosis was achieved without jeopardizing the stock during the vaccination process and with elimination of the carrier state.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Sympatric populations of the hermaphroditic scallop, Pecten fumatus Reeve, and of the dioecious scallop, Chlamys (Mimachlamys) asperrima (Lamarck), from Jervis Bay, New South Wales, Australia, were sampled between October 1991 and December 1994. Over the first 2 years, 5.1% of adult P. fumatus and 4.5% of adult C. asperrima were infected with a trematode, Bucephalus sp., that causes parasitic castration. A significant increase in the numbers of infected scallops occurred in spring 1993, teaching 63% in P. fumatus and 24% in C asperrima in May and March 1994, respectively. The prevalence of infection increased with scallop size, reaching 66% in P. fumatus greater than 80 mm in shell height and 40% in C. asperrima greater than 75 mm in 1994. Seasonal and interannual variations in parasitism for the P. fumatus recorded over a continuous period of 5 years in Jervis Bay are discussed, as are interspecies differences and the potential impact of the parasitic castration on reproductive potential and marketability of P. fumatus and C. asperrima.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The development of a pathological condition in the distal intestine of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., induced by dietary soybean meal, was studied in a 6-week feeding experiment. The fully developed condition, as observed after 3 weeks on the experimental diets, was characterized by: (1) a shortening of heights of the mucosal foldings; (2) a loss of the normal supranuclear vacuolization of the absorptive cells in the intestinal epithelium; (3) a widening of the central stroma within the mucosal foldings, with increased amounts of connective tissue; and (4) a profound infiltration of inflammatory cells in the lamina propria. The first signs of morphological changes were observed after 2 days on a diet containing a solvent extracted soybean meal, and within 7 days, all the above mentioned signs were observed. When the fish were subsequently transferred to a control diet, the mucosal folds were rebuilt from the base, resulting in an apparently functional epithelium after 3 weeks. Starved fish also exhibited characteristic changes of the mucosa, including a finely granular cytoplasm replacing the supranuclear vacuoles seen in the epithelial cells of normal fish. In addition, a pattern of irregularly spaced indentations developed in the epithelium of the simple folds. The condition induced by dietary soybean meal was classified as a no n-infectious subacute enteritis, and a pathogenesis involving immunological mechanisms is suggested.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Prevelence and severity of coronary arteriosclerosis of rainbow trout is consistently and significantly related to the absolute size of the heart. Treatment of immature and mature and female trout with natural and synthetic sex streroids had the effect of increasing the relative size of the heart by an average of 54%. The disease state of the coronary arteries was not significantly affected by streroid treatment, sex of the fish or season during which the experiments were conducted.
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