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  • 1
    ISSN: 1745-4514
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Klebsiella pneumoniae UH-2, previously isolated from spoiled skipjack tuna grew rapidly at 37C, 25C and 10C (generation times of 0.64, 0.79 and 4.57 h, respectively) and produced large amounts of histamine at these temperatures. Histamine was found during storage of resting cells at 2C, but growth did not occur. The K. pneumoniae UH-2 histidine decarboxylase system has in situ properties that may contribute to rapid histamine formation in fish tissue. The conversion of histidine to histamine in situ had an apparent Km = 0.98 mM at the optimum pH, 4.0, with ca. 70% of this activity at pH 6. These properties and recent reports of its prominence in fish spoilage suggest that K. pneumoniae could play a major role in the formation of histamine in susceptible species.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food biochemistry 9 (1985), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4514
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The yeast Candida macedoniensis produces constitutively an extracellular pectinolytic enzyme with a high maceration activity; the culture filtrate is free from foreign enzyme activity. The enzyme formation is optimal under strictly anaerobic conditions with N2 gassing. The culture medium for optimal enzyme recovery is a nutrient solution containing 1% yeast extract, 2% peptone and 10% sucrose, at pH 3, 28°C. Characterization of the enzyme showed it to be an endopolygalacturonase. The pH and temperature optima of the enzyme differ for pectic acid cleavage and maceration activity, these being 4.5 and 50—53°C and 2.5 and 40°C, respectively. The enzyme activities could not be separated from one another by protein chemical methods (analytical and preparative isoelectric focussing). Dialysis of the enzyme-containing culture filtrate did not decrease the enzyme activity. The endopolygalacturonase from Candida macedoniensis leads to the release of plant cells from the tissue, without destroying the cells by lysing the cell walls. After two hours incubation of the substrate (carrot slices), the tissue mass consisted of cell clumps of up to 15 cells.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food biochemistry 9 (1985), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4514
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Patatin, the major glycoprotein of potato tubers, had very similar chemical and physical properties whether isolated from cultivar Desiree or from Kennebec. The patatin of each cultivar exhibited copurification with p-nitrophenyl laurate esterase. However, the esterases from the two sources differed in substrate preference ranging from near equality toward α-naphthyl laurate to a hundredfold difference toward p-nitrophenyl laurate.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food biochemistry 9 (1985), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4514
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food biochemistry 9 (1985), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4514
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food biochemistry 9 (1985), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4514
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Book reviewed in this article: Food Analysis—Principles and Techniques Vol. 3: Biological Techniques, edited by Dieter W. Gruenwedel and John R. Whitaker DEVELOPMENTS IN DAIRY CHEMISTRY—2, Edited by P. F. Fox
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food biochemistry 9 (1985), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4514
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The hydrolysis of [14C]-labelled tobacco starch by Rhizopus niveus glucoamylase was investigated using thin-layer and gel filtration chromatography. Hydrolysis was characterized by a period of rapid [14C]-glucose release, representing 15–30% of the total radioactivity, followed by a prolonged period of slow [14C]-glucose release. Pullulanase enhanced [14C]-glucose release, suggesting the presence of α-(1→6) branch points. Thin-layer chromatography was used as a rapid screening method for detecting glucoamylase activity in fractions eluted from a DEAE column of a Thermomyces lanuginosus culture filtrate, and gave results comparable to a coupled enzymatic method. [14C]-Labelled starch from Canna leaf was less susceptible to amylolytic digestion than [14C]-labelled tobacco starch.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1745-4514
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In screening 72 Candida strains for extracellular enzymes, one acidic and seven alkaline proteases, one amylase and six pectinases were found. Candida kefyr, Candida macedoniensis and four strains from Candida pseudotropicalis were pectinolytically active; Candida kefyr showed considerable activity also under aerobic conditions but the highest activities were attained under strictly anaerobic conditions with N2 gassing. YNB and peptone were the best nitrogen sources as regards enzyme production. The highest enzyme activities were achieved with succinic acid (aerobic) and inulin (anaerobic) as carbon sources. Enzyme production under aerobic conditions was considerably increased at pH 3.0. The addition of inducers (pectins or pectin ballast substances) led only to very slightly increased enzyme production. From kinetic studies of the enzyme, optimum activity was found to lie at pH 5.0 and 50°C. Subsequent characterization of the enzyme showed it to be an endo-polygalacturonase. Eight to ten bands could be resolved by analytical isoelectric focussing. The Km value was found to be 1.14 × 10−5 mol. The maceration test, using potato, carrot and apple tissue as substrate, showed considerable maceration activity, especially in the case of apple.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food biochemistry 9 (1985), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4514
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The effect of fermentation on the fatty acids (FA) content and composition of cassava tuber meal has been investigated. The major FA of the cassava tuber meal (CTM) lipid were oleic and palmitic acids. Other FA found in decreasing order were linoleic, linolenic, palmitoleic, stearic, myristic, pentadecanoic, heptadecanoic and nonadecanoic acids. Fermentation of the CTM resulted in substantial increases in the absolute quantities of the individual FA detected except linolenic acid. However fermentation did not alter the pattern of composition of the FA, but it caused increases in the composition of saturated FA and decreases in certain unsaturated ones. Stearic acid increased in composition by about 92.6% and pentadecanoic by about 50%. A reduction of about 72% of the linolenic acid and 24.2% of the palmitoleic acid composition were obtained in the fermented CTM lipid.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food biochemistry 9 (1985), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4514
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Book reviewed in this article: Developments in Food Proteins—3 (ED) B. J. F. Hudson The Chemistry of Cereal Proteins. R. Lasztity Starch, 2nd Edition, Edited By R. L. Whistler, James N. BeMiller and Eugene F. Paschall Food Hydrocolloids, Vol. 2, Martin Glicksman, ed. Food Analysis, Principles and Techniques, Vol. 2. Physicochemical Techniques. D. W. Gruenwedel and J. R. Whitaker, eds. Developments in Food Analysis Techniques—3. R. D. King, ed. Modern Methods of Food Analysis. Edited by K. K. Stewart and J. R. Whitaker Methods in Enzymology. Volume 104. Enzyme Purification and Related Techniques, part C. Edited by William B. Jakoby Post-Harvest Pathology of Fruits and Vegetables. Edited by Colin Dennis Food Microbiology, Volume 8, The Economic Microbiology Series, (ISBN 0–12–596558–3) A. H. Rose (ed.)
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