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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of insect behavior 1 (1988), S. 1-2 
    ISSN: 1572-8889
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1572-8889
    Keywords: fecundity ; fertility ; multiple matings ; number of spermatophores ; Papilio xuthus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Females of the yellow swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus,were reared in the laboratory. They were divided into four groups held under different mating conditions: nonmating (virgin) and mated once, twice, and three times. The number of eggs in the ovaries was counted by dissection. Virgin females produced increasing numbers of mature eggs, up to about 30, in the week following emergence. When the female had mated once, the number of mature eggs was significantly higher than that of virgin females by the second day after emergence. However, the double- and triplemated females did not increase the number of eggs in each state further than the singlemated females. The double-mated females deposited significantly more eggs than the singlemated females in the laboratory. The triplemated females also deposited more eggs on the day after the third mating than the doublemated females. Thus, multiple matings increased the number of eggs deposited. The change in the hatchability and the morphology of the spermatophore in the bursa copulatrix suggested that the sperm from the last mating had precedence.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1572-8889
    Keywords: spider behavior ; Leucauge mariana ; web construction ; orb weavers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The spider Leucauge marianaprobably uses the presence of temporary spiral (TSP) lines already in place to determine sites of attachment of currently produced loops of temporary spiral, but less rigidly than has been previously supposed for orb weavers. Memory of distances and directions traveled recently to and from TSP lines is implicated by the fact that adjustments to experimental and natural discontinuities in previous TSP lines occur gradually rather than being abrupt. Distances and directions traveled along both radii and previous TSP lines correlate with relative amounts of adjustment. Body size may also be used as a reference measure, but not in the simple, inflexible way suggested by R. W. G. Hingston (A Naturalist in Himalaya,Small, Maynard, Boston, 1920). Tensions on radii are not used as cues in any simple way, and may not be used at all, since experimental changes in tensions produced effects consistent with resulting changes in thread positions but inconsistent with tension differences.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1572-8889
    Keywords: Coleoptera ; Anobiidae ; Anobium punctatum ; sex pheromone ; flying beetles ; wind tunnel ; Stegobium paniceum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1572-8889
    Keywords: Trichoplusia ni ; Pseudoplusia includens ; Noctuidae ; Plusiinae ; reproductive isolation ; pheromone ; perception ; electrophysiology ; olfactory receptor neurons
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The electrical activity of single olfactory receptor neurons in male soybean looper (SBL) Pseudoplusia includens(Walker) and cabbage looper (CL) Trihoplusia ni(Hübner) moths was evaluated in response to stimulation with fixed amounts of the individual components of their respective pheromone blends. In common with earlier observations in the CL, there are at least two classes of morphologically distinct pheromone sensitive sensilla on the antenna of male SBL, each of which contains two olfactory receptor neurons. In both species, one class of sensilla contains an olfactory receptor neuron sensitive to (Z)-7-dodecen-1-ol acetate (Z-7, 12:AC), the major component in each insect's blend, and a companion receptor neuron which is sensitive to (Z)-7-dodecen-1-ol (Z7,12: OH). In both species the second class of sensilla contains an olfactory receptor neuron which is sensitive to one of the minor components of the pheromone blend. (Z)-5-dodecen-1-ol acetate (Z-5,12:AC) is an effective stimulus in SBL, whereas (Z)-7-tetradecen-1-ol acetate (Z-7,14:AC) is an effective stimulus in CL. However, these two stimulatory compounds have been identified only in the female CL gland; neither has been found in the SBL gland. Thus, in contrast to the CL, which has receptor neurons which are responsive exclusively to conspecific pheromone components, the SBL has a class of receptor neurons which is responsive to a minor component of another species' pheromone blend. Field-trapping assays in which Z-5,12:AC is added to the SBL blend suggest that this single CL component is a powerful inhibitor of male SBL behavioral responses to conspecific pheromone blends. The difference observed in the specificity of the receptor neurons in this second class of sensilla are thus believed to play an integral role in the isolation processes that are maintained between these two species and may well account for the observed behavioral differences in their responses to heterospecific pheromone blends.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1572-8889
    Keywords: blowfly ; mating ; sexual receptivity ; housing conditions
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Sexual receptivity in sugar-and-water-fed females of the anautogenous blowfly Lucilia cuprinawas low when they had been housed in groups but high when they had been housed singly. Females were completely unreceptive on the second and third days after emergence, irrespective of housing conditions. There after receptivity increased but more rapidly in the singly housed females. Experiments in which females were housed singly for some days and then in groups, or vice versa, showed that receptivity could be influenced by housing conditions experienced both over the first 5 days after emergence and later in life.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1572-8889
    Keywords: host preference ; experience ; learning ; oviposition behavior ; apple maggot fly ; Rhagoletis pomonella
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Previously, we showed that after a female apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella,arrives on a host hawthorn or apple fruit, its propensity to accept (bore into) or reject that fruit prior to egg deposition can be modified by previous ovipositional experience with one or the other species and, hence, involves learning. Here, we present both field and laboratory evidence indicating that females also are able to learn characteristics of three different apple biotypes or cultivars: “Early Macintosh,” “Red Delicious,” and “Golden Delicious.” We suspect that females learn to discriminate among these three cultivars on the basis of differences in chemical stimuli among cultivars. The effect of fruit cultivar learning was not as strong as the effect of fruit species learning.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1572-8889
    Keywords: Lesser wax moth ; Achroia grisella ; sound reception ; directional hearing
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1572-8889
    Keywords: mosquitoes ; Aedes triseriatus ; grooming ; tibial combs ; behavioral sequences ; multidimensional scaling
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Grooming behavior was studied in adult females of the mosquito Aedes triseriatus(Say). The grooming repertoire consisted of 12 different behaviors (accounting for bilateral symmetry) organized into five sequences. The proboscis and antennae were scraped by the forelegs, whereas the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the wings, and the forelegs, midlegs, hindlegs, and tip of the abdomen were scraped by the hindlegs. Each sequence ended with hindleg groomng. Tibial grooming combs were found on the ventral apices of the fore- and hind-tibiae but not on the mid-tibiae. A multidimensional scaling procedure grouped the grooming behaviors in two ways: (1) by the relative position of the groomed structure along the anteroposterior axis of the insect's body, and (2) by whether the groomed structure has a locomotory or sensory function. This suggests that mosquitoes groom both to clear sensilla of obstructive matter and to clean and smooth scales on legs and wings, possibly to decrease drag during flight.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of insect behavior 1 (1988), S. 123-128 
    ISSN: 1572-8889
    Keywords: Diptera ; phorid flies ; courtship ; mating behavior ; mating aggregation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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