Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Chemistry and Pharmacology
Summary 1. In making models of the microstructure ideas from all three states of matter are applied equally and simultaneously. Depending on the type of interactions involved traits are displayed which are characteristics of one or other of the states, and these are united through wave mechanics and statistics and subjected to quantum limitations. 2. By approximating the electrons to drops flowing around the centrally placed nucleus, it is possible to explain logically the sphericity of any type of ion, the formation of electron levels with constant width, and this suggestion combines harmoniously with the drop theory of the atomic nucleus (Frenkel, Bohr, and Kal'kar) to give a unified model of the atom. 3. The change in size of atoms with increasing charge is discussed as the effects of pressure on the degenerate gas in the electron orbitals of the atom. 4. The drop model is used to obtain the equation r=R0+δ(n−η) which links the size of an ion,r, with the radius of the Bohr orbital, R0, the principal quantum number,n, and the ionic charge, η. This expression explains the regularity of the changes in radius sizes, the diagonal relationship in the Mendeleev system, the constant size of radii during the filling of orbitals, and the lanthanide and actinide contractions. The correctness of the model is confirmed by comparing calculations based on it with empirical data of chemistry.
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