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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; radiotherapy ; CLINICAL-TRIAL ; COMBINATION ; Germany ; THERAPY ; SURGERY ; radiation ; tumour ; MR ; CELL-LINES ; treatment ; TRIAL ; CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY ; EXPERIENCE ; RADIATION-THERAPY ; CLINICAL-TRIALS ; chemotherapy ; FUTURE ; MALIGNANT MESOTHELIOMA ; malignant pleural mesothelioma ; quality of life ; intensity modulated radiotherapy ; thoracic radiation therapy ; three-dimensional radiotherapy planning
    Abstract: Pleural mesothelioma is a rare but fatal tumour. Numerous attempts to find effective treatment approaches have, in general, been disappointing. To date, the most promising treatment is surgery, or surgery in combination with radio and chemotherapy as a part of a multidisciplinary approach. Preliminary results from clinical trials evaluating intensity modulated radiotherapy are encouraging. Further randomised trials are proposed. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15261441
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  • 2
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; ANGIOGENESIS ; CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; GROWTH-FACTOR ; proliferation ; SURVIVAL ; Germany ; LUNG ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; RISK ; PATIENT ; PERFORMANCE ; TRIAL ; metastases ; chemotherapy ; PROGNOSTIC-FACTORS ; CARCINOMAS ; PROGNOSTIC FACTORS ; PROGNOSTIC VALUE ; PROGNOSTIC FACTOR ; VEGF ; non-small cell lung cancer ; SERUM ; MATRIX ; overall survival ; PROGNOSTIC-FACTOR ; LEVEL ; PHASE ; PROFILES ; SERUM-LEVELS ; MATRIX-METALLOPROTEINASE-9 ; MMP-9 ; angiogenic factors ; COUNTS ; NSCLC ; PLATELET
    Abstract: Purpose: In the present study, we investigated the prognostic value of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 serum levels in patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and methods: From September 1999 to June 2001, pretreatment serum levels of VEGF and MMP-9 were analysed in 194 patients of a randomized phase III trial with enzyme-linked immunoassays. Results: Patients with a VEGF serum level higher than the median serum level (10,995 pg/ml) had a significantly shorter overall survival than those with a lower serum level (P=0.04). The MMP-9 serum level did not correlate with survival. In a multivariate Cox regression analysis, only the pretreatment serum level of VEGF, the Karnofsky performance status, and the presence of bone metastases were identified as independent prognostic factors. Conclusions: The pretreatment VEGF serum level was identified as independent prognostic factor in this study and may help to assess individual risk and treatment profiles in patients with metastatic NSCLC. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15992959
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  • 3
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; CANCER CELLS ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; INHIBITOR ; tumor ; TUMOR-CELLS ; CELL ; Germany ; IN-VIVO ; INHIBITION ; LUNG ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; DEATH ; GENE ; PROTEIN ; RNA ; DRUG ; TISSUE ; LINES ; MARKER ; PROTEIN FAMILY ; CELL-LINES ; TARGET ; ASSAY ; resistance ; NUMBER ; CELL-LINE ; LINE ; CANCER-CELLS ; MAMMALIAN-CELLS ; RT-PCR ; IAP PROTEINS ; cell lines ; TUMOR CELLS ; ETOPOSIDE ; non-small cell lung cancer ; INTERFERENCE ; RNA INTERFERENCE ; TUMOR-CELL ; ASSAYS ; COLONY FORMATION ; RNAi ; NSCLC ; Livin ; ML-IAP ; inhibitor of apoptosis ; SURVIVIN MESSENGER-RNA
    Abstract: Cancer cells are typically characterized by increased resistance towards apoptosis. Livin (alternatively called ML-IAP or KIAP) is an anti-apoptotic protein which is expressed in several cancer forms. Using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we confirmed livin expression in a significant portion of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissue samples and,, in addition, detected livin expression in a number of NSCLC cell lines. In order to elucidate whether livin contributes to the apoptotic resistance of lung cancer cells, we silenced endogenous livin expression in a panel of cancer-derived NSCLC cell tines by RNA interference (RNAi). We observed that the targeted inhibition of livin strongly sensitized NSCLC cells to different pro-apoptotic stimuli, such as UV-irradiation or the chemotherapeutic drug etoposide. In addition, long-term silencing of livin blocked the outgrowth of NSCLC cells in colony formation assays. These effects of small interfering (si)RNA were specific for livin-expressing tumor cells. Our results indicate that Livin is an important contributor to the apoptosis resistance of NSCLC cells and may serve as a novel molecular target for therapeutic inhibition in NSCLC. (C) 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16965834
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  • 4
    Keywords: GENE-EXPRESSION ; IN-SITU ; COMPARATIVE GENOMIC HYBRIDIZATION ; STEM-CELLS ; CARCINOMAS ; CHROMOSOMAL ALTERATIONS ; CLONAL EVOLUTION ; ADENOCARCINOMA PATIENTS ; CD117 IMMUNOREACTIVITY ; FREE DEFINED MEDIUM
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cell lines play an important role for studying tumor biology and novel therapeutic agents. Particularly in pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) the availability of cell lines is limited and knowledge about their representativeness for corresponding tumor tissue is scanty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We established three novel SCC cell lines from fresh tumor tissue of 28 donors, including 8 SCC. Two cell lines were derived from different localizations of the same donor, i.e. primary tumor and lymph node metastasis. This represents a so far unique combination in lung cancer. The genotypes, gene expression profiles and mutational status of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) and Kirsten rat sarcoma (k-ras) of the cell lines and their corresponding tumor tissue were analyzed and compared. Moreover, the molecular characteristics were related to functional properties of the cell lines. Those comprised proliferation, motility and chemosensitivity. The cell lines were authenticated by single tandem repeat DNA typing. Tumorigenicity was analyzed in a murine xenograft model. RESULTS: Comparative genomic hybridization and multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed essential genetic similarities between the cell lines and their corresponding tumor tissue, but indicated also some genetic evolution and clonal selection. EGF-R or k-ras mutations were not detected. Gene expression profiling showed various differences between tumor tissue and cell lines affecting gene clusters associated with immune response, adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and angiogenesis. However, there were also common gene expression patterns reflecting the relationship between cell lines and their corresponding tumor tissue. Moreover, the molecular characteristics of the tumor tissue and the descendent cell line were associated with functional properties of the latter. All cell lines showed a unique, heterozygous human DNA profile and one cell line displayed rapid tumor formation in mice. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we demonstrate that cell lines represent a useful in vitro system for studying basic mechanisms in lung cancer, but cover only distinct molecular characteristics of the original tumor. Moreover, we present three novel, comprehensively characterized SCC cell lines.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21684623
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  • 5
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: In a European multicenter prospective study patients with lung cancer were interviewed for smoking history and biological samples centrally collected. The aim of this study was to compare KRAS mutation analysis with smoking status at the time of diagnosis. METHODS: A nested case-study was performed on 233 non-small cell lung carcinomas. Cases were selected on the basis of progressive disease or disease-free post surgery based on specific criteria. KRAS mutation analysis was performed with the point-EXACCT method. RESULTS: KRAS mutations were found in 39 adenocarcinomas and 1 squamous cell carcinoma in the 233 NSCLC. The median quitting smoking time (QST) for patients with and without KRAS mutations was 9 years, interquartile range [IQR 16-38] and 3 years, IQR [13-50], respectively (p=0.039). No difference was found for age at initiation of smoking, duration of smoking, average tobacco consumption, and smoking status at the time of diagnosis. CONCLUSION: The QST was longer for patients with KRAS mutations, supporting the notion that the presence of a KRAS mutation is a dominant early effect, supporting its role as a driver oncogen.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21839537
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; SURVIVAL ; BIOMARKERS ; RECURRENCE ; SIGNATURES ; MICRORNA EXPRESSION PROFILES
    Abstract: The outcome of resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is critically determined by metastatic spread: About 30-50% of early-stage NSCLC patients encounter tumour recurrence within 5 years after surgery. A biomarker-driven stratification of early-stage lung cancer with a high risk of recurrence may improve therapy management and patient care. The aim of this study was to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) in serum of patients associated with early relapse in pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Serum samples were collected from 204 patients before surgery. miRNA screening was done using qRT-PCR based low-density arrays (664 miRNAs) comparing adenocarcinoma patients (n = 40) with and without recurrence 24 months after surgery. Selected miRNAs associated with disease recurrence were Validated in an independent patient cohort (n = 114). miRNAs were also measured in advanced adenocarcinoma patients (n = 29), and individuals with benign pulmonary diagnosis (n = 21). Circulating miR-142-3p (p = 0.005) and miR-29b (p = 0.01) were identified in the screening and confirmed in the validation cohort to be increased in sera of early-stage adenocarcinoma patients suffering from recurrence within 24 months. Elevated miRNA levels were exclusively observed in the group of high-risk patient diagnosed for operable adenocarcinoma compared with benign diagnosis or advanced tumour disease. The differentiation between pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients with low and high risk for recurrence was improved by accounting for both miR-142-3p levels and tumour stage (p = 0.007; AUC = 0.78). In conclusion, circulating miR-142-3p was found to be associated with a high risk of recurrence in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma patients, and a putative serum marker for risk assessment.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23410826
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  • 7
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Aberrant DNA hypermethylation has been implicated as a component of an epigenetic mechanism that silences genes in cancers. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide search to identify differentially methylated loci between 26 tumor and adjacent non-tumor paired tissues from same lung cancer patients using restriction landmark genomic scanning (RLGS) analysis. Among 229 loci which were hypermethylated in lung tumors as compared to adjacent non-tumor tissues, solute carrier family 5, member 8 (SLC5A8) was one of the hypermethylated genes, and known as a tumor suppressor gene which is silenced by epigenetic changes in various tumors. We investigated the significance of DNA methylation in SLC5A8 expression in lung cancer cell lines, and 23 paired tumor and adjacent non-tumor lung tissues by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), quantitative methylation specific PCR (QMSP) and bisulfite modified DNA sequencing analyses. RESULTS: Reduced or lost expression of SLC5A8 was observed in 39.1% (9/23) of the tumor tissues as compared with paired adjacent non-tumor tissues. Bisulfite sequencing results of lung cancer cell lines and tissues which did not express SLC5A8 showed a densely methylated promoter region of SLC5A8. SLC5A8 was reactivated by treatment with DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-Aza and/or HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA) in lung cancer cell lines, which did not express SLC5A8. Hypermethylation was detected at the promoter region of SLC5A8 in primary lung tumor tissues as compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues (14/23, 60.9%). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that DNA methylation in the SLC5A8 promoter region may suppress the expression of SLC5A8 in lung tumor.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23273563
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  • 8
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Increased incidence of brain metastases (BM) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with ALK translocations was postulated, however, ALK gene aberrations in NSCLC-BM have not been investigated so far. METHODS: We investigated ALK and EML4 gene aberrations (amplifications, translocations, inversions) by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) (n=175) and ALK and EML4 protein expression by immunohistochemistry (n=221) in NSCLC BM and corresponding primary tumors. RESULTS: ALK translocations were found in 4/151 (2.6%; 3 of them involving EML4) of BM of adenocarcinomas (AC), 1/9 (11.1%) of adenosquamous carcinomas (ASC), 0/5 of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and 0/10 of large cell carcinomas (LCC). Rearrangement of ALK without involvement of EML4 was seen in 1 AC-BM and rearrangement of EML4 without involvement of ALK in 3 AC-BM, 1 ASC-BM and 1 LCC. ALK amplifications without gene rearrangements were found in BM of 16/151 (10.6%) AC, 2/5 (40%) SCC, 0/9 ASC and one LCC. ALK translocation status was constant between BM and primary tumors in 16 evaluable cases including two cases with ALK-EML4 translocations Among these 16 cases ALK amplification was seen in two BM and none of the primary tumors. All cases with translocations but not with amplifications of ALK showed protein expression. We found no association of ALK gene status with patient age, gender or overall survival time. CONCLUSIONS: ALK translocations and amplifications are found in approximately 3% and 11% of NSCLC-BM, respectively. While ALK translocations appear to be constant between primary tumors and BM, amplifications seem to be more prevalent in BM. ALK translocation, but not ALK amplification is associated with ALK protein overexpression. Further studies are needed to determine whether NSCLC-BM patients with ALK gene aberrations may benefit from specific inhibitor therapy.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23453647
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  • 9
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CELL CARCINOMA
    Abstract: OBJECTIVES: FGFR1 amplifications are common in squamous cell carcinoma and rare in adenocarcinoma of the lung, but have not been investigated in brain metastases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for FGFR1 and immunohistochemistry for pAKT, PI3K, HIF1a and Ki67 in 175 NSCLC brain metastases and 11 matched primary tumors. ALK gene rearrangement status was available from a previous study. We performed statistical correlations of clinical, histopathological and molecular data. RESULTS: FGFR1 amplifications were found in a total of 30/175 (17%) brain metastases: 4/21 (19%) squamous cell carcinomas, 20/130 (15.3%) adenocarcinomas, 2/12 (16.6%) adenosquamous carcinomas, 4/9 (44.4%) large cell carcinomas and 0/3 neuroendocrine large cell carcinoma. FGFR1 gene status was identical between primary tumors and brain metastases in 9/11 evaluable cases. In 2/11 cases (1 adenosquamous and 1 large cell carcinoma), FGFR1 amplifications were present only in the brain metastasis and not in the primary tumor. Furthermore, we found a significant positive correlation of ALK and FGFR1 gene amplification status in brain metastases (p〈0.001, Chi square test). Patients with high-level FGFR1 amplifications had significantly higher number of visceral metastases (p〈0.001, Chi square test). CONCLUSION: Our findings argue for an enrichment of FGFR1 amplifications in brain metastases of adenocarcinomas (where they were 5-fold more frequent than reported for primary tumors) and possibly also of other non-squamous carcinomas, but not in squamous cell carcinomas of the lung. These results may be relevant for targeted therapy and prophylaxis of NSCLC brain metastases.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24183471
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  • 10
    Keywords: carcinoma ; DEATH ; MICE ; PATTERNS ; AUTOPSY ; bone metastasis ; distant metastases
    Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Population-based data on metastatic sites and survival in site-specific metastases are lacking for lung cancer and for any cancer because most cancer registries do not record metastases. This study uses a novel population-based approach to identify metastases from both death certificates and national inpatient data to describe metastatic pathways in lung cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 17,431 deceased lung cancer patients diagnosed 2002-2010 were identified from the nationwide Swedish Cancer Registry, which is based on compulsory reports. The influence of age at diagnosis, sex, and histological subtype on metastatic spread was investigated. Survival in metastatic lung cancer was assessed by histology and metastatic site. RESULTS: The most frequent metastatic sites were the nervous system, bone, liver, respiratory system, and adrenal gland. Liver (35%) and nervous system (47%) metastases were common in patients with metastases from small cell lung cancer, and bone (39%) and respiratory system (22%) metastases in adenocarcinoma. Women (43% vs. 35%) and younger patients had more metastases to the nervous system. Median survival after diagnosis was 13 months for non-metastatic and five months for metastatic lung cancer. In this novel data, liver metastases conferred the worst prognosis (three months), especially for large cell histology. Bone metastases also featured poor survival, whereas survival in respiratory and nervous system metastases was better. CONCLUSION: Metastatic sites and survival in metastatic lung cancer is influenced by sex, histological subtype, and age at diagnosis. Liver and bone metastases signal poor survival, compared with nervous system metastases.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25130083
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