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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0581
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Approximately 147000 km of low-level (450 m) aeromagnetic tracks were flown over the Arctic Ocean and adjacent Greenland and Norwegian Seas, for the greater part with a digitally recording nuclear precession magnetometer designed and built by Wold (1964). The digital recording feature of the system facilitated numerous data processing and analytical techniques which are described herein. These include: noise filtering coordinate conversion, removal of the regional field, second derivatives, downward continuations, polynomial fits of varying degrees to profiles and surfaces, numerical approximations, and depth to source calculations. Using these data and interpretative techniques some inferences could be made about the geologic structure and evolution of the Arctic Ocean Basin. Salient amongst these are: both gravity and magnetic data suggest that there is a 2 1/2 km basement uplift in the eastern Chukchi Shelf associated with the Tigara structure which truncates the western end of Lisburne Peninsula. A 30–40 km wide basement root encircles the Chukchi Rise and extends over 30 km into the mantle. Within the Canda Basin there is a thickening of sediments from the Asian continental margin toward the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Sediment thickness in the Makarov Basin is 1–1 1/2 km. There appears to be only about a 1/2 km sediment cover in the Fram and Nautilus Basins. The absence of large amplitude magnetic anomalies over these basins is attributed to a 10 km elevation of the Curie isotherm. The Alpha and Nansen ridges produce magnetic profiles that show axial symmetry and correlate with profiles in the North Atlantic. A quantitative attempt has been made to verify these correlations, which infer that the Alpha Cordillera became inactive 40 mybp when the locus of rifting shifted to the Nansen Cordillera. The absence of significant magnetic anomalies over the Lomonosov Ridge reinforces the hypothesis that it is a section of the former Eurasian continental margin that was translated into the Arctic Basin by sea-floor spreading along the Nansen Cordillera axis.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0581
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The results of aero-magnetic measurements in the Skagerrak and of seismic profiling outside Kristiansand are presented. Characteristic magnetic features which are observed on the Norwegian mainland along the Skagerrak coastline can be followed into the Skagerrak (Figure 12). The seismic profiling off Kristiansand shows that the unmetamorphic sedimentary rocks found beneath the Skagerrak form a wedge-shaped border zone with the crystalline basement rocks on the landside. The magnetic measurements indicate that a wedge-shaped border zone may also exist all along the Norwegian Skagerrak coastline and along the Fennoscandian border zone (Figures 5 and 12). The basement depths in the Skagerrak, which are calculated on the basis of the magnetic records, show a maximum depth of over 6000 m (Figure 5). The distribution of the quaternary sediments in the Norwegian Channel supports the theory that glacier activity has played an important role during the formation of the Norwegian Channel.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0581
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Eleven oceanic magnetic profiles associated with the paleomagnetic time scale younger than the beginning of the Matuyama epoch (2.43 my) have been reduced to the pole, altered to conform to a 3 cm yr-1 spreading rate, and then all halves added and averaged to obtain a representative symmetric magnetic profile. This final stacked profile emphasizes the subtle anomalies associated with minor paleomagnetic events and minimizes randomly occurring anomalies. The axial anomaly of the stacked profile shows no evidence of the Laschamp event (centered at 0.025 my); however, a minimum at 0.15 my may correspond to the Blake event. A physical model of the stacked magnetic profile consists of a thin, highly magnetized layer with a 40% magnetization decrease at 10 km from the profile center. Magnetization values were modified from Irving and Talwani and the Blake event included. The stacked profile shows two minor anomalies centered at 1.97 my and 2.17 my. The younger anomaly corresponds with the younger Olduvai event (centered at 1.965 my) on the Cox time scale and the W anomaly (centered at 1.99 my) of Emilia and Heinrichs. The older anomaly lies between the older Olduvai event (2.12 my) of Cox and the X anomaly of Heirtzler, and Emilia and Heinrichs; additional work is required to assess the significance of this older event.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Marine geophysical researches 1 (1972), S. 456-456 
    ISSN: 1573-0581
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Marine geophysical researches 1 (1972), S. 457-457 
    ISSN: 1573-0581
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Marine geophysical researches 10 (1988), S. 1-39 
    ISSN: 1573-0581
    Keywords: North Atlantic crustal structure ; fracture zones ; transform faults ; plate-motion history
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The Kane Fracture Zone probably is better covered by geophysical survey data, acquired both by design and incidentally, than any other fracture zone in the North Atlantic Ocean. We have used this data to map the basement morphology of the fracture zone and the adjacent crust for nearly 5700 km, from near Cape Hatteras to the middle of the Mesozoic magnetic anomalies west of Cap Blanc, northwest Africa. We use the trends of the Kane transform valley and its inactive fracture valley to determine the record of plate-motion changes, and we interpret the basement structural data to examine how the Kane transform evolved in response to changes in plate motion. Prior to about 133 Ma the Kane was a small-offset transform and its fracture valley is structurally expressed only as a shallow ( 〈 0.5 km) trough. In younger crust, the offset may have increased to as much as 190 km (present offset 150 km) and the fracture valley typically is up to 1.2 km deep. This part of the fracture valley records significant changes in direction of relative plate motion (5°–30°) near 102 Ma, 92 Ma, 59 Ma, 22 Ma, and 17 Ma. Each change corresponds to a major reorganization of plate boundaries in areas around the Atlantic, and the fracture-zone orientation appears to be a sensitive recorder of these events. The Kane transform has exhibited characteristic responses to changes in relative plate motion. Counterclockwise plate-motion changes put the left-lateral transform offset into extension, and the response was for ridge tips at the ridge-transform intersections to propagate across the transform valley and against the truncating lithosphere. Heating of this lithosphere appears to have produced uplift and formation of a well developed transverse ridge that bounds the inactive fracture valley on its older side. The propagating ridge tips also rotated toward the transform fault in response to the local stress field, forming prominent hooked ridges that now extend into or across the inactive fracture valley. Clockwise (compressional) changes in relative plate motion produced none of these features, and the resulting fracture valleys typically have a wide-V shape. The Kane transform experienced severe adaptions to the changes in relative plate motion at about 102 Ma (compressional shift) and 92 Ma (extensional shift), and new transform faults were formed in crust outside the contemporary transform valley. Subsequently, the transform offset has been smaller and the rates of change in plate motion have been more gradual, so transform-fault adjustment has been contained within the transform valley. The fracture-valley structure formed during extensional and compressional changes in relative plate motion can be decidedly asymmetrical in conjugate limbs of the fracture zone. This asymmetry appears to be related to the ‘absolute’ motion of the plate boundary with respect to the asthenosphere.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0581
    Keywords: Mid-Atlantic Ridge ; seafloor spreading ; rift valley ; oceanic crust
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract High-resolution Sea Beam bathymetry and Sea MARC I side scan sonar data have been obtained in the MARK area, a 100-km-long portion of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge rift valley south of the Kane Fracture Zone. These data reveal a surprisingly complex rift valley structure that is composed of two distinct spreading cells which overlap to create a small, zero-offset transform or discordant zone. The northern spreading cell consists of a magmatically robust, active ridge segment 40–50 km in length that extends from the eastern Kane ridge-transform intersection south to about 23°12′ N. The rift valley in this area is dominated by a large constructional volcanic ridge that creates 200–500 m of relief and is associated with high-temperature hydrothermal activity. The southern spreading cell is characterized by a NNE-trending band of small (50–200 m high), conical volcanos that are built upon relatively old, fissured and sediment-covered lavas, and which in some cases are themselves fissured and faulted. This cell appears to be in a predominantly extensional phase with only small, isolated eruptions. These two spreading cells overlap in an anomalous zone between 23°05′ N and 23°17′ N that lacks a well-developed rift valley or neovolcanic zone, and may represent a slow-spreading ridge analogue to the overlapping spreading centers found at the East Pacific Rise. Despite the complexity of the MARK area, volcanic and tectonic activity appears to be confined to the 10–17 km wide rift valley floor. Block faulting along near-vertical, small-offset normal faults, accompanied by minor amounts of back-tilting (generally less than 5°), begins within a few km of the ridge axis and is largely completed by the time the crust is transported up into the rift valley walls. Features that appear to be constructional volcanic ridges formed in the median valley are preserved largely intact in the rift mountains. Mass-wasting and gullying of scarp faces, and sedimentation which buries low-relief seafloor features, are the major geological processes occurring outside of the rift valley. The morphological and structural heterogeneity within the MARK rift valley and in the flanking rift mountains documented in this study are largely the product of two spreading cells that evolve independently to the interplay between extensional tectonism and episodic variations in magma production rates.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Marine geophysical researches 10 (1988), S. 181-190 
    ISSN: 1573-0581
    Keywords: Ridge processes ; zero-offset transforms
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Spreading ridge-transform geometries will remain stable so long as accretion is symmetric. Asymmetric accretion, however, will cause lengthening or shortening of transforms and, in extreme cases, may result in zero-offset transforms (ZOTs) and very-long-offset transforms (VLOTs) such as the Ninetyeast and Chagos transforms. We use a simple kinematic model to examine the effects of various parameters on the evolution of zero-offset transforms and very-long-offset transforms. Starting with the transform length spectrum found along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge distributed in a randomly determined ridge-transform configuration, we allow for asymmetric accretion along ridge segments, assuming that individual ridge segments act independently. We analyze the effects of initial configuration, degree of asymmetry, and degree of bias in asymmetry on the generation of very-long-offset and zero-offset transforms. Finally, we examine the effect of these parameters on the possible steady-state nature of the transform length spectra. This model predicts that zero-offset transforms can be generated with a minimum of asymmetry, and that bias in asymmetry and initial ridge-transform-ridge configuration have no effect on generation of ZOTs. Similarly, random variations in spreading asymmetry have difficulty generating significant increases in transform length, so VLOTs may be manifestations of dynamic processes. Of the parameters tested, only lack of ‘memory’ of zero-offset transforms has any effect on transform length distribution, and therefore, the transform length spectrum remains steady-state if ZOTs have some degree of memory.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0581
    Keywords: Mid-Atlantic Ridge ; hydrothermal processes ; seafloor spreading ; oceanic ridges
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The rift valley at three widely separated sites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is characterized using geological and geophysical data. An analysis of bottom photographs and fine-scale bathymetry indicates that each study area has a unique detailed geology and structure. Spreading rates are apparently asymmetric at each site. Relationships between tectonic and volcanic structure and hydrothermal activity show that various stages in the evolution of the rift valley are most favorable for seafloor expression of hydrothermal activity. In a stage found at 26°08′ N, site 1 (TAG), the rift valley is narrow, consisting of both a narrow volcanically active valley floor and inner walls with small overall slopes. High-temperature hydrothermal venting occurs along the faster spreading eastern inner wall of this U-shaped rift valley. Site 2 (16°46′ N) has a narrow valley floor and wide block faulted walls and is at a stage where the rift valley is characterized by a V-shape. No neovolcanic zone is observed within the marginally faulted, predominantly sedimented floor and hydrothermal activity is not observed. The rift valley at site 3 (14°54′ N), with postulated extrusive volcanic activity and a stage in valley evolution tending toward a U-shape, shows evidence of hydrothermal activity within the slightly faster spreading eastern inner wall. Evidence for tectonic activity (inward- and outward-facing faults and pervasive fissuring) exists throughout the wide inner wall. Hydrothermal activity appears to be favored within a U-shaped rift valley characterized by a narrow neovolcanic zone and secondarily faulted inner walls.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Marine geophysical researches 11 (1989), S. 77-87 
    ISSN: 1573-0581
    Keywords: geoid ; hotspot ; mid-plate swells ; Canary Islands ; lithospheric reheating
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The Canary Islands geoid anomaly shows only a short-wavelength high associated with island topography. The predicted anomaly best matches the observed geoid when we assume that the lithosphere is a very stiff plate. We find no evidence for shallow reheating or a mantle plume, since there is no evidence of a midplate swell and the corresponding elastic thickness is appropriate for the age of the seafloor on which the island group rests.
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